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NOTES: Spenceana: Some Account of the Life, Writ- 
ings, and Character of Dr. Swift, 1 Commendatory 
Verses of the lirst Folio Shakspere. Who was I. M. ? 3 

King Arthur's Waes-hael, 4 Sir Walter Raleigh's, 
Last Voyage, 5 Fletcher's " Custom of the Country," 7. 

MINOK NOTES: Hugh Boyd Witty Renderings Note 
of an Entry on the Register Book of Clyst St. George, 
Devon John Milton Harvest in December Bivouac, 

QUERIES : Milton Portraits, 9 Anaesthetics Basset : 
Ancient Plate Chinese Books, &c. Egidia, Geils, Giles 

Thomas Green, Poet Heryngharn John Huss, the 
Bohemian Reformer Family of Hussey Royal Hospi- 
tal, Kilmainham, near Dublin Prince Maurice Mells 

George Pickering Pomona in the Orkney Islands 
J. Rees Starachter and Murdoch Frances, Duchess of 
Suffolk, 10. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWEBS : Thomas Burton's " Diary " 
"Macbeth" Copper Coin of James II., dated later than 
1688, 12. 

REPLIES: Silver Plate the Monteith, 13 The Law- 
rences of Chelsea, Ib. Ghost in the Tower: Spectral 
Vision of the Baron de Guldenstubbe 1 , 15 Cockshut 
Song on Bishop Trelawny Disappearance of Birds in 
Cholera Thomas Carey Heir of Lady Katherine Grey 

Zopissa Sir Henry Killigrew "Pilgrimage of Good 
Intent " Mews Witchcraft The Jacobites Caradoc 
Vreichfras, &c. Southey Ayliner, Bp. of London 
Longevity Jonathan Gouldsmith, M.D., 16. 

Notes on Books. 


[Among the Spence MSS. sold at the sale of Mr. 
Singer's Books, &c. (all of which, with one exception, 
are now in our possession), was one entitled " Collections 
relating to the Lives of some of the Greek, Latin, Provincial, 
Italian, French, and English POETS." Some of the Lives 
of our English Poets are well deserving of publication, 
and will appear in these columns. The MS. does not 
contain any Life of Pope or Swift. But against each of 
their names appears a memorandum, "See separate 
Papers." No such separate Life of Pope has yet been 
found. But among the Spence MSS. in the possession 
of the Duke of Newcastle the whole of which His Grace 
has most kindly placed in our hands is. the following 
Life of the Dean, which there can be no doubt is the 
" separate Paper " referred to. 

When the readers of " N. & Q." remember who were 
the " intimate friends and acquaintance " of Swift, from 
whom Spence " learnt some things," they will at once see 
the value of such a work ; and they will also, we are sure, 
agree, that the thanks of all students of English litera- 
ture are due to the Duke of Newcastle for the liberality 
with which he has enabled us to commence our proposed 
New Series of ANECDOTES OF BOOKS AND MEN with so 
interesting a Sketch.] 



As the works of Dr. Swift have given so much 
entertainment to almost every one that has been 
conversant in them, it may not be disagreable to 

them to be better inform'd in the particulars of 
his life ; the time in which each of his more 
considerable pieces were written ; and the odd 
turn of his humour, which, tho' impossible to be 
described so fully and distinctly as might be 
wisht, may, howe'r, be trac'd farther, and 
nearer to the truth, than ever "it has yet been. I 
therefore, sit down with pleasure to this task, 
because I am persuaded it must give pleasure to 
others ; and have, besides, this encouragement, 
that there are more things already publisht 
which may be of assistance to me in the following 
account, than perhaps there ever was of any one 
of our English writers, within so short a time after 
their decease. Beside what may be collected from 
several parts of his own works, Dr. Swift has him- 
self given a sketch for his life to the thirty-third 
year of it, publisht by his relation, who is now in 
possession of his grandfather's estate in Hereford- 
shire. The same gentleman has given us many 
particulars relating to that, and all the remaining 
part of his life. The Earl of Orrery has entered 
(I wish I could not add) too minutely and too 
unkindly into his character, in his Letters : and 
the Observator on them has added several par- 
ticulars, which his most familiar acquaintance 
with Dr. Swift (if the author be rightly l guess' d 
at) must have given him more opportunities than 
almost any one, to observe, at least, during a con- 
siderable part of the doctor's life. Mrs. Pilking- 
ton, whose admiration of him, and the pleasure 
(perhaps the pride) she took in being admitted to 
his conversation, made her observe every little 
thing he did, and every word he said, has given 
us a picture of him in his domestic behaviour ; 
which, as I have been assured by several persons 
who were very well acquainted with the doctor, 
is exactly like him. Mr. Hawksworth has written 
his life, in as exact and handsome a manner, as 
we had been before taught to expect from his 
pen ; and there is another (said by the author of 
it, to be chiefly collected from my Lord Orrery), 
in the Lives of the English Poets, which I know 
not by what means, or rather by what blunder, 
they have chosen to attribute chiefly to a very 
unpromising name in the title-page. To what 
may be most to my purpose in all of these, I 
shall add some things which I have learnt from 
several of Swift's intimate friends and acquaint- 
ance : and with all these helps taken together, am in 
some hopes of giving a fuller and more expressive 
idea of one who was so serviceable a politician 
in the cause of his native country, so very ex- 
cellent and humorous a writer, and so singular a 

Dr. Swift was descended from a younger 
branch of the antient family of the Swifts in 
Yorkshire. His grandfather, Thomas Swift, was 

1 'Tis generally thought to be Dr. Delany. 


XI. JAN. 5. '61. 

minister 1 of Goodrich, near Ross, in Hereford- 
shire ; where he had an estate, too 2 , of about 
100/. a year. He suffer' d very often 3 and much 
for the royal cause in the Civil Wars, and died 4 
before the Restoration. He left behind him six 5 
sons (he had had ten 6 ) and four daughters. The 
poetical connexions in his family are uncommon : 
his own wife was the famous Mr. Dryden's aunt 7 ; 
and his second son marrv'd the eldest daughter of 
S r William Davenant. 8 No less than five of his 
sons (Godwin, William, Dryden, Jonathan, and 
Adam), chiefly to avoid the troublesomeness and 
persecution of the fanatics, quitted England, and 
settled in Ireland. 10 Godwin, the eldest of them, 
was a counsellor n ; and all the other four were 
attornies. Ireland was then almost destitute of 
lawyers 12 , the Civil Wars having made almost 
every body soldiers. Godwin 13 , in particular, 
succeeded there so well, that he got an estate of 
3000Z. a year by the law ; tho' lie lost it all again, 
in his latter days, by being a dupe to projectors. 
Of the others, Jonathan had marry'd a lady of 
the family of the Erics u ; a very antient (and 
formerly a very considerable) family in Leicester- 
shire. He died in two years after his marriage 15 , 
and his widow, who was then big of her second 
child (and who had only an annuity of 20Z. a year 
settled upon her before she and her husband left 
England), was very kindly receiv'd by Counsellor 
Swift into his family 15 in Dublin, where she was 
deliver'd of her second child Jonathan 1? (after- 
wards the famous D r Swift) on St. Andrew's 18 
day, 1667. Her former child was a daughter. 

The opinion, or rather the whim, of Swift's 
being a son of S r William Temple, must be 
wholy without foundation 19 : his mother having 
never been out of the English dominions ; and 
S r William having been abroad from the year 
1665 to 1670. 

The nurses in Ireland are remarkable for their 
love to those they suckle. 20 Swift's nurse, who 
was a native of Whitehaven, in Cumberland, 
was call'd thither by urgent business, when he 
was but a year old. She cou'd not bear to part 
with her foster-child ; so stole away privately, and 
carry'd him with her. The family was for some 
time without knowing what was become either of 

1 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 8. 2 Hawksworth, p. 3. 

3 Dr. Swift's own Account, p. 10. 

4 In 1658. Ib. p. 28. 5 Hawksworth, p. 3. 
Mr. Swift's Essay, p. 12. 7 Dr. Swift, p. 36. 
s Ib. 33. 9 Mr. Swift, p. 15. to 21. 

10 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 30. 

11 Mr. Swift's Essay, pp. 15. to 21. 

12 Hawksworth, p. 4. 

1 3 Mr. Swift's Essay, pp. 15. to 21. 

i* Dr. Swift, p. 37. * 5 Mr. Swift, p. 22. 

i fi Dr Swift, p. 38. 17 Mr. Swift, p. 22. 

is Nov. 30. 

19 Mr. Swift's Essay, p. 77. 

2u Dr. Swift's own Account, p. 39., and Mr. Swift's, 
p. 26. 

her or the child. At last, they had an account of 
them : but they did not oblige her to bring him 
back to them, till they had been there for three 
years. Their apprehensions for him made them 
defer this his second voyage, till he was four; 
tho' the nurse's eagerness had made her overlook 
the much greater danger, when he was but one. 

Two years after his return to Ireland [1673], 
he was sent to the school at Kilkenny ; and when 
fourteen 1 [1682], to the College at Dublin. He 
had no relish for the most usual studies there ; 
em ploy 'd himself in reading history and poetry; 
and when he came to stand for his Batchelor's 
degree, was put by it for some time for dulness 
and insufficiency, and did not obtain it at last 
[1686] without their entering the opprobrious 
mark " of its being given him by the uncommon 
indulgence 2 of the University," in their Register. 
This disgrace affected Swift so strongly, as to make 
him apply himself to his studies very closely 3 for 
several years immediately succeeding it. 

About the end 4 of 1688 (possibly on his 
foreseeing that Ireland w d be the seat of war), 
Swift quitted that country, and went for some 
months to his mother, who liv'd at Leicester; 
and thence by her advice to S r William Temple's, 
at Moor Park, near Farnham, in Surrey. There 
had been a very great friendship 5 between S r 
William's father and Swift's unkle, the Counsel- 
lor ; and his 5 own mother and Lady Temple were 
relations. S r William receiv'd him as handsomely 
as might be expected from such a friend, nnd 
such a man ; and when he was sufficiently ac- 
quainted with his abilities, no doubt was very 
glad to invite him to make Moor Park his home. 

Swift's chief studies, whilst he resided there 
(as 6 at the University), were poetry and history, 
only with the addition of politics ; which, as he 
was with so good a master of them, he might then 
perhaps follow more than either of the other. 
Hence his cousin Swift may say 7 , " That he was 
immerst in politics from the 21 st year of his life;" 
it being the very year after he was twenty-one 
that he first went to live with S r William Temple. 

About two years 8 after his coining to Moor 
Park, Swift took a journey into Ireland for the 
recovery of his health. He had 9 contracted a 
coldness of stomach, by a surfeit of fruit, before 
he was twenty. He was troubled with a giddi- 
ness; which he 10 prophesied would never leave 

1 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 40. ; and Mr. Swift's, 
p. 30. 

2 Speciali Gratia, Mr. Swift, p. 43. 

3 Eight hours a day for seven years, says Delany, p. 7. 
Ten hours a day, for nine years, says Mr. Swift, p. 36. 

4 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 42. ; Mr. Swift's, p. 36. 

5 Mr. Swift, pp. 36. 38. 

6 Mr. Swift, 7 Id., p. 239. 
8 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 42. y Ib., p. 43. 

1 Dr. Swift, in the account of his life, speaks of himself 
in the third person ; and speaking in it of his giddiness, 


' S. XI. JAN. 5. '61.] 


him. As he found, after some time of tryal, this 
change of air had not the effect which the physi- 
cians had promis'd, he returned to S r William 
Temple's; grew (as he himself modestly words 
it) into some confidence with him, and was often 
trusted with matters of great importance. Once 
in particular, he was sent by S r William to the 
King 1 at Kensington, where he was obliged to ex- 
plain no easy point to his Majesty and the Earl of 
Portland. He says, "this 2 was the first time he 
had any converse with Courts, and that it helped 
to cure him of vanity." He sometimes saw the 
King too, at Sheen ; and 3 us'd to attend him in 
his walks about the garden, when S r William was 
laid up with the gout. 

Swift seems to have entertained a settled reso- 
lution (and nobody was more firm when he had 
once taken a resolution than he) to be an eccle- 
siastic. King William once offered him to make 
him 4 a Captain of Horse ; and S r William Temple 
would have made him his deputy 5 as Master of 
the Rolls in Ireland. He declin'd both, and stuck 
to his first plan. 

In 1692, Swift made some visits to Oxford; 
enter' d at Hart Hall, now Hertford College 6 , 
and took his Master of Arts degree in that 

In 94, he went again into Ireland. The 
open reason 7 was to take orders : the hidden 
one 8 , some differences that had happen'd between 
him and S r William Temple. Just after this 
parting, his aims were so low, that he was de- 
sirous 9 of being chaplain to our factory at Lisbon. 
However, not long after he had taken orders, L d 
Capel 10 (on the request of his old friend S r Wil- 
liam) gave him the prebend of Kilroot 11 , in the 
North of Ireland, and Diocess of Conner 12 ; worth 
about 500/. a year. Swift grew weary of it in a 
few months ; and at the desire of S r William, and 
his promising to get him some preferment in 
England, he resign'd his prebend in favor of a 
poor man that had a large family ; and returned 
[1695] to Moor Park. After this they grew bet- 
ter friends than ever. Swift continu'd with him 
to 13 the end of his life; and S r William left him a 
handsome legacy, and the care and 14 advantage of 
publishing his Works. 

. (To be continued.) 

says: "This disorder pursu'd him, with intermissions of 
two or three years, to the end of his life." (P. 43.) 

I His own account, p. 46. 2 Ibid 
5 Mr. Swift, p. 108. 

4 Mr. Swift, p. 108. 5 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 1. 
8 Mr. Swift, p. 31. (see p. 44.) 

7 Dr Swift's own account, p. 47. 

8 Mr. Swift, p. 51. 9 Id. ibid. 

10 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 47., and Mr. Swift's, 
pp. GO. to 67. 

II Mr. Swift, p. 348. 

2 Hawksworth, p. 13. 13 Mr. Swift, p. 85. 

14 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 48. 


The commendatory verses prefixed to the plays 
of Shakspere, as printed in 1623, are all signed 
by their respective authors with the exception of 
the last which I transcribe literatim from the 
authoritative edition of that date : 

To the memorie of M. W. Shake-spectre. 

Wee wondred (Shake-speare} that thou went'st so soone 

From the worlds-stage, to the graues-tyring-roome. 

Wee thought thee dead, but this thy printed worth, 

Tels thy spectators, that thou went'st but forth 

To enter with applause. An actors art, 

Can dye, and liue, to acte a second part. 

That's but an exit of mortalitie ; 

This, a re-entrance to a plaudite. I. M. 

The obvious question is Who was I. M. f 
" Perhaps John Marston," says Steevens ; " Per- 
haps John Marston," says J. Payne Collier, 
F.S.A. ; " Perhaps John Marston," says Samuel 
Weller Singer, F.S.A. ; " Perhaps John Mars- 
ton," says the rev. Alexander Dyce. 

This unanimity of opinion, and this identity of 
phrase, suggest the idea that the learned anno- 
tators had made no serious efforts to solve the 
problem. If this inference be admitted, a new 
conjecture may be advanced without the impu- 
tation of temerity. 

As no evidence has been produced in favour of 
the claims of Marston, there is no need of con- 
troversy. I rejoice at the circumstance so rare 
in Shaksperean proceedings and shall at once 
assume that I. M. denotes James Mabbe, alias 
Don Diego Puede-Ser, de Santa Maria Magda- 

To halt at this step of my argument would be 
to substitute one problem for another. I must 
therefore give an outline of the career of the al- 
most-forgotten Don Diego Puede-Ser. 

James Mabbe, a native of Surrey, was educated 
at Magdalen-college, Oxford B. A. 1594; M.A. 
1598. In 1605 he had the honour to make an 
oration before prince Henry, and in 1606 was 
chosen one of the proctors of the University. 
He was taken into the service of sir John Digby, 
afterwards earl of Bristol, and accompanied him 
in one of his embassies to Spain, where he 
remained many years. Wood calls him a " noted 
orator and wit of his time" ; and he is praised 
as a translator by Ben. Jonson, John Florio, 
William Browne, etc. He published the fol- 
lowing works under the pseudonym of don Diego 
Puede-Ser i. e. Mr. James May-be or Mabbe. 
1 . The rogue : or the life of Guzman de Alfar- 
ache from the Spanish of Mateo Aleman. Lon- 
don, printed for Edward Blount. 1623. Folio. 
Oxford, 1630. Folio. London, 1634. Folio. 2. 
Devout contemplations expressed in two and forty 
sermons from the Spanish of Ch. de Fonseca. 
London, -1629. Folio. 3. The Spanish bawd, ex- 


[2 n * S. XI. JAN. 5. '61. 

pressed in Celestina from the Spanish. London, 
1631. Folio. This translation was made at the 
request of sir Thomas Richardson. 4. The exem- 
plarie novells of Cervantes in sixe books. London, 
1640. Folio. The above were works of much 
celebrity in Spain, and translated into various 
languages. Mabbe was in orders, and became 
prebendary of Wells. He seems to have passed 
his latter days as the inmate of sir John Strang- 
ways. He died at Abbotsbury, Dorset, about 
1642. The exact, date cannot be ascertained, as 
the register of burials has perished, and no other 
memorial remains. I am indebted for this infor- 
mation to the rev. G. A. Penny, vicar of Abbots- 

While Mabbe flourished, and for some years 
afterwards, the fashion of commendatory verses 
prevailed. If often the sincere tribute of friend- 
ship or admiration, they were as often due to the 
influence of the publisher, and they promoted the 
sale of a book as much as it is now promoted by a 
favourable review or an attractive advertisement. 
In support of this theory I might appeal to Hum- 
phrey JMoseley but shall call in no other witness 
than Mabbe and his publisher. 

In the year 1623 Edward Blount and Isaac 
Jaggard acquired the copyright of sixteen in- 
edited plays of Shakspere, and printed all the 
authenticated plays in one volume folio. Blount 
was also one of the four stationers at whose 
charges that renowned volume was printed. He 
was therefore much interested in its success 
more so, if we may rely on the evidence now in 
existence, than any other individual concerned in 
its production and publication. 

The commendatory verses prefixed to the plays 
are signed Ben. lonson Hugh Holland L. 
Digges I. M. Ben. Jonson, as I conceive, 
wrote to retrieve his own character : he had been 
taxed by the players with envy. The verses of 
Hugh Holland must have been written soon after 
1616, and are therefore out of the question. 
Leonard Digges and I. M. remain for consider- 

In 1617 Blount published The rape of Proser- 
pine, translated out of Claudian by Leonard 
Digges; and in 1622 he published Gerardo the 
vnfortvnate Spaniard, translated from the Spanish 
of D. Gonzalo de Cespedes y Meneses by the 
same Leonard Digges. Here is evidence of a 
sort of connexion for a period of six years. Now, 
is it not probable that the verses contributed by 
Digges to the Shakspere of 1623 were written 
at the request of Blount ? I leave the query to 
its fate, and pass on to James Mabbe. - 

The first of the translations made by Mabbe, 
entitled The rogue : or the life of Guzman de 
Alfarache, was published by Blount. As Mabbe, 
" whose province it was to correct it," was else- 
where, Blount edited the volume for him a folio 

of 666 pages and he records his services in two 
short addresses To the reader. 

I wish Mabbe had been in the way, or Guzman 
out of the way. The text of Shakspere might then 
have appeared in a less faulty state, and the critics 
might have been spared a world of perplexity. 
This remark is an afterthought, and might ad- 
mit of expansion, but it somewhat interrupts the 
course of my argument, which I resume. 

Does it not now seem probable, or more than 
probable, that Mabbe should have been applied 
to by Blount for a contribution to the prelimi- 
naries of Shakspere, in return for his editorial 
services on Guzman, and that the initials I. M. 
denote James Mabbe? This is no more than 
circumstantial evidence ; but, as it seems to me, 
almost irresistible. 

I must touch on internal evidence. The verses 
which occur in the translations of Mabbe afford 
no instances of resemblance to the commendatory 
specimen, but I have met with a prose paragraph 
in Guzman which is too curious to be omitted. It 
is a prize to the hunters after parallel passages. 

" It is a miserable tiling, and much to be pitied, that 
such an idol as one of these [a proud courtier], should 
affect particular adoration ; not considering that he is 
but a man, a representant, a poor kind of comedian that 
acts his part upon the stage of this world, and comes forth 
with this or that office, thus and thus attended, or at 
least resembling such a person, and that when the play 
is done (which cannot be long) he must presently enter 
into the tyring-house of the grave, and be turned to dust 
and ashes as one of the sons of the earth, which is the 
common mother of us all." 

Guzman de Alfarache, Part I. p. 175. 

As the above paragraph and the commendatory 
verses were in the press at the same time, I can- 
not but consider the verses to be a reminiscence 
of the labours of Mabbe while occupied on the 
translation of Mateo Aleman but of this opinion, 
and of other novel opinions herein expressed, the 
ratification must be left to disinterested critics. 


The Terrace, Barnes, S.W. 

When the Brown Bowl is filled for Yule, let 
the dome or upper half be set on. Then let the 
Waes-haelers kneel, one by one, and draw up the 
wine with their reeds through the two bosses at 
the rim. Let one breath only be drawn by each 
of the Morrice for his Waes-hael.* 
Waes-hael ! for Lord and Dame ! 

O ! merry be their Dole ; 
Drink-hael ! in Jesu's name, 
And fill the tawny Bowl : 
But cover down the curving crest, 
Mould of The Orient Lady's Breast ! 

* Waes in this word is sounded Waze. 

S. XI. JAN. 5. '61.] 


Waes-hael ! but lift no lid ; 

Drain ye the Reeds for Wine ! * 
Drink-hael ! the milk was hid 

That soothed that Babe divine : 
Hush'd, as this hollow channel flows, 
He drew the Balsam from the Rose ! 
Waes-hael ! thus glow'd the Breast, 

Where a God yearn' d to cling ; 
Drink-hael ! so Jesu press'd 

Life, from its mystic Spring ; 
Then hush, and bend in reverent sign,_ 
And breathe the thrilling reeds for Wine ! 
Waes-hael ! in shadowy scene, 

Lo ! Christmas children, we ! 
Drink-hael ! behold we lean 

At a far Mother's knee ; 
To dream that thus her Bosom smiled, 
And learn the lip of Bethlehem's Child ! 



[So many doubts still hang over the second voj r age of 
Sir Walter Raleigh to Guiana his final and fatal voyage 
that every fresh original testimony respecting it must 
be regarded with interest. The following journal is 
printed from a contemporary manuscript, kindly commu- 
nicated by Sir T. E. Winnington, Bart,, and will take its 
place among the most valuable of the historical materials 
for this important incident an incident not only in the 
personal history of Raleigh and King James, but even in 
the greater history of our native country. The writer 
was the preacher, "or chaplain, of the Flying Chudleigh, 
or Chidlev, or the Flying Joan, as it is more frequently 
termed, commanded by Capt. Chidlev, or Chudleigb, of the 
Devonshire family of that name, and afterwards Sir John. 
The ship in which he sailed was a vessel of on\y 120 tons, 
and carried 14 guns. From her size, it was not likely 
that she should have taken any very prominent part in 
the voyage ; but all who were on board mast have had 
opportunities, some more and some less, of observing what 
went on ; and it is in that light that the present narra- 
tive must be regarded. The writer's feeling was evidently 
not friendly to Raleigh ; but his means of information 
were not the most complete, and in this narrative he was 
addressing persons whose favour he was desirous of se- 
curing, and whom he knew to be Raleigh's enemies. We 
shall be glad to receive any information respecting him.] 


To the Right Honorable the Lordes of his Majes- 
ties most honorable Privy Counsel!. A true and 
briefe relation of Sir Walter Raleigh his late 
Voyage to Guiana. By Samuel Jones, preacher 
in one of his Shippes called the Flyinge Chud- 

Right Honourable 

A Comon reporte of his Ma ties Large Comis- 

sion to Sir Walter Raleigh, the great expectation 

* In Rome, at the Chalice, the Pope does not sip or 
drink, but he draws through a silver reed or pipe. Nasus 
is the Ritual name, from V<M, to flow. 

of suecesse, the importunity of many worthy gen- 
tlemen, the good reporte I hearde of Captaine 
Chudleigh : joyn'd with the consideration of my 
want of irhploym* at that time in the churche, 
(under w h misery I still suffer) were the inducem* 3 
that prevailed w h me to undertake so dangerous a 

To w ch we set saile fro Pliinouth the 12 th of 
June aiio 1617. We put in againe at Phamouth 
in Cornwaile, after at Corke in Ireland, where we 
arrived the 25 th of June, and remained till the 
19 th of August. These delay es, however occa- 
sioned, forced diverse younge gentlemen and 
others to sell their private provisions both of ap- 
parell and dyet, to the untimely death of many of 

The first shippe we gave chase unto at sea we 
found to be one of London ; fro whome no- 
thinge was taken but by mutuall curtesy. The 
30 th of August we gave chase to a fleet of four or 
five sayle, but could not gett up w h them, nor 
knowledge directly what they were. 

The next day other foure shippes w ch we tooke, 
and found to be frenchmen & Biscaners. Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh stayed them two dayes, the reason 
(as was reported) bycause they were bound for 
Sivill in Spayne ; nothinge was taken fro them by 
force, only a shallop and fishing seane, for which 
they were payed and so departed. 

At Lancerok, one of the Canary Hands, we 
put in, desiringe only water and some other pro- 
visions, which yf the inhabitants could parte with, 
they should be payd for, when we were promised 
our desires, but so long delayed, that three of our 
men being basely murthered without doinge any 
harme to the Danders, we retired to our shippes. 
At Gomera, after some intercourse of messages 
(they seeing our force) gave us free leave to water, 
for at first they withstood us. 

These passages I the rather relate, bycause they 
put not only my selfe, but many other gentlemen 
in a comfortable hope that Sir Walter Raleigh 
had a certainty of his project, whereof by his 
many former delayes we made great doubt : till 
we sawe these places wherein we receaved such 
injuries spared : which might, as we thought by 
our forces, have been easily overcome and ruined. 
Yet for ought I could perceive their would have 
beene smale scruple made of surprisinge any Spanish 
shippinge, for at the Grand Canaryes a Spanish 
caruel was taken, her men being all formerly 
fled ; her ladinge was for the most part salte, some 
little wine, and other provisions, whereby it seemed 
she was bound a fishinge. And about the same 
time neare the Canaries a Spanish canter, a 
boat of fifteene or sixteene tunnes, laden _ with 
fish of smale worth, in her some 14 Spaniards, 
all which were set free except one, that desired to 
accompany us in our voyage, and did, being used 
as one of our own men. Fro these Bands we 



* S. XI. JAN. 5. 

made to the lies of Cap de Verd, in most of the 
seamen's judgments very impertinently : I am 
sure to the dahger of all, and losse of many men. 
For by steeringe such uncertaine & unnecessary 
courses, we were so becalmed, that above a hun- 
dred persons, gentlemen most of them, dyed be- 
tweene those llands and the continent of Guiana. 

In which grate mortality I, visitinge as many of 
the sicke men, in the duty of my ministry, as the 
occasions of the sea would give me leave, heard 
sad complaints from many sicke and dyinge gentle- 
men, of Sir Walter's hard usage of them, in deny- 
inge even those that were large adventurers with 
him, such things upon necessity of which there was 
at that time sufficient store. Others of greate worth, 
either by birth or place of imployment, of being 
neglected yf not contemned ; 'of which number was 
Captain John Piggot, then our Lieutenant Gene- 
rail, who complained to me thereof on his death- 
bed, besides divers others that are returned ; the 
truthe of this pointe, Mathew Rogers, dwelling 
neere Holborne bridge, then Surgeon's mate in 
the Shippe, can well witnes. 

During this time Sir Walter himselfe taking a 
fall in his shippe, being bruised, fell into a dan- 
gerous feaver, wherin I visited him (being call'd 
for by himself). He desired me to pray for him, 
spake relligiously, and among other things tolde 
me that it greived him more for the gentlemen 
than for himselfe, whose estates would be hazarded 
by his death, yet that he would leave such notes 
of direction behinde him as should be sufficient 
for them, which notes neither I nor, for ought I 
knowe, any man else in the fleet yet sawe. 

At Calean, in November last, Sir WaU er being 
somewhat recovered, opened his project for the 
Mine, which upon the platte he demonstrated to 
be within three or four miles of the towne Sancti 
Thomse, which he knew to be inhabited by the 
Spaniards, for he seemed oftentimes in my hear- 
inge to doubt whether it were re-enforc'd or no. 

Sir Warham St. Leger was nowe made Lieu- 
ten ant- General, and had he gone up to the towne 
as I have heard himselfe often say, he had not 
had particular directions ; but in a seeming cur- 
tesy Sir Walter had left all things there to his 
valour and judgement. But God suddenly visiting 
him with a violent sickness, George Rawley then 
being Serj ant- Major, went up Cooimander-in- 
chiefe. Captaine Kemis director for the mine, 
Sir Walter with four other shippes remaininge at 
Trinidado neere the maine mouth of Oronoque ; 
of which the shippe wherein I went being one, I 
there stayed and went not up to the towne. 

We parted with those forces that went in dis- 
covery of the mine about the middest of De- 
cember, and heard not of them againe untill the 
13 th of February followinge; during which time I 
very seldome heard Sir Walter speake of a 
mine : and when he did it was with farre lesse 

confidence than formerly, intermixinge newe pro- 
jects, propoundinge often the taking of St. Joseph's 
I in Trinidado, expressing the great conceit of 
i wealth might be there amonge the Spaniards and 
i the undoubted great quantity of tobaccho, but 
i all this while nothing was done. Those that were 
| absent so slightly respected, especially the Land- 
men, that he would often say for the most of 
them it was no matter whether ever they returned 
or no, they were good for nothing but to eate 
victualls ; and were sent to sea on purpose that 
their friendes might be rid of them ; and diverse 
times propounded to go away and leave them, to 
which none of the Captaines would ever agree. 

Our companies that went up the river, as by 
the chief gentlemen at their return I was given 
to understand, arrived near the towne of St. 
Thomas the second day of January, where the 
Captaines desired Captain Kemis first to show 
them the mine ; which Sir Walter had formerly 
sayd to be three or four miles nearer than the 
towne, and that then yf the Spaniard withstood 
them they would vim vi repellere. 

This Kemis would by no means yield to, but 
alledged diverse reasons to the contrary : as that 
if the town were reinforced, he should open then 
a mine for the Kinge of Spaine and the like, which 
not on any terms he would ever be pleased to 
doe. Diverse reasons like this I not only heard 
by the gentlemen that returned, but sawe myself 
under Kemis his hand, in a letter which he wrote 
from Oronoque to Sir Walter Raleigh at Trini- 
dado, which letter I transcribed, but have not the 
copy of; yet I think there be of them in London. 
During the time of this consultation, our men, 
ready to repose themselves for that night, were 
assaulted by the Spaniards from the skirt of a 
wood, in pursuit of whom they were brought to 
the towne, almost before themselves knew of it. In 
which conflict some four or thereabouts of either 
side were slaine, the rest of the Spaniards quit 
the town and fled. 

The towne being next day their own, and the 
place as it were in their possession, every man's 
expectation looked hourly for the discovery of the 
mine, whilst Captain Kemis minded rather the 
tobaccho, apparell, household stnffe, and ether 
pillage, often saying these would helpyf all failed. 
Yet one night, as hath been diverse times related 
to me by Captain Thornehurst, himself accom- 
panied only with his man, went out privately and 
brought in some mineral ore, which he cheerfully 
shewed Captain Thornehurst ; but being tryed by 
a refiner, it proved worth nothinge and was no 
more spoken of. Hence it was considered that 
Kemis himself might be deluded, even by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, in the ore and place. For now 
the place began to be called in question ; newe 
ways were to be searched ; boates were manned 
with gentlemen, soldiers, and saylnrs, which should 

2*S. XI. JAN. 5. '61.] 


return that night, yet stayed out two days ; and 
then returned, diverse of them hurt, and two | 
killed outright by an ambuscade of Spaniards and j 
Spanish Indians. 

Within two days after the boats againe were | 
manned, and they carry ed with them provision 
for four days, the time limited for their return : 
but they stayed from the rest 20 or 21 dayes ; 
allmost to the famishing of them all. 

And whereas the mine was described to be 
three miles shorte of the towne, they went not 
only three miles, but threescore leagues beyond 
it, till at last they were forced to return ; and 
had they found a mine they must have come backe 
for spades, pickaxes, and refiners, for none of 
these carryed they with them. 

The 13 th of Feb ry we, at Trinidado, received 
newes from them in the river, of the takinge of 
the towne and the missinge of the mine. 

Sir Walter protested to the Captaines (as most 
of them told me) his owne innocency, which to ap- 
prove he would call Kemis to a publick account 
in their presence before he spake with him pri- 
vately, which he never performed. 

At their coming to us, which was the second of 
March, Sir Walter made a motion of goinge backe 
againe, and he would bringe them to the mine : 
the performance of which at that time was alto- 
gether improbable, yf not impossible. Our men 
weary, our boates splitt, our shippes foule, and 
our victualls well nighe spent. Then againe for 
the takinge of St. Joseph's, which the next morn- 
ing was left of, and we disembogued. 

From thence we fell downe to the Charibee 
Hands, till we came to Mrenis ; there we put into 
the Bay the twelfth of March. In which time 
Sir Walter promised to propound unto the Cap-"" 
taines very often, as I heard, some new project ; 
speakinge of a French Commission, which I never 
sawe, nor any man that I knowe of. 

He nowe likewise freely gave leave to any of 
the Captaines to leave him yf they pleased, or 
thought they could better themselves in their own 
intendments; whereupon Captain Whitney and 
Captain Wolleston, with their shippes, left him 
the Sixt of March. 

Sir Warham St. Leger (as I have often heard 
him very confidently report) privately one day 
desired to know of Sir Walter, whether he in- 
tended to come for England or no ? To which he 
answered (with reverence to God and your Lord- 
ships be it spoken) that by God he would never 
come there ; for yf they gott him there, they 
would hang him, or to that purpose. 

Being desired then by Sir Warham to tell him 
what course he would take, he sayde he would 
goe to Newfoundland, victuall and trirnme his 
shippes, and then ly off about the lies of the Azores, 
to wayt for some of the homeward-bound Spa- 
niards : that he might gett somethinge to bid him- 

selfe wellcome into France, or elsewhere. At 
Mcenis, the 21 st of March, the Captaines hearing 
of Kemis his untimely death, presumed that they 
had been much abused in this project by Kemis 
or Sir Walter, or both ; and consideringe with 
themselves their men were ready to mutiny, and 
would not follow them any longer yf they fol- 
lowed Sir Walter, but would carry the shippes 
where they pleased; Sir Walter's uncertainty 
and many delayes, resolved all to leave him, and 
consort no longer with him, which they within 
fewe dayes actually did. 

And though at first they were not resolved to 
come directly into England ; yet, within few days, 
upon better consideration, they thought it better 
to refer themselves to His Majesty's princely 
clemency ; and to leave of that voyage with so 
greate losse, than by longer staying out to incur 
his high displeasure ; and so made for England. 
As for Sir Walter's returne, whether it were wil- 
ling or constrained, all that I knowe of it is by 
the reporte of some gentlemen then in his shippe, 
who relate it thus. Neere the bancke of New- 
foundland there began a mutiny amonge the 
seamen ; some of them, weary of the voyage, de- 
siring to be at home for better imployment ; 
others, which had formerly beene pirates, would 
stay at sea till they had gotten somethinge. Sir 
Walter, to appease this tumult, came up from his 
cabbin, read his Majesty's commission to them, 
and lastly, put it to their owne choyce by most 
voyces what they should doe ; giving, as I heare, 
his owne voyce at that time very confidently for 

That ever he slighted the King's Majesty or his 
authority by any wordes of his, or suffered it to 
be done, or that ever it was done by any one in 
the fleete, I never yet heard. The gentlemen 
that were most inward with him, as I heare and 
thinke, were Captaine Charles Parker, Sir John 
Holmden, and Captaine George Raleigh, the chief 
seamen, and of them but fewe. 

Thus, Right Hon ble Lords, in the simplicity of 
truthe, free from all sinister affection, I have en- 
deavored to performe what by your Lordships I 
was appointed ; though with much weakness, which 
I referre to your Lordships' vievve and favorable 
censure. My pen hath not beene used to so high 
imployment, but my prayers shall never cease to 
mount the throne of Grace, that God will be 
pleased to make you all glorious in heaven whome 
he hath made so gracious and honorable on earth. 
Your honor'd Lordships ever to be commanded, 

I have long had an idea that our dramatic cri- 
tics had not devoted much attention to Spanish 
literature, and this play convinces me of the fact. 



[2^ s. XI. JAN. 5. '61. 

At the same time I freely confess that I see little 
to blame in their not having done so; for Fletcher 
is almost the only one of the old dramatists who 
went to Spain for his dramatic materials. 

In the preliminary notice to this play in Dyce's 
edition, an extract is given from Weber, commenc- 
ing thus: "The underplot of Rutilio, Duarte, 
and Guiomar was suggested by a novel in the 
Hecatommithi of Giovanbattista Giraldi Cinthio 

. . the substance of which is as follows." He 
then analyses the novel, in which the name of the 
lady is Livia, that of her son Scipio, and the scene 
Forli in Italy. The circumstances also are very 
different from those in Fletcher's play. On all 
this Mr. Dyce makes no comment, so I assume 
that he knew of no other source. 

Now were it not for another play of Fletcher's, 
The Laws of Candy, I should feel inclined to 
doubt his having been at all acquainted with the 
Hecatommithi. On this occasion, however, I am 
quite certain that it was not his authority, at least 
not his immediate authority, but that he got this 
story where he got the subjects of so many of 
his plays, in the works of Cervantes ; as, however, 
it was neither in Don Quixote nor in the Novelas 
Exemplares, it has escaped the knowledge of his 

In the sixth chapter of the third book of Cer- 
vantes' romance of Persiles y Sigismunda, we read 
that the hero, heroine, and their party, after leaving 
Talavera, encountered a Pole, who related to them 
his history, the early part of which exactly corre- 
sponds with Fletcher's play. Thus, the names in it 
of the lady and her son are Guiomar and Duarte ; 
the scene is Lisbon, and the adventure occurs the 
very first night after the Pole's arrival in that city. 
He is attacked without any cause by the insolent 
Duarte, whom he kills ; he finds Guiomar in her 
chamber, who asks him if he is a Castilian, and 
tells him that even if he were she would save him. 
She directs him to place himself in a cavity be- 
hind the tapestry over the bed. After the dead 
body of her son had been brought in, and a wit- 
ness had declared that he had seen a man taking 
refuge in the house, all knowledge of whom she 
denied, and the officers of justice were gone, she 
felt through the arras the palpitating heart of her 
suppliant, bade him come forth, covering his face 
with his hands that she might not be able to re- 
cognise him, and directed her maid to lead him 
out, give him a hundred crowns, and dismiss him 
all just, or nearly so, as in the play. 

The rest of the story is different. The Pole got 
next morning on board of a vessel bound for 
India, where he remained fifteen years ; while 
Fletcher makes Duarte recover, and marries 
Guiomar to the man whom she had saved. 

I think there can be no doubt whatever of this 
having been Fletcher's original. 


HUGH BOYD. Historical inquirers know full 
well how soon echo becomes a voice and an au- 
thority. It is well, therefore, to enter an early 
protest. I thought, for example, that the true 
story of the Frenchman's misapprehension of 
Boyd's mystification about Junius was known to 
most persons ; and certainly Bonnecarrere's let- 
ter was published in extenso in " N. & Q." 2 nd S. 
i. 43., yet I have just read the following circum- 
stantial blundering in a volume by the late Mr. 
Crofton Croker, now first published. 

The late Sir John Macpherson resided, it ap- 
pears, at Grove House, Brcmpton. On this Mr. 
Croker observes : 

" Upon the after-dinner conversation at Grove House 
of Mr. Hugh Boyd rests chiefly that gentleman's claim 
to be considered as one of the many authors of 'Junius.' 
His host having temporarily retired from table, Boyd'a 
words were ' that Sir John Macpherson little knew he 
was entertaining ia his mansion a political writer, whose 
sentiments were once the occasion of a chivalrous appeal 
from Sir John to arms' immediately adding, / am the 
author of Junius' " 

I do not know what is meant by Boyd's claim, 
to be considered one of " the many authors of 
Junius." Boyd, as here reported, claimed to be 
" the author." However, not to waste time on 
trifles, I will only observe, as Mr. Croker will, I 
have little doubt, be adduced as corroborative 
evidence, that Boyd left England in 1785 or 1786 
and never returned, and that Macpherson did not 
arrive in England until 1787, and, consequently, 
that Boyd never could have dined with him at 
Grove House. H. B. H. 

WITTY RENDERINGS. Being once in conver- 
sation with a member of the Dixie family upon 
the subject of punning mottoes, his own was in- 
stanced " Quod dixi dixi" " Can you translate 
it?" he asked. I gave him the literal version. 
" No," said he, " that won't do : we render it ' Tell 
a lie and stick to it! ' " Of course it will not be 
understood that this ancient family is charac- 
terised by any want of veracity. E. V. 

" 9 Georgii 2 di 17356. 

The Law now forbids ye keeping any Records in Latin, 

H. T. E. 

JOHN MILTON. I transmit you a few notes 
from original MS. source, giving a compendium of 
Milton's career, none the less acceptable because 
they are by the hand of Vertue, and seem to fix 
the date of his blindness : 

"Johannes Milton, born A.D. 1608; Paul's School, 15, 
1623 ; at Cambridge seven years, 1630 ; came to London, 
Oxford, &c. ; aet. 30, set out for Italy, 1638 ; travels one 
year and three months ; returned to London latter end 
1639, aet. 32 ; published Reformation, 1641 ; married, set, 

XL JAN. 5. '61.] 


35 his first wife, 1643 ; 1651, soon after, he lost the sight of 
one eye; set. 46, and in 1651 both, a total deprivation; Pa- 
radise Lost licensed, 1G88 ; published 1669 in ten books; 
afterwards, 1671, in twelve books; Milton died, 1674, 
sat. 66." _^ 


HARVEST IN DECEMBER. I enclose a para- 
graph cut from the Suffolk Chronicle of Dec. 22, 
which may interest your readers : 

Your agricultural readers in Suffolk may be interested 
to hear that the last field of wheat in the neighbourhood 
of our county town, containing about five acres, was 
commenced being cut last Tuesday, the 1.8th inst., be- 
longing to Mr. Gray Marriage, at Springfield, about two 
miles from Chelmsford, on the Colchester road, near the 
White Hart Inn. 

" I understand it is expected to be cleared so that a 
party may be able to glean about Christmas Day! I 
have a specimen of the corn, and I never expect again to 
see such a sight at such a time of the year, and perhaps 
no person living ever witnessed such a circumstance be- 

Perhaps some of them may be able to furnish a 
parallel. X. 

BIVOUAC. This word is commonly, but incor- 
rectly, regarded as of French origin. Its form is 
French, but it comes from the German beieachen, 
to watch, or be on guard. The true meaning of it 
is also often lost sight of, for whereas it correctly 
applies only to those who pass the night under 
arms, or in an attitude of defence, it is frequently 
used of any encamping and passing the night in 
the open air. I have just read a volume in which 
the word is thus misemployed continually, and I 
send a note of it. B. H. C. 


The recently issued 12th volume of the Trans- 
actions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire contains a paper of mine, " On the 
Engraved Portraits and Pretended Portraits of 
Milton." Though well aware of the valuable 
assistance I might have derived during its pre- 
paration, by putting myself in communication 
with the readers of " N. & Q.," I abstained from 
doing so ; partly because, in the absence of a 
starting point for the inquiry, those who were 
desirous of helping me would have had no means 
of distinguishing between facts already ascertained 
and those requiring elucidation ; and partly be- 
cause I shrank from encountering the host of 
" unquestionable originals by Faithorne," which I 
feared would spring up in answer to any general 
inquiry I might venture to make. The first diffi- 
culty is removed, and the second mitigated, by 
the publication of my paper ; which has been 
printed in the hope that it might serve as a text 
for the reception of additional information and 
corrections, which might enable me at some future 

period to reproduce it in a more perfect form. 
And I now beg to invite the attention of your 
readers to the subject. 

I shall feel much indebted to any gentleman, 
who may have read my paper, and who will sup- 
ply any omissions, or furnish information as to 
the present place of deposit of any 'of the pictures 
or drawings I. have referred to, or any others 
which may be assigned to Milton on reasonable 
evidence : but I would deprecate the introduction 
of any more " originals by Faithorne." Various 
points on which information is wanting will pre- 
sent themselves in reading the paper, and I may 
hereafter suggest in your pages specific subjects 
for inquiry. In the mean time I will, as a com- 
mencement, submit the following Queries : 

Simori s folio Mezzotint. 1. Are any copies 
known of the folio mezzotint head of Milton, 
inscribed " R. White ad vivum delineavit ; J. 
Simon sculpsit"; with any earlier or other im- 
print than that of " Sold by T. Bowles in Paul's 
Churchyard, and J. Bowles in Cornhili"? 2. 
What were the" earliest and latest date at which 
those two firms existed contemporaneously ? And 
3. Can any evidence be furnished, fixing the date 
of the first publication of this print before or after 

Richardson's Etchings. 4. In the Memoirs of 
Thomas Hollis (p. 514.), mention is made of an 
etching from a bust, published in Say's Poems and 
Essays, and which is stated to be one of Richard- 
son's " sets of prints of Milton." Were his various 
etchings ever published in sets ? and where can I 
see a copy so published, or ascertain precisely of 
what it consists? 5. In the etching prefixed to 
such of the copies as I have seen of Richardson's 
Explanatory Notes and Remarks on Paradise Lost, 
1734, the laurel branch on the right temple con- 
sists of eleven leaves : and there is an etching, 
very liable to be confounded with it, but distin- 
guishable by the right branch consisting of nine 
leaves. Where and how was this latter published ? 
6. Is there any known authority (in correspon- 
dence or otherwise) for Richardson's statement, 
as to the original of these etchings, that he had 
reason to believe Milton sat for it not long before 
his death ? And 7., Is any sale-catalogue to be 
met with of the drawings, &c., forming the collec- 
tion of the elder Richardson, sold in 1746-7, 
marked with the names of purchasers ? 

Tanner's Medal. 8. This medal, struck at the 
expense of Mr. Auditor Benson, is stated by Dr. 
Joseph Warton, in a note to his brother's edition of 
the Minor Poems (p 362., edit. 1791,) to have been 
given as prizes for the best verses that were pro- 
duced on Milton at all our great schools. Is there 
at any of our great schools, at the present day, 
any trace of the competition here referred to, or 
the foundation of the prize ? 



JAN. 5. '61. 

I feel the inconvenience of having to refer 
yourself and your readers to the Transactions of 
a provincial Society. I have done my best to 
remedy it by distributing, somewhat extensively, 
private copies of my paper; and obtaining (I 
hope) admission for a copy to the shelves of the 
reference library in the British Museum Heading 
Room, and I also send a copy for the Editor of 

Fairfield House, Warrington. 

ANAESTHETICS. Can any of your readers in- 
form me what anesthetic, having the effect of 
chloroform in producing insensibility to pain 
during surgical operations, is alluded to in the 
following lines from Du Bartas, translated by 
Joshua Sylvester? Du Bartas died about the 
year 1590: 

' Even as a Surgeon minding off-to-cut 
Som cureless limb ; before in use he put 
His violent Engins on the vicious member, 
Bringeth his Patient in a senseless slumber ; 
. And griefless then (guided by Use and Art) 
To save the whole saws offth' infested part. 
So GOD empal'd our Grandsire's (Adam) lively look, 
Through all his bones a deadly chilness strook, 
Siel'd-up his sparkling eyes with Iron bands, 
Led down his feet (almost) to Lethe's sands; 
In briefe, so numm'd his Soule's and Bodie's sense, 
That (without pain) opening his side, from thence 
He took a rib, which rarely He refin'd, 
And thereof made the Mother of Mankind." 


BASSET : ANCIENT PLATE. Lists of the plate 
belonging at various periods to the Merchant- 
Taylors' Company will be found in Herbert's 
History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies 
of London, at p. 467. of vol. ii. Among the "Plate 
in the Treasury before 1 609 " were " 3 bassets or 
low bowls, one with a cover, wholly gilt, used for 
the Sixteen Men Table, at the general feast ; 2 old 
miisers, with narrow slips of silver gilt ; 2 livery 
pots of silver, parcel gilt," &c. &c. The beer or 
wine was brought to table in the livery pots, and 
drunk, we may presume, from the masers or bas- 
sets. Masers were "low bowls" or basins, as is 
well known. In what respect the basset differed 
from the maser I should be glad to know, not re- 
collecting to have met with the term before. I 
have not detected any other extraordinary names 
for silver plate in Mr. Herbert's work. 


CHINESE BOOKS, ETC. Is there any catalogue 
of the Chinese books (very valuable) at Univer- 
sity College ? Are there any astronomical books ? 
Is the notation used the same as the common 
commercial numerical notation, which is quite as 
facile as Byrom's short-hand, and more easily ac- 
quired ? The Chinese eclipses rival in import- 

ance the Babylonian eclipses, calculated at such 
length by Delambre ; and the former have never 
yet been calculated with sufficient care and accu- 
racy. WM. DAVIS. 
Grove Place, St. John's Wood. 

EGIDIA, GEILS, GILES. What is the origin 
and derivation of Egidia, used as a Christian 
name? In certain deeds of date dr. 1620-30, 
a lady resident in Edinburgh is styled Egidia, 
and elsewhere Geils and Giles. Are these syno- 
nymes ? 

St. Giles, Gele, or Geils, it is well known, was 
the patron saint of Edinburgh, although he was 
originally a foreigner ; now Egidia is found in- 
variably employed as a female name. In the 
southern part of the island I think Giles is mas- 
culine. At the period referred to, Egidia seems 
to have been rather a favourite and frequent 
name ; and I read recently of a vessel sailing from 
Glasgow termed the " Lady Egidia." 

"Santa Egidio " occurs as the name of an 
Italian saint. W. 

THOMAS GREEN, POET. In 1780, there ap- 
peared in a ]2mo. vol. of 365 pages, Poems on 
various Subjects, chiefly Sacred, by the late Mr. 
Thomas Green, of Ware, Hertfordshire. As Mr. 
Green was fortunate enough to write one of the 
best devotional hymns in the language, and was 
not fortunate enough to be elected to a vacant 
niche in some biographical dictionary, allow me 
to record his name in your pages. Mr. Green be- 
longed to Ware, and was dead when his poems were 
published. Can some one furnish any details of 
his life, calling, and end? The hymn I alluded to 
is in many selections, but usually with one or more 
verses left out. It commences : 

" It is the Lord, enthroned in light, 

Whose claims are all divine," &c. 
Every verse except the last two (9 and 10) com- 
mences with the words " It is the Lord." Mr. 
Green also wrote the hymn commencing " Some 
boldly venture near the throne," and a number of 
others, which resemble in style and spirit the 
Olney Hymns more than any others I know. If 
Thomas Green had had some judicious friend, or 
more of the critical faculty, his poems might have 
been remembered with honour. The defects of 
his manner from time to time, and other circum- 
stances, are against him ; but after all, his volume 
contains many charming little pieces. The purest 
morality, the warmest devotion, and the strictest 
orthodoxy distinguish these pages. The wit and 
satire are quiet and harmless, but often genuine, 
and the quaint and homely illustrations are such 
as Cowper's readers (and we are constantly re- 
minded of him) would admire. The simplicity of 
the language, both as to words and construction, 
betokens a stranger to the schools, and one who 
wrote thus because it was natural for him to do 

2'd S. XI. JAN. 5. '61. ] 



so, and because he wished to do good. I give six 
lines from his New Year's Eve Soliloquy, p. 
100. : 

" With Thee let every day be past, 
And when that comes which proves my last, 

May glory dawn within ! 
Then banish from me every doubt, 
And ere life's glimmering lamp goes out, 
Let endless jovs begin ! " 

B. H. C. 

HERYNGHAM. Wanted information respecting 
the family of Mr. John Heryngham, whose daugh- 
ter Elizabeth married Lord (William?) Russell 
about the fourteenth or fifteenth century. The 
name and the arms (three herrings barwise) ap- 

Eear amongst others on the library walls of Ends- 
iigh Cottage. W. W. H. 

public meeting of the British and Foreign Bible 

Society recently held at , one of the speakers 

produced a piece of stone brought from Con- 
stance, which he said was part of the very stone 
broken off from that to which John Huss t was 
chained when burnt at the stake. 

Have any of the readers of "N. & Q." visited 
the remains of the old Dominican monastery at 
Constance (now used as a large cotton factory and 
block-printing establishment), and seen there the 
stone which is shown as the identical one to 
which the martyr was fastened;? and, if so, their 
opinion of it is anxiously asked by VERITAS. 

FAMILY OF HUSSEY. Joseph Husee of Stour- 
paine, Dorset, born 1600 to 1610 (about), is be- 
lieved to have been succeeded by a son, " Joseph 
Husee of Tomson," Dorset, who was surviving in 
1686. Can any correspondent prove this latter 
Joseph to have been the son of the former ? The 
former is believed to have married Katherine 
Hodder. Whom did the latter marry ? Hutchins' 
Dorset is at fault in this branch of the great 
Husey family. Does Collinson's Hist, of Somerset 
help, under letter C., for Charlton Horethorn or 
Compton Pauncefoot ? P. P. P. 

A small 12mo. volume, entitled An Account of 
the Foundation of the Royal Hospital of King 
Charles II , was published in Dublin in 1713, 
and gives many particulars of this noble insti- 
tution, which, 

" for the relief and maintenance of ancient and infirm 
officers and soldiers serving in the Army of Ireland, 
[was] begun by His Grace James Duke'of Ormonde, 
Anno 1680 (at that time Lord Lieutenant of Ireland), 
and com plea ted by His Excellency Henry Earl of Claren- 
don, Lord Lieutenant of the same', in the year 1686." 

The book was dedicated by Thomas Wilson to 
James Duke of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, and several other personages. 

I wish, for a particular purpose, to learn some- 
thing about this Thomas Wilson. Who was he ? 

what means of information did he possess ? and 
is he known as the author of any other publica- 
tion ? Not long since I met with a very beau- 
tifully-executed MS., which is now before me, 
bearing Wilson's name, and agreeing almost word 
for- word and page for page with the printed 
volume. The handwriting is apparently of about 
the commencement of the last century. Dr. Bur- 
ton's History of the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham 
(8vo. Dublin, 1843) is likewise before me, but it 
does not supply the required information. 


PRINCE MAURICE. Can any of your readers 
oblige with a list of the best authorities to consult 
(historical, biographical, or critical) upon the life 
of Prince Maurice of Nassau, the contemporary of 
Barneveldt, or give any sources of information 
about the pensioner himself, or mention any anec- 
dotes of these two historical characters ? R. R. 

MELLS. In that interesting book, Hook's 
Archbishops of Canterbury, the very reverend 
author, describing the Anglo-Saxon golden age, 
says : 

. " The hum of bees was heard in various parts of the 
country, and their whereabouts is indicated by the name 
of Mells." 

To this etymology I demur. The Anglo-Saxons 
did not want a Latin word for honey ; in fact it 
is probable that but little Latin was known, espe- 
cially by beekeepers, in those days, who called 
themselves "beoceorls," and not "apiarians," and 
their nector "hunig," and not "inel." Most places 
beginning with Mel, I believe, owe their name to 
the fact of a mill existing there in Anglo-Saxon 
times. Chaucer tells us 

" At Trompyngtoun nat fer fro Cantebrigge 
Ther goth a brook and over that a brigge, 
Upon the whiche brooke ther stant a melle : 
And this is verray sothe that I you telle. 
A meller was ther dwellyng many a day, 

As any pecok he was proud and gay " 

I have myself heard the pronunciation mell in 
High Suffolk, and indeed think that Chaucer in- 
tended his Reeve to speak the Icenian dialect, .as it 
is admitted that the two scholars speak a Northern 

Ingoldmells and some other places may take 
their names from the Icelandic miol, sand ; but I 
can find no instance of a place taking its name 
from " mell," honey. E. G. R. 

GEORGE PICKERING. Can any of your readers 
in Newcastle give me any account of George 
Pickering, a poet of that town? The two fol- 
lowing works were published in Newcastle : 
Poetry, fugitive and Original, by Thomas Bed- 
ingfield and George Pickering. With Notes, 
&c. 1815 ; Unpublished Remains of Mr. George 
Pickering, Sfc. By John Sykes. 1828. Is Mr. 
Pickering author of any poem of length ? X. Y. 



XI. 3 AS. 5. '61. 

the principal island in this group to receive the 
Latin name of Pomona, when the names of all the 
surrounding islands are of unmistakable Norse 
origin, as was likewise the ancient name by which 
this island was known to its early inhabitants ? 
The presumption that the name was given to it 
by the Latins is strengthened by the historian 
Solinus, who records the fact that it was at the 
period when he wrote, about the middle of the 
third century, known by this name ; and he adds, 
thqf such name had been given to it on account 
of the length of the day in that region, which de- 
finition of its origin may be subject to some doubt, 
from its apparent unlikelihood. It has occurred 
to the writer, from perusing an hypothesis con- 
tained in an early geographical treatise, by which' 
it is attempted to be proved that this group of 
islands are identical with the fabled Islands of the 
Blest, that some early Roman navigator, in dis- 
covering this group of western isles, through. some 
supposed identity or association with the above- 
mentioned prolific source of Greek and Roman 
fable, may have bestowed on the principal island 
of the group the name of Pomona. Can any reader 
farther elucidate the inquiry. J. G. F. 

J. REES. There is a work called The Drama' 
tic Authors of America, by James Rees, Philadel- 
phia, 1845. Can any American reader give me 
any account of the author ? Where could I 
obtain a copy, and at what price ? Is this book 
in the Museum library ? [No.] ZETA. 

" Dirty Starachter, who was able 
To eat raw meat on unwashed table, 
And gnawed his beard, to get relief 
From hunger, rather than roast beef; 
Who butter scorned, and found more good in 
Unleavened dough than boil'd plum-pudding ; 
Compound of pugilist and bard *, 
Put into lyrics lame and hard 
His rules of diet, crude and nasty 
As f Murdoch's cat and herring pasty ; 
This famed for walking, that for fighting, 
Both for foul feeding and bad writing." 

" The Progress of Cookery," by W. Woty, in 

The Poetical Miscellany, London, 1771. 

The above notes may have been explanatory 

ninety years ago ; they are not now. A reference 

to any account of Starachter or Murdoch will 

oblige E. C. 

after the death of her husband, Henry Grey 
Duke of Suffolk, who was beheaded in 1554, 
married Adrian Stokes, Esq. Can any of your 
readers say who he was, and when he died ? J 
Does she appear named in any public document 
between 1554 and her death in 1559 ; and, if so, 

* Vide Wormius up. T. Hearne. 

f The famous walking parson, and Sabellian polemic. 

1 [See "N. & Q," ! S. vj. 225. ; xii. 451. ED.] 

how is she described ? It is strange that little or 
nothing should be known of the step-father of 
Lady Jane Grey. S. E. G. 

t> iuttlj 

since Mr. Upcott, whilst on a visit to Edinburgh, 
informed me that this work was in the handwrit- 
ing of Lord Clarendon, who, he asserted, was the 
true author. He said he had seen the MS., and 
had no doubt of the fact. He added, that the 
reason for ascribing it to Burton, was to prevent 
the interference of the University of Oxford, 
which had the exclusive privilege of printing all 
the works of the Earl. How far Mr. Upcott 
whose knowledge of calligraphy is well known 
was correct I have no means of ascertaining. 
The work, though exceedingly valuable, has so 
long been allowed to remain on the shelves of the 
booksellers, that if the statement be true, it is not 
very likely the University would put forth any 
claim to it. . J. M. 

[There is certainly an apparent similarity in the hand- 
writing of this Parliamentary Diary and an autograph 
of the Earl's both in the British Museum; but it must 
be borne in mind that, at the date of these parliamentary 
proceedings (16561659), Clarendon was residing at 
Bruges and Antwerp. Not the least hint is given in the 
Catalogue of Mr. Upcott's Manuscripts that this docu- 
ment is by the Earl. This Diary, together with the 
Correspondence of Henry and Laurence Jfyde, sons of the 
Chancellor, so ably edited by the late Mr. Singer in 1828, 
were obtained by Mr. Upcott from a lady who inherited 
them from persons very nearly connected with the noble 
family of Hyde. It is probable that both these manu- 
scripts formerly belonged to Henry, the second Earl; 
for Evelyn (Correspondence, iii. 301.," edit. 1852,) informs 
us that the library of this noble Earl contained " the 
manuscript copies of what concerns the Parliamentary 
Records, Journals, and Transactions, which I have heard 
both himself and the late unfortunate Earl of Essex (who 
had also the same curiosity) affirm, cost them 500/. tran- 
scribing and binding." After all, it still remains an open 
question, who was the original reporter of this Parlia- 
mentary Diary : for the Editor, Mr. Rutt, has attributed 
it to Thomas Burton, M.P., for Westmoreland, on what, 
after the question now raised, must be considered very 
insufficient proofs. See vol. ii. p. 159.] 

"MACBETH." Who is Editor of Macbeth, a 
Tragedy by Wm. Shakspeare, collated with the 
old and modern editions, 8vo., 1773 ? This would 
appear to be a different edition from that of Mr. 
Chai'les Jennens, who about this time published 
Hamlet, Macbeth, Lear, $c. ZETA. 

[There was but one edition of Macbeth in 1773, and 
this, in most of the lists of Sbaksperiana, is attributed to 
Charles Jennens of Gopsal ; but in the Catalogue of the 
King's library, British Museum, the name of Abbott 
[who is he?] is given as the Editor. The Dedication 
prefixed to Lear is as follows : 

"To Charles Jennens, Esq., at Gopsal, Leicestershire, 
under whose patronage, by access to whose library, and 
from whose hints and remarks, the Editor hath been 


S. XI. JAN. 5. '6i.] 



enabled to attempt an Edition of Shakspeare, the same is 
inscribed, with the greatest respect and gratitude, by his 
most obliged and obedient humble servant. 


From the account, however, of the eccentricities of 
Charles Jennens, in Nichols's Anecdotes of Wm. Bowyer, 
p. 442., it would appear that Jennens himself collated 
these plays.] 

LATER THAN 1688. Probably some of your 
readers may know something of the origin of 
these coins, three specimens of which are now be- 
fore me. They bear the well-known head of 
James, with the inscription " Jacobus II., Dei 
Gratia." On the reverse is a crown in the centre 
upon two crossed sceptres. On the left and right 
respectively are the letters " J.," " R. " ; above 
the crown is the day of the month in Roman nu- 
merals, and, at the foot, the month. The date of 
the year is at the top of all. The inscription is 
the common one, " Mag. Br. Fra. et Hib. Rex." 

The date of my coins are 6th Aug. 1689, 12th 
Aug. 1690, and 30th July, 1690. 

I have no earlier copper coin of this reign. 

[The copper pieces to which our correspondent refers 
were coined either at Limerick, or at the Mint-House in 
Capel Street, Dublin, to meet " the present necessity" of 
King James II., when he made his feeble attempt* in 
Ireland to recover his crown. Such pieces were made 
current in all payments, except the duties of custom and 
excise, upon the importation of foreign goods, &c. ; and 
all persons who refused to receive the same (with the 
above exceptions) were to be punished with the utmost 
rigour of the law, as contemners of the royal prerogative 
and command. For further particulars of this and the 
other " degraded coinage " executed by James during his 
final struggles in the sister kingdom, consult Simon's 
Essay on Irish Coins, London, 1749, and Dublin, 1810 ; 
Ruding's Annals, ii. 24. et seq. 4to. London, 1840 ; and 
< < N. & Q." 1" S. x. 385 , xi. 18.] 


(1 S. ix. 452. 599., xi. 374. ; 2 nd S. x. 407.) 
MR. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS has thrown fresh light 
upon the early use of this piece of plate, which he 
has traced to the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, as shown by a quotation from The Pagan 
Prince, 1690, for which MR. NICHOLS acknowledges 
himself indebted to the new edition of Nares' Glos- 
sary by Mr. Halliwell and Mr. T. Wright. The 
adoption of this appliance of social luxury may, 
however, be carried back to a somewhat earlier 
period. The earliest allusion to the use of a 
vessel of such description which has fallen under 
my notice, is to be found in the Life of Anthony 
a Wood, written by himself, and edited by the 
late Dr. Bliss for the Ecclesiastical History So- 
ciety. Under the year 1680-1 the following entry 
occurs : 

" This year in the summer came up a vessel or a bason 
notched at the brimms to let drinking glasses hang there 
by the foot, so that the body and drinking place might 
hang in the water to cool them." 

I have never been able to trace the convivial 
Col. Monteith, to whom, as I have heard a tra- 
dition, the introduction of the vessel into this 
country was due. I may observe, however, that 
in every village in the South of Europe, at the 
open shop door or place of entertainment where 
refreshing drinks are sold, there may be seen such 
vessels, "notched at the brimms," with glasses 
hanging thereon, and a jug of lemonade or some 
other cool potation usually stands close at hand. 
These refrigeratories are commonly of oval form 
and of glazed earthenware. I have noticed speci- 
mens fashioned with considerable elegance. I have 
seen no Monteith in England of earlier date than 
the pair to which MR. NICHOLS refers, preserved 
among the plate of the Stationers' Company. 


(2 nd S. x. 428.) 

I cannot assist your correspondent MAGDALE- 
NENSIS to any biographical information of import- 
ance respecting the Lawrences of Chelsea. A 
brief notice of the Sir John Lawrence to whom 
he refers, and who was at one time Lord Mayor 
of London, will be found in Faulkner's History of 
Chelsea; and of Sir Thomas he will find it re- 
corded in Burke, that he " spent all his estate," 
and retired to Maryland about the year 1700. 
He left no male issue, and the baronetcy expired 
with him. I have, however, in my possession three 
original letters (copies of which I enclose), dated 
in the year 1621 ; two of them being written by 
Sir Edward Cecil, and the other by the first Sir 
John Lawrence (the father of your correspon- 
dent's Sir John), relative to a disputed pew in the 
Lawrence Chapel, which are so characteristic that 
I think, if you can find space to print them, they 
will not only interest MAGDALENENSIS but your 
general readers also. 

" Sir Edward Cecill to Sir John Laurence. 

" Sir ; I received a Letter from you, wherin you tell 
mee of exceptions you take at a pue I made in the Church 
at Chelsea ; which I had then answered, if your dwelling 
had beene so well knowne to mee, as mine is to you. 
You pretend a claime of royaltie by inheritance vnto it. I 
send you now an account of myself, and my purpose touch- 
ing your claime. When I came into the Church, I found 
all men accommodated with pues ; speciallie you and your 
house; sufficientlie becomming your person'and qualitie. 
I intruded vpon no man ; but found out an vnhandsome 
neglected corner, imployed in nothing but for the roome 
of an old rotten chest; seeing everie man served, I 
thought it no iniurie to goe into that poore corner my 
selfe to serve God in. I have beene at the charge of the 
pue in that place, which was never putt to this vse be- 
fore. You take a Rent for your owne ; and make vse of 



O*S. XI. JAN. 5. '61. 

my charge.. I know not what greatnes belonges vnto 
you, that you cannot content your selfe with a reasonable 
proportion in so little a Church, nor what strange kind of 
malice it is you beare mee, that you seek to keepe mee 
out of a place in the Church, that till my comming into 
it, you never made account of to serve God in ; and I 
beleeve not now, but to serve yo r owne humour in. In 
such a case there is a simile of a Dogge in a Manger, 
that may not vnfitly bee applied vnto it. Now for your 
authoritie and inheritance, I cannot vnderstand the iust- 
nes of it. In my mind, those are thinges given in gene- 
rall to the parish ; specialise when they concerne groundes 
that have not been vsed ; and are to bee disposed of by 
the Churchwardens. For, my Grandfather, and some 
other of my frends, have made pues in S l Clementes and S* 
Marlines ; and wee their Children, can challenge no right, 
but what the parish will allow vs. Therefore, I would wish 
you (Sir) to forbeare my pue ; and not to vallew your 
selfe at so great a rate, and mee at so litle ; as to possesse. 
it when you know I am in Chelsea ; vnlesse you wilbee 
content, when I shall find it, to take as great an affront 
as you have done me. I pray you consider with your 
selfe what you have done, and what you will doe. 
" Y r frend 


"Aprill ye 29 th 1621. 

" To my Worthie Friend 

Sir John Laurence 

Knight & c & c ." 

" Sir John Laurence to Sir Edward Cecil!. 
" Ho ble S r I receaved a message, & a Letter fro m yo w 
w th a fayre outside but more bitter w th in then there is 
cause, either of the mallice you conceave I beare yo u , or 
of y e slight opinion yo w seeme to have of mee. Yet ho- 
nouring yo r nob! 3 birthe & person, I have thought fitt to 
write yo u an answere least a message might miscarry : 
both to shew yo u vpou what misinformed grounds yo w 
inferre ; and w th due moderation to enforme yo w of my 
right for yo r better satisfaction, supposing yo w , though 
yet vnacquainted, to bee so honorable, as yo w will know- 
ingly offer wrong to no man. For y e pretended voydnes 
in my chappell, I assure yo w when I dwelt heere before 
I went to my howse at Iver : there stood a seate in w eh 
my parents in their life time (who are buried in y* chap- 
pell) sate, & I their heyre so long as I continued heere ; 
so as yf it were removed it was lately done by some of 
my tenants, and this y e clarke can enforme yo w . For my 
vightjt stands thus : that many hundred yeeres sithence 
till King Henry y e 8 th builded a nursery in this towne, 
mine was y e manor house of Chelsy, in that chapelle 
have all my predecessors sate, as solely & peculiarly be- 
longing to my howse. The King exchanged w th y e then 
lord of Chelsy other lands for y lands belonging to this 
manner; but y e lord y* dwelt in my howse reserved 

5' e same howse w th those rights,' and that ground w ch now 
hold about it, to himself. Ever sithence also wee have 
had ye only property of that chappell, wee ever repayred 
it, & not y e parishe ; wee only buried in it, & none els 
save out of my howse. The Parson hath nothing to do 
there, nor ever'hath anything for beaking vp the ground, 
but wee have a private dore into it w th a peculiar locke 
& key, ever kept by my predecessors & my self. So as 
no man in Chelsy (though heere have been very' great 
persons) did ever offer to disturbe our right possession, 
continued so many hundreths of yeeres, time out of mind, 
till it pleased yo w S r , vpon misconceaved grounds, so to 
do. This there is none old or yong in Chelsv, either by 
themselves, or by relacon fro their forefathers, can con- 
tradict. Now for yo r self I did, & still do honour yo w 
o much, as I sent yo v worde, yf yo v pleased to accept a 

place there for a convenient time (as a curtesv not of 
right) till yo w could otherwise bee provided, yo w might 
coinaund me. But yf I should p'mitt yo w to take a parte 
of my chappell fro mee de iure, I should in short time, 
as yo w well know, loose my right, my chappell, and my 
auncient inheritance; w ch I thinke yo w will not hold vn- 
reasonable for mee to defend, nor reasonable in mee yf I 
should offer y e like to yo w ; were my case yours. For 
yo r Pue I desire not to make vse of yo r charge, I thanke 
god, (howsoever yo w vallue mee) my fortunes are not so 
meane as I need it. But yf yo w will take it downe, yo w 
shall have free liberty, and I "will set vp mine in y e place 
where it formerly stood. Yf otherwise yo w thinke yo r 
title better then mine, take it not as any maliciousnes to 
yo r worthe (but as befitts every man y* is able, or vnder- 
stands reason) yf I defend myne owne; doing, nor in- 
tending to do ought, but that w ch is and shall bee lawfull 
for mee to do. And for y e affront yo w write of I know of 
none, nor will I offer any to yo w , nor do I feare yo r 
threats, assuring my self yo T wisdome, & moderation will 
bee such, as not to make a disturbance in y e howse of 
god, nor w th a strong hand to dispossesse mee of my aun- 
cient birth-right (w ch I intend to hold) till by a" legall 
proceeding J T O W can evict it from mee. And thus leaving 
it to yo r choyce to deeme of mee as yo w please, desiring 
to know yo r answere, I rest 

" Yo r loving frend to comaund 

" Yf so yo w please to esteeme me 

[ Superscription.'] 
" To his Ho ble frend S r Edw: 
Cecill Knight. & c ." 

" Sir Edward Cecill to Sir John Laurence. 
"Sir; You desire to know my answere. This it is. 
There are two thinges considerable to mee, in the ques- 
tion that was betweene vs. The first, that I had no pur- 
pose to intrude ; but benefited the place where I seated 
my selfe. The second, that the manner of your proceed- 
ing with mee hath called vpon mee to bee sensible of an 
affront in it. Concerning the first; when I had taken a 
house heere in Chelsea, now and then to lodge at, the 
next thing I sought for, was a place at Church, wherin, 
that I intended no intrusion, it will appear in this. I 
considered places alreadie taken vp. Among the rest, I 
found your house fullie and spatiouslie provided for. I 
then looked vpon the emptie places, and was desirous to 
have a Pue in that voide roome, which was putt to no 
vse, but laie open to the Church, yet, I did not presum- 
inglie enter vpou it, but w th y e notice and advice of the 
Parson and Churchwardens ; as Sir Arthur Gorges and 
others well know; who never informed mee of anic title 
you had vnto it: but held it reasonable, and w th out 
offence to anie. Neither did I it to appropriate the place 
to my dwelling for posteritie ; but onlie to convert an 
idle Roome to my vse, when I should bee heere, for the 
service of tlod. This was all of it, so farre from meaning 
to intrude or doe wrong ; as I made it a Roome fit for 
you in my absence, that was before vnserviceable. Now, 
touching the second thing considerable in the question ; 
which is the discourtesie I was sensible of. When I had 
built this pue, you took affection to the place ; and (for 
anie thing I did heare) not before. And then you writt 
vnto mee about it, without letting mee know how or 
where I might find 3 7 ou, to answere you, which if you 
done, I assure my selfe, wee should not have disagreed. 
But w th out doing this, you proceeded to the shutting mee 
out of it, which verie course of yours towardes mee, wherin 
you professe you meant kjndnes to mee, I took to bee 
vnfreindlie. Again; vnderstanding you a Gentleman of 
much discretion and humanitie, it did seeme exceeding 
strange vnto mee, that I having made the place better, 

S. XI. JAN. 5. '61.] 



you should denie mee Roome, when I am heere my selfe, 
comming so seldom to make vse of it. But there maie 
bee mistaking in both of vs. I shall bee willing to have 
the misvnderstandinges cleared. And as I shall not 
gladlie meete w th anie occasion of disturbance in the 
house of God ; or ever affect the doing of wrong ; so I 
could not w th reason forsak mine owne honour by suffer- 
ing indignitie. To conclude; had I knowne how to have 
answered your first letter; I would have gratefullie en- 
tertained your kind offer then made mee; as I doe the 
same now." And thus I rest 

" Y r affectionate frend to deserve 
" Y r courtesie 


" To m}' worthie and 
much respected Frend ; 
Sir John Lawrence, 
Knight & c & c ." 




(2 nd S. x. 236. 477.) 

In reply to the queries of F. C. B., I may men- 
tion that the apparition seen by the Baron de 
Guldenstubbe in his apartments in the Rue St. 
Lazare, at Pari?, in no wise resembled himself, but 
presented the semblance of " a tall, portly old 
man, with a fresh colour, blue eyes, snow-white 
hair, thin white whiskers, but without beard or 
moustache, and dressed with some care. He 
seemed to wear a white cravat and long white 
waistcoat, high stiff shirt collar, and a long black 
frock coat, thrown back from his chest, as is the 
wont of corpulent people like him in hot weather. 
.... After a few minutes the figure detached 
itself from the column, and advanced, seeming to 
float slowly through the room, till within about 
three feet of its wondering occupant. There it 
stopped, put, up its hand as in form of salutation, 
and slightly bowed." The figure then returned to 
the column, as previously related, and gradually 
melted into the cylindrical vapour, until it was no 
longer perceptible, ppon the following morning, 
the baron met the wife of the concierge, Madame 
Mathieu, and inquired of her who had been the 
former occupant of his rooms, adding 

" His reason for making the inquiry was, tha^ the night 
before he had seen in his bedroom an apparition. At first 
the woman seemed much frightened, and little disposed 
to be communicative, but when pressed on the subject, 
she admitted that the last persorrwho had resided in the 
apartments now occupied by the baron was the father of 
the lady who was the proprietor of the house, a certain 
Monsieur Caron, who had formerly filled the office of 
mayor in the province of Champagne. He had died about 
two years before, and the rooms had remained vacant 
from that time until taken by the baron. Her descrip- 
tion of him, not only as to personal appearance, but in 
each particular of dress, corresponded in the minutest 
manner to what the baron had seen : a white waistcoat 
coming down very low, a white cravat, a long black 
frock coat; these he habitually wore. Plis stature was 

above the middle height ; and he was corpulent, his eyes 
blue, his hair and whiskers white; and he wore neither 
beard nor moustache. His age was between sixty and 
seventy. Even the smaller peculiarities were exact, 
down to the high-standing shirt collar, the habit of 
throwing back his coat from his chest, and the thick 
white cane, his constant companion when he went out. 

" Madame Mathieu further confessed to the baron that 
he was not the only one to whom the apparition of M. 
Caron had shown itself. On one occasion a maid-servant 
had seen it on the stairs. To herself it had appeared 
several times once just in front of the entrance to the 
saloon; again in a dimly-lighted passage that led past 
the bedroom to the kitchen beyond, and more than once 
in the bedroom itself. M. Caron had dropped down in 
the passage referred to in an apoplectic fit, had been car- 
ried thence into the bedroom, and had died in the bed 
now occupied by the baron. She said to him, farther, 
that, as he might have remarked, she almost always 
took the opportunity when he was in the saloon to ar- 
range his bedchamber, and that she had several times 
intended to apologise to him for this, but had refrained, 
not knowing what excuse to make. The true reason was 
that she feared again to meet the apparition of the old 
gentleman. The matter finally came to the ears of the 
daughter, the owner of the house. She caused masses to be 
said for the soul of her father ; and it is alleged how 
truly I know not that the apparition has not been seen 
in any of the apartments since. Up to the time when he 
saw the apparition, the Baron de Guldenstubbe had never 
heard of M. Caron, and of course had not the least idea 
of his personal appearance or dress ; nor, as may be sup- 
posed, had it ever been intimated to him that any one 
had died, two years before, in the room in which he slept." 
Footfalls on the Boundary of another 'World, . English 
edition, pp. 284-5. 

In my former communication on this subject, I 
only copied as much of the Baron de Gulden- 
stubbe's narrative as served to mark its likeness to 
the apparition seen by MR. SWIFTE. The whole 
story is very well told, and will amply repay 


I readily respond to M. P.'s Queries : 

1. 2. My wife did not " perceive any form" in 
the " cylindrical tube," except the cloud or vapour 
which both of us described at the time, and which 
neither had ever described otherwise. 

3. Her health was not affected, and her life was 
^terminated, by the "appearance" be its cause 
what it might which then presented itself to us. 

I cannot supply the precise date of the senti- 
nel's alarm. Jf " following hard at heel " be a 
synchronism, then must Hamlet's mother have 
married his uncle on the day of his father's fune- 
ral : the " morrow," whereon I saw the poor fellow 
in the Tower guard-room, had reference to his 
visitation, not to ours ; which, I submit to F. C. 
B , is of the twain the more difficult of solution. 

The Bonchurch and Pichincha cases have not 
come within my knowledge ; the " appearance " in 
the Jewel House did not suggest to me the 
Brocken spectre ; and the Guldenstubbe phantom 



[2 nd S. XI. JAN. 5. '61. 

fails in its parallel (x. 291. 477.) We were not 
favoured by any "portly old man," detaching 
himself from our vaporous column and resolving 
himself into it again ; no " electric shocks " or 
"muscular twitchings" had predisposed us; and 
the densest fog that ever descended a damp chimney 
could hardly have seized one of us by the shoulder. 
The only " natural cause " (x. 478.) which has 
occurred to me is phantasmagoric agency ; yet 
to say nothing of its local impediments in the 
Jewel House* the most skilful operator, with 
every appliance accorded him, could not produce 
an appearance, visible to one-half the assembly, 
while invisible to the other half, and bodily laying 
hold of one individual among them. The causa- 
tion of non-natural, preternatural, or supernatural 
effects passes my scholarship ; and the anomalies 
of a formless, purposeless, phantom, foretelling 
nothing and fulfilling nothing, is better left to the 
adepts in Psychology. Davus sum, non (Edipus. 

COCKSHUT (2 nd * S. vi. 400.) In Ray's Or- 
nithology (London, 1678, fol. p. 33.) the following 
passage occurs with reference to the capture of 
woodcocks : 

" We in England are wont to make great glades through 
thick woods, and hang nets across them ; and so the 
woodcocks, shooting through these glades, as their nature 
is, strike against the nets, and are entangled in them." 

According to this passage, the word cochshut is 
properly cockshoot, and is derived from the rapi- 
dity of the woodcock's flight through the narrow 
glade. This etymology of the word is mentioned 
in some of the passages cited in the page of " N. 
& Q." above referred to ; and is probably the cor- 
rect one. It agrees best with the phrase cockshoot 
time for twilight ; namely, the time when wood- 
cocks are on the wing. L. 

SONG ON BISHOP TRELAWNY (2 nd S. x. 370.) 

You speak of " the well-known balled recited by 
the Cornish peasantry on Bishop Trelawny's com- 
mittal to the Tower." It is " well known " to 
every body but you that the Rev. R. S. Hawker, 
Vicar of Morwenstow, Cornwall, wrote that ballad 
in 1825. See his Ecclesia, a volume of poems, 
pp. 91 93. The refrain, two lines only, is all 
that is ancient. 

[We omit the signature for reasons which the writer 
will, we trust, approve of. We are always glad to cor- 
rect anj' errors into which we may have fallen. In the 
present case we have blundered in good company, viz. 
that of Lord Macaulay (see his History of England) ; the 
late Davies Gilbert, Esq., himself a Cornish man; and 
Sir Walter Scott, as will be seen from the following note 
by Mr. Hawker to his Song of the Western Men : 

" With the exception of the chorus, contained in "the 
two last lines, the song was written by me, as an imita- 
tion of the old English Minstrelsy, and' was inserted in a 
Plymouth paper in 1825. It happened to fall into the 
hands of Davies Gilbert, Esq., who did me the honour 

to reprint it at his private press at East Bourne, under 
the impression that it was the original ballad. I have 
been still more deeply gratified by an unconscious com- 
pliment from the critical pen of Sir Walter Scott. In a 
note to the fourth volume of his Collected Poems, p. 12., 
he thus writes of the Song of the Western Men : 

' In England the popular ballad fell into contempt 
during the seventeenth century ; and- although in remote 
counties * its inspiration was occasionally the source of a 
few verses, it seems to have become almost entirely obso- 
lete in the Capital.' " ED. " N. & Q."] 

x. 428.) In reply to your correspondent W. H. 
B., I beg to acquaint him that I was present dur- 
ing an unusually severe visitation of cholera in 
1846, at the town of Kurachee, in Sinde, in which 
the 86th regiment lost in the space of ten days 
about 240 men. It was particularly remarked 
that the vultures, kites, and other birds of prey, 
which are very numerous in that part of the 
world, entirely disappeared almost simultaneously 
with the outbreak of cholera, returning gradually 
after the first few days when the virulence of the 
disease began to abate. 

I may also mention a very singular circumstance 
which came under my observation on the same 
occasion, from which it would seem that the in- 
habitants of the sea are by no means exempt from 
the visitation of this mysterious disease. On the 
second or third day after the appearance of the 
cholera, the bay to the south of Kurachee was 
strewed with countless myriads of dead fish, which 
were left on the beach by the receding tide. At 
high water the shores of the bay presented a most 
singular appearance ; the waves for several yards 
from the shore seeming to be composed of an 
almost solid mass of dead fish, chiefly of the sar- 
dine species. Amongst which, however, there were 
not wanting others of considerably larger size. 
No sharks were observed among those left on the 
beach by the tide, though they are very numerous 
in the neighbouring sea. C. O. CREAGH, 

Major, 86th Regiment. 

Army and Navy Club. 

THOMAS CAREY (2 nd S. x. 519.) Is the Thomas 
Gary who translated from the French of P. de le 
Serre "The Mirrour which flatters not," the same 
as the pc*et mentioned by MR. HAGGARD ? There 
are many pieces in verse appended both at the 
beginning and end of the work. Some, though 
not all, undoubtedly by Gary, who dates from 
Tower Hill, Antepenultima Augusti, 1638, though 
the book is not printed till 1639.| In an " Adver- 
tissement au Lecteur," Gary says it was " upon 
occasion of the last summer's sad effects generally 

* 'A curious and spirited specimen occurs in Cornwall, 
as late as the trial of the Bishops before the Revolution. 
The President of the Royal Society of London, Mr. Davies 
Gilbert, has not disdained the trouble of preserving it 
from oblivion.' Sir W. Scott's Note. 

[f See N. & Q." 2* A S. vi. 52. 114. ED.] 

2d S. XI. JAN. 5. '61.] 



over all England, that the author's French ori- 
ginal engaged his thoughts and pen." Does this 
allude to a great mortality ? 

Among the Manuscripts at Burton Hall is a 
thick quarto, closely written, in the hand of the 
earlier part of the seventeenth century, of " Le 
Miroir qui ne flatte point," in French, and pro- 
bably the original. I have not yet had an oppor- 
tunity of collating it with the translation, but my 
impression is that it contains much more. 



480.) The answer to P. R. was intended merely 
to lead him to a solution of his inquiry, wherein it 
appeared to me that he was confusing the terms 
descendants and representatives. By his reply in 
the number, Dec. 15, he seems now to confuse the 
terms heir male and heir general. The pedigree 
to which he was referred * would have shown him 
clearly that the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 
was representative in blood. The fifth Duke of 
Somerset might be heir male upon the death of 
the fourth Duke of Somerset, and succeeded under 
the limitations of a patent granted to heirs male of 
the body, but he was not heir general of the blood, 
or representative of the second Duke. P. R. makes 
the female descendant of the fifth Duke repre- 
sentative, but does not say why he ignores the 
heir female of the second Duke. 

Elizabeth, Countess of Elgin, heir of the second 
Duke, carried away the representation before the 
descendant of the fifth Duke, and through her it 
has passed to the Duke of Buckingham and Chan- 
dos, the now heir general of Katherine Grey. His 
Grace, singularly enough, in addition to his ma- 
ternal representation, is descended through his 
paternal ancestor, from Charles Lord Seymour of 
Trowbridge. J. R. 

ZOPISSA (2 nd S. x. 492.) The derivation of 
this word from faos and Trtovra is the one usually 
given in the lexicons, but I think it erroneous. 
The word properly describes the composition 
with which ships' bottoms have been coated, when 
scraped off. It is not the name of the composition 
before it has been used, nor until it has fulfilled 
its purpose. If therefore Zopissa signifies viva 
pix, it is not from its virtue in the preservation of 
ships, &c., but from its medicinal qualities, like 
Parr's life-pills. The other origin to which the 
word has been traced, is also untenable. I allude 
to zepheth, which occurs with some modifications in 
Hebrew, Arabic, and Chaldee. The ark of Moses 
was daubed with slime and zepheth. (Exod. ii. 
3, ; see also Is. xxxiv. 9.) The resemblance of 
this word to the Greek is singular, but not con- 

* Life of Lady Jane Grey, by Sir Harris Nicolas. 
Lond. Harding, 8vo. 1825. See also Debrett's Peerane, 
ed. 1849, p. 1. 

elusive of identity. At the same time, I think it 
has stronger claims than the first derivation re- 
ferred to. But to my own mind another source 
has suggested itself, which I believe to be the 
true one. Zopissa is pitch scraped off. This 
word scraped enters into all the accounts of it 
j and apochyma (which is the same thing), as far 
j as I have been able to consult them. I trace the 
word to |eo> or |uco, to scrape ; and suppose it 
really means scraped pitch, or, as the lexicographers 
say, pix derasa. The interchange of x and z is 
well known to occur, and may be seen in Zan- 
thenes and Zigir for Xanthenes and Xigir, as 
also in |iw?j and &vi>i). In the Septuagint X 
and Z are often confounded in proper names, and 
we always pronounce Xerxes, as if it was Zerxes. 
I am not sure that the corrupt spelling of ..Zopissa 
for Xopissa is not due to the class among whom 
it must have originated. B. H. C. 

P.S. I see that I am not first; Scapula 
(Oxon. 1820) gives my derivation of Zopissa. 

SIR HENRY KILLIGREW (2 nd S. viii. 206.) 
The following extracts from the Registers of St. 
Peter-le-poor, London, will perhaps be of use to 
MESSRS. COOPER in their inquiries : 

"Married. 1565. Nov. 4. Henricus Kylleggrove et 

Chatilina Coke, generosi. 
1590. Nov. 7. Master Henry Killegrew and 

Mistris Jael de Peigne, a Frenchwoman. 
Baptised 1590. Feb. 28. Eliz*. Treelainee, filia Mr. 

Treelainie, generosi." 

According to Burke (Extinct Baronetage*), Sir 
Henry married Catherine, dau. of Sir Anthony 
Cooke, Knt. of Giddy Hall, co. Essex, but had no 
male issue. C. J. R. 

493.), or, as the title of the work is in full, The 
Progress of the Pilgrim Good- Intent in Jacobinical 
Times, was written by one Mary Anne Burgess. 
It appears to have been an extremely popular 
work in its day, as my copy is of the 10th edition, 
and of the date 1822. From a short memoir ap- 
pended, by the author's brother, Sir James Bland 
Burgess, Bart., of Beauport, Sussex, it appears 
that the lady was a person of great natural talents, 
which she cultivated with no ordinary care. There 
were few authors, ancient or modern, whoso 
writings were not familiar to her in their own lan- 
guage. She was a good classic, spoke French, 
Italian, and Spanish well, and wrote them with a 
fluency and correctness scarcely inferior to a native. 
She read also German and Swedish with facility. 
What is the most surprising is, that she acquired 
these tongues in early life, and without- any 
teacher. She assisted M. De Luc in his last work 
on Geology, which is sufficient to prove she was 
no novice in that science. She finished, a short 
time before her death, a MS. account of the 
British Lepidoptera, in which each insect is traced 



XI. JAX 5. '61. 

from its egg, the various plants on which they 
feed fully described, and with drawings that 
manifest a correctness of design and delicacy of 
colouring little, if at all inferior, to those of the 
celebrated Marian. She was an excellent bota- 
nist; not only a good musical performer, but also 
a composer ; drew and painted well, and was very 
accomplished in all feminine pursuits. She ap- 
pears to have been still more remarkable for her 
amiable temper and manners ; and she bore a 
long and very painful illness of some years with 
great cheerfulness and resignation. She devoted 
a great part of her income to works of benevo- 
lence and charity, and died at her house, Ashfield, 
near Honiton, Devonshire, universally lamented, 
on August 10th, 1812, in the forty-ninth year of 
her age. The work in question was at first pub- 
lished anonymously, and reached its tenth edition 
in the course of a few years. H. E. WILKINSON. 
Netting Hill. 

My edition of this interesting little book is 
that of 1800, printed for Hatchard, without au- 
thor's name, and apparently the first impression. 
As one of Captain Cuttle's crew, I long since 
made a note upon my copy to the effect, "that 
it was the production of Mrs. Mary Ann B urges, 
and that a new edition was published in, or before, 
1824, revised by Sir James Bland Burges." J. O. 

MEWS (2 nd S. x. 489.) I think there can be 
no doubt of the general accuracy of F. C.'s re- 
marks upon this word, and its derivation. The 
verb to mew, in the sense of casting or changing 
the hair, horns, skin (as serpents) or feathers, oc- 
curs in at least five other languages : Fr. muer ; 
Dutch, muiten; Ger. mausen; Span, mudar ; Ital. 
mudare. In each of these we find nouns in the 
sense of moulting, and in Fr., Ital,, and Dutch, 
similar words denoting the coop or place in which 
birds were kept when moulting. So in Eng., 
according to Bailey, a mew was a coop for hawks, 
or a " cage where hawks are wintered or kept 
when they mew or change their feathers." It is 
easy to see how the French mue came to be ap- 
plied to a place to fatten poultry in. With refer- 
ence to our word mews as applied to stables, 
Bailey (who derives the word from mutare), says 
" the stables called the Mews, at Whitehall, took 
that name, having been anciently full of mews, 
where the king's hawks were kept." I see no 
reason to question the derivation of the word from 
the Lat. mutare, although it does not bear the 
signification of mew, to moult, &c. Milton's eagle 
mewing its mighty youth, of course refers to the 
fact that birds after moulting look fresher and 
more beautiful. B. H. C. 

WITCHCRAFT (2 nd S. x. 472.) In reply to the 
inquiry of INVESTIGATOR, as to the best historical 
authorities upon witchcraft, I should refer him to 
a very good and curious modern work, Wright's 

Narratives of Sorcery and Magic. Scott's Demon- 
ology and Witchcraft also contains some interest- 
ing information on this subject. There are also 
two old works respecting it : one by Webster, and 
the other by Hutchinson. 

Can any of your readers inform nie whether 
there was any trial for witchcraft in England after 
the commencement of the last century ? And if 
so, where an account of it can be found ? It was 
not until the year 1736 that the Act 9 Geo. II. c. 
5. was passed, declaring that no prosecution should 
in future be carried on against any person for 
witchcraft, sorcery, &c. RICHARD BROOKE. 

THE JACOBITES (2 nd S. x. 448.) There is no 
authority for translating -rcopveias by pork. Bentley 
conjectured x oi P e/ias an d Griesbach was the first, I 
believe, who thought that iropKfias might have 
been the original word. But, in answer to these, 
as well as to ir6pvt) or u-opvrjs, appears the fact, that 
no MS., ancient Version or Father, has any other 
word here than iropveias, fornication, in the 20th 
and 29th verses of Acts xv. See Kuinoel and the 
authorities quoted by him. T. J. BUCKTON. 


CARADOC VRETCHFRAS, ETC. (2 na S. x. 217. 251. 
315.) The following passage from Wotton's 
English Baronets (vol. 5i. 80.), seems to clear up 
the doubt expressed by me respecting the rank of 
Caradoc Vreichfras : 

" This Caradoc is styled, in the History of Cambria, 
published by Dr. Powell, 1584, King of N. Wales, on ac- 
count of his great possessions in that country. For being 
driven from his estate by Ethelbald, King of Mercia, 
after the battle of Hereford, Corian Tindaethwy, then 
King of Wales, received him, and gave him lands be- 
tween Chester and Conway." 

The same passage occurs in Collins (vol. iii. 
p. 129.). I may add that Pennant incidentally 
furnishes the pedigree of this celebrated Earl of 
Hereford in his Welsh Tour (vol. i. p. 296.), in 
his account of Llangollen ; the church of which he 

states to be dedicated to St. Collen ap Caradog 

Freichfras, ap Lhyr Merim, ap Einion Yrth, ap 
Cunedda Wledig ; of whom the two last were, 
according to Powell's History (p. xxviii.), father 
and son, Cynedda having flourished about A.D. 
540. The records of the Heralds' College confirm 
the fact that Cynedda Wledig was the ancestor of 
Caradoc. And the Welsh writers make him also 
the ancestor of Cadwallader the last king of the 
Britons, A.D. 680, and of all the later kings and 
princes of Wales, who were descendants of Cad- 
wallader. Cynedda, written also Cunetha and 
Knotha, was himself the grandson of Coel Godebog, 
King of North Wales in right of his wife, Gerad- 
wen, or Stradwen, daughter and heiress of Caduan 
ap Conan ap Endaf. The coat of arms attributed 
to Cynedda, in the College of Arms, is, sa. 3 roses 
arg. I avail myself of this opportunity to thank 
MR. GRESFORD for his reply to my former com- 

2-i S . XI. JAN. 5. 



inunication. He will find, in Papworth's Dic- 
tionary, Price of Brecon bearing the same coat as 
Caradoc Vreichfras (p. 118.) In conclusion, I 
should point out that, at p. 252., the Rev. W. 
Betham is called by mistake Sir W. B. 


SOUTHEY (2 nd S. x. 405.) I perfectly recol- 
lect that when a boy (about 1824) there was an 
actor of this name performing at the Shrewsbury 
Theatre, who was said to be a brotheu of the poet. 
He was a very " tame " actor, neither suiting " the 
action to the word, nor the word to the action," 
but rather " mouthing " it, and that with so very 
weak and insignificant a voice, that his entrance 
was always received with a titter on the part of 
the audience. W. A. LEIGHTON. 


AYLMER, BP. OF LONDON (2 Rd S. x. 287. 481., 
&c.) Though unable to say where the birth- 
place of this prelate was, let me say that his son 
is buried in Claydon church, near Ipswich, where 
there is an inscription to his memory. He is sup- 
posed to have built Mockbeggar Hall in that 
parish. The Mockbeggar Hall at Tuddenham, 
Norfolk, and that near Hoo, Kent, are apparently 
buildings of the same date, '. e. 1650. E. G. R. 

LONGEVITY. Under the heading Longevity, a 
writer in your most interesting periodical (2 nd S. 
x. 15.) questions the truth of reported instances 
of persons having reached the age of 100 years in 
modern times. We could, I believe, in this coun- 
try alone furnish several such, resting on the best 
possible evidence, that of parish registers of their 
birth. But I think I can adduce one perfectly 
authentic, and resting on the authority of a coun- 
tryman of mine, now I believe residing in Scot- 

When passing through Russia on my way over- 
land (I mean the real overland route, by Russia 
and Persia, not that by Egypt, as is usually un- 
derstood in these days) in the year 1828, I made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Keir, the physician of the 
Sheremetien Hospital at Moscow. This is a hos- 
pital founded and maintained for the use of his 
own dependants by Count Sheremetien, said to 
be the richest nobleman in*Russia, having 120,000 
souls or male serfs on his property. Jn going 
round the wards, a man was pointed out to me by 
Dr. K. of hale and sound appearance, looking 
like a man of 75 or 80, and in perfect possession 
of all his faculties, except that he was a little deaf. 
It was proved by this man's papers (every serf 
being furnished with such when he leaves his 
master's property to work elsewhere) that he had 
in his youth been enlisted as a soldier, and had 
passed in review before Peter the Great, who died 
in 1725. His own impression was that he was a 
grown man at the time, and that it happened 
some years before the czar's death. But assum- 

ing it to have been the very year of the latter 
event, and that he was only sixteen at the time 
(the lowest age at which, recruits are allowed to 
enter the Russian army), we find by a very sim- 
ple calculation that he was at least 119 years of 
age at the time I saw him. R. B. 

Kirkwall, Orkney's. 

JONATHAN GOULDSMITH, M.D. (2 nd S. x. 305. 
394.) I beg to thank DR. MUNK for his commu- 
nication. His information appears to be so com- 
plete that I am tempted to appeal to him for 
farther particulars. For instance, where is Dr. 
Gouldsmith's place of burial ? And is anything 
known of his parents, John Gouldsmith and Eli- 
zabeth his wife ? T. E. S. 


Personal History of Lord Bacon, fiom unpublished 
Papers. By William Hepworth Dixon, of the Inner 
Temple. (Murray.) 

When the remarkable series of articles, illustrative of 
the personal history and character of England's greatest 
Chancellor, first appeared in The Athenaeum, they awak- 
ened in all who read them a feeling of satisfaction that 
the fair fame of Francis Bacon had at length found an 
able and eloquent champion, and an earnest hope that so 
successful a vindication of Bacon, as a statesman and a 
legist, might soon be given to the world in a collected 
form. That hope is at length realised in the volume 
before us. Greatly enlarged, and most carefully revised 
by its author, The Personal History of Lord Bacon will 
add much to the reputation of Mr. Hepworth Dixon as 
a biographical and historical writer. It will also go far 
to rub from the shield of Bacon's glory the rust and 
tarnish with which, for nearly a century and a half, the 
slanderous breath of Pope had dimmed its brightness: 
and to make others follow the example of Hallam, and 
forgetting the derogatory epithet which gave pungency 
to the poet's satire, remember Bacon only as " the wisest, 
greatest of mankind." We have spoken of the work as 
brilliant in its style, and successful in its object. Mr. 
Hepworth Dixon deserves to be praised, however, not 
only for the good use of his many new materials, but for 
the zeal and industry which he has displayed in their 

Daedalus ; or, the Causes and Principles of Greek Sculp- 
ture. By Edward Falkener, Member of the Academy of 
Bologna, and of the Archaeological Institutes of Home and 
Berlin. (Longman & Co.) 

In the limited space which we can devote to this 
splendid volume, it is hard to decide which is the more 
difficult part of our task, to do justice to the exquisite 
taste with which it has been produced, the beauty of its 
illustrations, and the elegance of its binding or to the 
profound learning'with which Mr. Falkener discourses on 
the causes and principles of the excellence of Greek 
sculpture. The frontispiece, which represents a " Re- 
storation of the Parthenon at Athens, showing the 
Chryselephantine statue of Minerva by Phidias," is the 
key-note to the volume, in which Mr. Falkener expounds 
his views on ancient art with great learning and judg- 
ment, and in a manner to show his perfect mastery of 
the subject; following these with his speculations as to 



XL JAN. 5. '61- 

the causes of the decline of Modern Art and in which 
he contends that "if we may not equal the ancients we 
may at least, by studying them as we ought, preserve 
ourselves from falling into error," and " that the errors 
and mistakes of modern art are ever to be attributed to 
a neglect of those precepts mutely but Eloquently re- 
vealed to us by the marbles and bronzes of our museums." 
The book is one which must command the attention of 
all admirers of Ancient Art. The chapter " On Chrys- 
elephantine Sculpture and Iconic Polychromy" will be 
read with very considerable interest. The photographs 
and other*illustrations are of the highest class, and add 
greatly to the value and beauty of the book. 

Antique Gems ; their Origin, Uses, and Value as Inter- 
preters of Ancient History, and as Illustrative of Ancient 
Art. With Hints to Gem Collectors. By the Rev. C. W. 
King, M.A. (Murray.) 

It is certainly somewhat extraordinary that there does 
not exist in English any scientific treatise, or popular 
manual, to which the student can be referred, who desires 
to enter upon the study of those remains of ancient art, 
with which few are to be compared for grace arid beauty, 
or for their importance to the historian, archaeologist, and 
artist the engraved Gems of Antiquity. This want, 
however, exists no longer. In the handsome volume be- 
fore us, the author has recorded his " own observations, 
the accumulated memoranda of many years, and the re- 
sults of the careful examination of many thousands of 
gems of all ages and of every style," these being illus- 
trated by passages from ancient authors, and by copious 
extracts from other sources, tending to elucidate the snb- 
ject. The book itself may be well styled a Handbook of 
Ancient Gems: for by means of its copious Index, the 
incipient gem-collector will in future easily obtain a 
solution of the numerous problems which the author had 
to work out for himself at a vast expenditure of time, 
temper, and money. Nor is the work by any means con- 
lined to ancient art : Mediaeval jewellery, mediaeval super- 
stitions as to the power of gems and of their sigils, and 
the very extensive and interesting class of gnostic gems, 
hitherto scarcely treated of by English writers, form 
most important features of the present work, which being 
profusel}' and admirably illustrated, establishes fresh 
claims on the part of Mr. Murray to the gratitude of all 
who are interested in the history and literature of Art. 
While Mr. King will assuredly Avin the thanks of a large 
circle to whom his valuable and instructive book will 
open a new source of enjoyment. 

Legends and Lyrics. A Book of Verses. By Adelaide 
Anne Procter. Second Volume. (Bell & Daldy.) 

Characterised by the same depth of poetic feeling as 
its predecessor, we can accord to this second volume of 
Miss Procter's Poems no higher praise for it is high 
praise than that it is every way worthy of her. 

Little Ella and the Fire King, and other Fairy Tales, 
lj M. W., illustrated by Henry Warren. (Edmonston & 

A series of pretty stories gracefully told, and with a 
simple moral suitable to the understanding of very young 
readers. Mr. Warren's illustrations will add to the 
pleasure of those lucky children who may receive this 
volume as a New Year's Gift. 



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QUERIES," 1S6. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
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The Porteusian Index. London: Printed for the Porteusian Bible 

Society. 1822. 12mo. 4 copies. 

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FIHST FOLIO SHAKSPEARE. 1623. The title-page and verses opposite by 
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Wanted by -G. W. M, Reynolds, 11. Woburn Square, W.C. 


YEAR TO you ! This is the twelfth opportunity WE have had of offering 
this friendly greeting ; and when you look at the literary banquet which 
WE this day spread before you, we think that you will admit that, thanks 
to the kindness of our many learned Friends and Correspondents, ele- 
ven years have not exhausted our resources, that Age has not withered, 
nor Custom staled the infinite variety of Notes and Queries. 

Mary Queen of Scots and Douglas of Lochleven; Deed of Richard 
Cccurde Lion, with Love-Ribbon attached; Richard Hooker and the 
First Edition of his Ecclesiastical Polity; Van Lennea's Ballad. Heer 
vom Culemberg; Register of Christ Church, Cork; Was Macbeth a 
Usurper? Gutenberg's First Press; the Rev. M. A. TterMv's reply to 
Mr. Gardener; <tn</ nunuj other Papers of equal interest, will appear in 
the. next or following number. 

DIARY OF WILLIAM OLDYS. We have been induced by the promise 
of some valuable but hither to unused materials for the biography of this 
worthy, to postpone for a iveek or two the publication of the Diary. 

PROPER NAMFS AND REFERENCES. Our Correspondents will, we are 
sure, excuse us if, at the comrnencfnt of a new volume, we once more re- 
mind them of the necessity of writing distinctly ALL PROPER NAMKS 
least ; and of the trouble which they will save us if, when answering 
(Juf.rirx, tlnij would kindly add a reference to the volume and page in 
which the Queries replied to, are to be found. 

E. W. SHACKELL will find the epitaph, on M\ia, Laelia Crispis discussed 
in our 1st S. iii. 242. 339. 606. 

A SUBSCRIBER. Samuel Lucas. 

B. W. W. In the reign of James I. 

J. A. STAVERTON. See our 1st S. x. 36G. for some account of Slernhold 
awl Hopkins' s Psalms, 

ERRATOM. 2nd S. x. p. 463. col. i. 1. 5. from bottom, for " the Aber- 
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JLj FOR 1861 ; under the Especial Patronage of HER MAJESTY and 
H.R.H. The PRINCE CONSORT, and Corrected throughout by the 

. HURST & BLACKETT, 13. Great Maryborough Street, W. 

NOVELTIES. Many such are now being exhibited at Messrs. Meoll's 
new ware-rooms, for ladies' mantles and riding-habits; for instance, 
Highland waterproof cloaks, falling in graceful folds the whole lencth 
of the figure. Like the Spanish roquelaire, these have an expanding 
hood with a patent mecanique, for the purpose of raising the lower part, 
and leaving the wearer's arms free. The cloak is invaluable as a 
wrapper in travelling in carriage or walking exercise ; and as it fits all 
figures it is the best present taken from London to the country. Seal- 
fur and cloth jackets are also exhibited, the latter called au coin de feu 
skilled forewomen attending to ladies' riding habits and trowsers. 
This branch, with the juvenile department, is now added to the original 
place of biisiness, namely, 114. 116. 118. 120. Regent- street, where the 
best skill and materials of France, Germany, and England, with mode- 
rate price, may always be met with. 

KNTOKiBocKKRs.-In~the ComhiU Magazine, of October, I860, the 
above costume is described in the following terms : " Knickerbockers, 
surely the prettiest boy's dress that has appeared these hundred years." 
In order to place this great improvement in boy's dress within the teach 
of all well-to-do families, Messrs. Nicoll now make the costume com- 
plete for Two Guineas. There is a large selection of Paletots, over- 
coats, and other garments prepared for young gentlemen coming home 
for the holidays. H. J. and D. Nicoll, 114. 116. 118. 120. Regent-street, 

2 nd S. XL JAN. 5. '61.] 





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[2nd S. XI. JAN. 5. '61. 



JANUARY, 1861. 



an Account of Excavations and Researches on the Site of the Phoe- 
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No. 263. CONTENTS. 

NOTES : Spenceana : Some Account of the Life, Writ- 
ings and Character of Dr. Swift, 21 Gutenberg's First 
Printing Press, 23 -Was Macbeth a Usurper ? 24 - Deed 
of Richard Cceur de Lion, 26 Paley and "The Athe- 
naeum," Ib. 

MIKOK NOTES : Winter Weather at Rome " Poetry, a 
Rhapsody " An Old Proverb Classical Quotation by 
the late Thomas Ingoldsby, 27. 

QUERIES : Cecil Arms, 28 Lies and Truth, Ib. Angel 
Halfpence Bomb Chequers Harvey Combe The 
Late Rt. Hon. William Elliot, of Wells, M.P. for Peter- 
borough Freebairne's Transcripts from the Vatican 
Mr. S. Gray Handley and Pickering Nevison, the High- 
wayman Norden's "Survey of Lindsey" Johannes 
p erc y _ Protestant Magazine " Richmond House, Hoi- 
born Severe Winters Welch Whitsuntide, 28. 

QTTFEIKS -WITH ANSWERS: Satirical Allusion to John- 
son Blemunde's Diche Rowley and Chatterton Se- 
condary Meaning of " Drug" " Fliin-Flams," &c., 30.^ 

REPLIES : James I. and the Recusants, 31 Fisher "(not 
Ficher) : a Commonwealth Poet, 32 Praed's Verses as- 
cribed to Mother Shipton, 33 Classical Surveying of Ro- 
man Roads, &c., Ib. Chancels, 34 The Origin of Species, 
TJ. " Collino Custure Me," 35 Dutch Tragedy of 
Barneveldt Doldrum, Kin? of the Cats Separation of 
Sexes in Churches Irish Manufactures Smytanites 
Henshaw Stationers of the Middle Ages Haddiscoe 
Font Prince Maurice Names on Jamaica Monuments 
Story of a Swiss Lady Sir John le Quesne New 
Mode of Canonisation A Christmas Ditty of the Fif- 
teenth Century Curious Remains in Norwich Arms of 
Haynes Greene Family," &c., 35. 

Notes on Books. 



(Continued from p. 3.) 

After this loss of his great friend and tutor in 
politics, Swift went to London *, and apply'd to 
King William, by way of petition, for a prebend 
of Westminster or Canterbury ; one of which had 
been promis'd to him, on the sollicitation of his 
late friend. L d Romney promis'd him to second 
his petition, but (as he suppos'd), never spoke 
a word about it. 2 He also dedicated S r W m Tem- 
ple's Works to the king 3 , but without any effect. 
This made him accept 4 of an invitation from 
the Earl of Berkely 5 , Lord Justice of Ireland, 
in conjunction with my Lord Galway, to attend 
him to that kingdom, as his Chaplain and private 
Secretary. He acted in both those capacities 
during the time of the journey, and expected to 
be establisht in them when they came to Dublin, 
but was workt out of the secretaryship 6 by one 

1 Mr. Swift, p. 106. 

2 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 50. 

3 Mr. Swift, p. 106. 

* Dr. Swift's own account, p. 51. 

5 Lives of the Poets, vol. v. p. 82. 

6 Ib., and Mr. Swift, p. 110. 

Bush. After they had been there some months, 
the Deanery of Deny 1 became vacant 2 , and it 
was the Earl of Berkeley's turn to dispose of it. 3 
Swift expected it 4 , but was put off with some 
livings, which bore but a small proportion to the 
value of the Deanery. These were the Rectory 
of Aghar, united to the Vicarages of Laracor and 
Rathtxeggan, in the diocess of Meath 5 , and were 
art together worth about 2601. a year. He himself 
supposed that this disappointment, too, was owing 
to the management of Secretary Bush ; but other's 
say that D r King (then Bishop of Derry), re- 
monstrated against him, as too young 6 and too 
volatile, for the dignity and duties belonging to 
so great a Deanery. When Swift went down to 
his livings, he us'd to reside at Laracor, and lived 
there in a very exemplary manner. No body 
had more of True Christianity 7 than he ; and 
even as to the forms, he was very exact and punc- 
tual, except in two or three instances (which may 
be better given when we come to his character), 
when his humour seems to have run away with 
the general decency of his behavior. 

About a year after his being presented to these 
livings, Swift 8 took his Doctor's Degree, and 
pass'd the seven or eight following years, some- 
times at Laracor, and sometimes at Dublin (where 
he was much at the Castle during L d Berkeley's 
government), and now and then indulg'd himself 
with a trip into England. I imagine that lat- 
terly these grew more frequent. Jf his papers 
under the character of Bickerstaff were written 
here, he must have been with us both in 1708 and 
in 1709; and the next year he began the longest 
visit that he ever made to England after the 
death of S r William Temple. In the autumn of 
1710 D r Swift was empowered by the clergy -of 
Ireland to transact an affair for them, which was of 
considerable consequence to that nation. About 
seven years before, Queen Anne 9 had been so good 
as to give up the first fruits and tenths of the 
clergy of England, in order to make a fund for 
augmenting the smaller livings : this incited the 
clergy of Ireland to request that their first 
fruits and twentieth parts might, in the same 
manner, be given up by the crown, and apply'd 
toward purchasing glebes, and building residen- 
tiary houses for their poor-endow'd vicars. Swift, 
in the very beginning of this transaction, show'd 
his address, and great capacity for business. He 

1 Dr. Swift's own account, p. 52. 

2 Hawksworth, p. 14. 

s This was in the year 1700. Mr. Swift's note to Dr. 
Swift's own account, p. 52. 

4 Dr. Swift, ibid. 5 Mr. Swift, p. 115. 

6 Mr. Swift, p. 113., Lives of the Poets, v. 83. 

7 Mr. Swift. 8 Mr. Hawksworth, p. 17. 

9 See the Act of Parliament for the making more 
effectual her Majesty's Gracious Intentions for the Aug- 
mentation of the Maintenance of the Poor Clergy, in the 
second year of her reign. 



S. XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

chose to apply to the L d Treasurer Oxford 1 , 
who had been concern'd in obtaining the former 
favor for the English clergy. He got himself re- 
commended to him 2 as one who had been ill us'd 
by the Whig ministry. He was for applying solely 
to that lord; and when he himself desired him 
to communicate it to others, endeavour'd to seem 
to him to do it only in form ; but that his whole 
trust was only in him. By these means he got 
that affair compleated in a little more than a 
month 3 , to the entire satisfaction of his constitu- 
ents. No one of the writers that I follow has 
mentioned any particular case, that I remember, 
in which Swift ill used by the Whig Ministry, 
but it is not difficult to collect from them, why he 
(who had a full notion of his own merit, and as 
high a detestation of ingratitude) might think 
himself ill us'd, by some of the chiefs of them. 
He had written a piece in 1701 4 in defence of the 
L ds Somers and Halifax 5 , and some other of 
King William's favourites, when they were pur- 
su'd with so much warmth in the House of Com- 
mons. This he himself (as well as his cosin 6 
Swift) might think deserv'd some preferment for 
him in England, or some promotion in Ireland. 
As he got neither from any of them, this might be 
provocation enough to him to make him quit 
their party. However that be, in 1708, he wrote 
several things, which his cosin says 7 were de- 
sign'd covertly against the Whig Administra- 
tion. So that if the Doctor 8 did not go to London 
in 1710, "with a design of attaching himself to 
the Tory ministers," he, at least, came pretty well 
prepared for it. The Lord Treasurer either saw 
so much in Dr. Swift, in their first interviews, 
or had entertain' d so high an opinion of him be- 
fore, that he (and he was joined for this, by some 
other chiefs of the ministry, and particularly by 
L d Bolingbroke), seems to have courted him 9 to 
act with them, in a most uncommon manner, and 
he was of singular service to them by his writings, 
in the four last years of Queen Anne's reign ; and 
would perhaps have been of yet more by his ad- 
vice toward the close of it, had their private in- 
terests and enmities allow'd them to listen to 

Mr. Swift, p. 145. 

Dr. Swift's own account. Mr. Swift, p. 14o.(?) 
Mr. Swift, p. 145.(?) 
Contests in Athens and Rome. 

In this piece, Aristides was meant for L d Somers; 
Themistocles for the Earl of Oxford ; Pericles, L d Hali- 
fax ; and Phocion, the Earl of Portland. Hawksworth, 
vol. iii. 

fi " Aristides and Pericles ought to have been grateful 
to him." Mr. Swift, p. 147. 

7 Id , p. 148. Speaking of his Sentiments of a Church 
of England Man ; the Argument against wholly abolishing 
Christianity ; and the Letter from a Member of the Hoiise 
of Commons in Ireland. 
* Mr. Swift, p. 329. 

9 See the account of his reception by them in Mr. 
Swift, pp. 312. to 319. from his Letters to Mrs. Johnson, 
and Hawksworth, pp. 19. to 21. 

him. They received him, from the very first, 
with a great deal of obligingness and condescen- 
sion, and enter'd into a strong friendship, and a 
great deal of openness w th him, which encreased 
afterwards to such a height with L d Oxford in 
particular, that perhaps there never was any poet 
received by a first minister into so intimate and 
familiar an acquaintance as Swift was by that 
lord, unless, perhaps, we are to except Horace's 
intimacy with Maecenas. 

Of the two most favourite writers of the people 
at that time [1710], Steele was very warmly en- 
gaged in the interest of the Whigs; and Addison, 
tho' either more cool or more cautious, was on 
the same side. A little before Swift's transactions 
with L d Oxford, that weekly paper, called the 
Examiner, began to be publisht in defence of the 
Tory ministers and their schemes, and the chief 
writers of it were Prior and Oldisworth * ; the 
former of whom was much fitter for telling a 
story in a lively manner in verse, than either for 
writing prose in general, or for controversial 
writings in particular ; and the other never rose 
above the character of a mediocre writer, either 
in prose or verse. The ministry wanted some 
abler hand to defend so difficult a cause as theirs, 
and they found everything that they wanted in 
D r Swift. This their distress, and his known 
abilities, may account perhaps for all the un- 
common civilities and condescension which they 
show'd toward him. Swift, soon after his being 
wholy won to them by their behaviour, took their 
pen from those who were at first employ'd to write 
the Examiners, and kept it in his own hands 2 
for above half a year, and maintained their cause 
in several very material pieces, and some very 
slight ones (as his manner was), for nobody ar- 
gued more solidly, or jested more frivolously, 
than he, throughout all the remaining part of the 
queen's reign. " What these were, will be more 
fully seen when we come to give the list of his 
writings. Just after he had compleated his part 
in the Examiner [1711], Swift began writing his 
Conduct of the Allies, and published it toward the 
close of the November following. This took so 
greatly, that there was a second edition of it 
within less than a week, which, tho' of 5000, sold 
off in 5 hours. This was in opposition to Steele's 
Crisis: had but too great an effect on the nation, 
and was of singular service in the support of 
that ministry and their measures. His Advice to 
the Members of the October Club (a set of above 
a hundred Tory Members of Parliament, who met 
frequently together, and were consulting how to 
carry on things with more violence than was 

1 Dr. Friend, Atterbury, St. John, and W. Oldisworth 
were not employed till after Swift quitted it. Dr. Lowth. 
See Advertisement before The Examiner. 

2 The first Examiner of Swift's is No. 13. of Nov. 2, 
1710 ; and he wrote all on to No. 44, June 7, 1711. Mr. 
Swift, p. 291. 

2<> S. XI. JAN. 12. '61.] 


thought adviseable by the ministry [1712]), was, I 
think, the next piece of importance that he pub- 
lish'd. These gentlemen, not contented with dis- 
placing, were for prosecuting and inflicting capital 
punishments on such chiefs of the opposite party 
as were the most obnoxious ; and Swift's address 
to them was meant to lessen their heats, and to 
give them more steadiness and temper. 
(To be concluded in our next.) 


When at Mayence a few months since, I visited 
the house in which Gutenberg first . exercised his 
newly-discovered art of printing. The present 
occupier is a wine-merchant, who obligingly 
showed me every thing which now remains con- 
nected with the inventor ; and as it may not be 
known to many of your readers that part of his 
first printing-press has been found in that house, it 
may be interesting to give a short account of this 
precious relic, and the situation in which it has 
so long remained. 

The house has been much altered since the 
time of Gutenberg, and the level of the street 
has been raised several feet, so that what is now 
the cellar was then the ground floor of the build- 
ing. In 1857 Mr. Borzner (the. late proprietor), 
in excavating underneath his house, discovered 
the walls which had formed the original cellars, 
and on removing some of these, he found a recess 
or closet, in which were the remains of the press 
and some other materials. I visited the place in 
which it was discovered. The room had evi- 
dently been whitewashed and furnished with win- 
dows. The principal piece of the press was the 
top cross beam, in which worked the upright 
screw. It was made of oak, and provided with 
the necessary hole in the centre, in which the 
screw thread is still visible. It is about 3 feet 
4 inches long, and upon one side is deeply cut 
the following inscription : " j. MCDXLT. G." This 
occupies the whole space, and there is no doubt 
that the unusual mode of expressing 400 by CD was 
adopted because there was not sufficient room for 
the cccc. The J and G are the initials of the 
printer.* This fragment is now preserved in a 

glass case. With it were found some other pieces 
of wood, supposed to have been parts of the 
press, a few stone mulls, used no doubt for grind- 
ing the ink, and four coins, one of each of the 
reigns of Augustus, Trajan, and Marcus Aurelius, 
one illegible. 

Gutenberg, on his return from Strasburg about 
the year 1445, settled in a portion of the house of 
his paternal uncle, John Geinsfleish, the Hotel du 
Jungen, where he erected his press ; and from 
the date on the beam it must have been used in 
Strasburg, where Gutenberg resided in 1441, in 
the production of prints from wood blocks, which 
he is known to have executed in that town. 
The locality in which the discovery was made 
confirms the opinion generally held, that he 
worked in secret, in order that the invention 
might not become public. John Schoeffer, the 
eldest son of Peter Schoeffer, in the end of a his- 
tory which he printed in 1515, after giving an 
account of the invention of printing, says : 

" That John Fust and Peter Schoeffer kept this art 
secret, binding with an oath all their assistants and ser- 
vants on no account, to reveal it, which art was after- 
wards spread abroad in different lands in the year 1462 * 
by the same assistants." 

* In 1462, Mayence was taken by Adolphe of Nassau, 
and Fust's printing-office destroyed, and during this 
commotion the workmen went to Rome, Cologne, Basle, 
Strasburg, &c. 

As so many years elapsed from 1441, the date 

on the press, to the year 1450, when Gutenberg 

began to print, without any result of his labors 

being known to us, the following passage from 

i the Cologne Chronicle, printed in 1499, may, to 

some extent serve as an explanation, and is given 

! on the authority of Zell, who is supposed to have 

i been one of the workmen either in the office of 

Gutenberg or in that of Fust and Schffiffer : 

" The mos.t worthy art of printing was first discovered 
' in Germany, at Ma3'ence on the Rhine, and was a great 
i honour for the German nation. This took place from 
i 1440 to 1450, during which time the art was perfected 
| and what belongs to it. But in the year which is called 
i 1450, a golden year (i. e. a jubilee year) they began to 
; print, and the first book printed was the Bible, and it 
> was printed in a thick letter, which is the letter now 

i printed in missal books." " The first dis- 

i coverer of printing was a citizen of Mayence, and his 
j name was John Gutenberg." ..." The commence- 
I ment and progress of the said art was related to me bv 
i Master Ulrich Zell, printer at Cologne, in the year 1499, 
| through whom the art was first brought to Cologne." f 

The discovery of the press, and the situation in 

[* Our correspondent having expressed a strong wish 
for the insertion of this woodcut, which he very obligingly 
forwarded for the purpose, we felt compelled to break 
through our usual rule of excluding such illustrations. 
This exception might indeed be justified by the great in- 
terest of the subject. ED. " N. & Q."] 

f Cologne Chronicle, Koelhoff, 1499, pp. 311. 



[2<" S. XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

which it was found, are additional proofs that 
Mayence was the birth-place of the art of printing, 
and that the honour of the invention belongs to 
John Geinsfleish Gutenberg. FKANCIS FJRT. 

Cotham, Bristol. 


The following interesting article relative to 
Macbeth appeared some few years ago in a pro- 
vincial journal of the county of Ayr, and was 
written by the editor, Mr. James Paterson, a 
gentleman of great ability and learning, who has 
recently published a life of the great Scotish poet 
Dunbar, and partially modernised his principal 
poems, in order to make them intelligible to mo- 
dern readers, who are too frequently repelled by 
obsolete orthography from appreciating the beau- 
ties of ancient authors. We earnestly recommend 
the modernised Dunbar to our Southern readers. 
Without giving our assent to some questionable 
inferences, we may take the liberty to correct Mr. 
Paterson on two points : (1.) Duncan was not as- 
sassinated ; he was wounded in some conflict near 
Elgin : what brought him into the territory of 
the Marmor or Sub-King is not explained ; and 
(2.) he died at Elgin, not Inverness, of the wounds 
so received. 

Gruoch was the wife of Duncan, and only mar- 
ried Macbeth on the death of the King. It is 
presumed that Duncan espoused her from her 
claim to the crown, which was better than his 
own. Neither was she the mother of Malcolm 
Caenmore, as we propose to show at some future 
period. He was, we suspect, illegitimate, a fact 
of no great moment in those days, as it was the 
position of his cotemporary William the Con- 

" This is perhaps a curious question to put at the pre- 
sent day ; and yet is not without interest. All history 
tells us that he was both a murderer and a usurper ; and 
the genius of England's great dramatist has so immor- 
talised the fictions of Boece that it is doubtful if ever 
they will be eradicated from the popular mind. Materials 
for the early history of Scotland are so meagre and un- 
satisfactor3 r that few modern historians have ventured 
upon it. The critical Lord Hailes, in his Annals, went 
no farther back than Malcolm II., and that merely to 
allude to the fact of his having a daughter, Beatrice, 
mother of Duncan, who ascended the throne in 1034. 
puncan was assassinated by Macbeth at a smith's house 
in the vicinity of Inverness. This is the first appear- 
ance of the so-called usurper in history. He can be 
traced, however, somewhat more remotely. Bbece says 
that his mother was Doada, another daughter of Mal- 
colm II., and that consequently he was cousin-german to 
Duncan ; but this statement does not rest on good autho- 
rity, and circumstances militate against its truth. All 
that is known of Macbeth 's birth is, that he was the son 
of Finlach, orFinlay, maormor (or thane, or lord) of Ross, 
and grandson of Ro'ry, or Roderick. Wintoun styles him 
Thane of Crumbachiy, which is the Gaelic for Cromarty 
where Macbeth's castle stood. The union of Ross and 
Cromarty under one sheriffdom, as at present, seems to 

je just the boundaries of the ancient thanedom. Mac- 
jeth was thus thane of Ross by descent. Finlay, his 
ather, was killed in a contest with Malcolm II., about 
L020. It is therefore improbable that he married Doada. 
It appears that Gilcomgain, Maormor, or as the Norwe- 
gians styled him, Jarl of Murray, was married to Gruoch, 
laughteY of Bodhe, son of Kenneth IV"., whom Malcolm II. 
had dethroned and slain. Gilcomgain himself was slaugh- 
tered by the same royal person having been burnt 
within his own castle, along with fifty of his friends, in 
1032. His widow, with her son, Lulach, fled for protec- 
tion into Ross. Her father, Bodhe, was also put to death 
by the order of Malcolm II. in 1033. Macbeth having 
married Gruoch, he became her natural protector, and 
the avenger of her wrongs, which were deep a grand- 
father dethroned and slain, a brother assassinated, and 
tier husband burnt all by the true usurper of the throne 
the bloody Malcolm II.," praised by our chroniclers as 
" a valiant and a wise Prince, quha maid manie gud 
lawes." The caue of these contests and murders evi- 
dently originated in disputed claims to the crown. Mal- 
colm II. was the son of Kenneth III., second son of Mal- 
colm I.; whereas Kenneth IV., who had been set aside 
and slain by Malcolm II., claimed direct descent from 
their great ancestor M'Alpine. Bodhe and his daughter, 
Lady Macbeth, were thus the real heirs to the crown 
and it would appear that the claims of Malcolm II. had 
been opposed by the Thanes both of Ross and Murray, 
the centre districts of the ancient kingdom of the Picts, 
whom he succeeded in putting to death. The royal de- 
scent in these early times was, perhaps, not very clearly 
defined, or rigidly adhered to the strongest elbowing 
his way to the vacant seat. It was usual \y kept, how- 
ever, within the Royal line, heirs of females having an 
equal, if not a prior, 'claim. Thus, when death had released 
the strong grasp of the second Malcolm, Duncan, the son 
of a priest, succeeded as the heir of his mother, Beatrice, 
daughter of Malcolm. If we look back upon the ancient 
earldoms Mar or Sutherland we find that the female 
right of succession prevailed. The first known Earl of 
Mar was contemporary with Malcolm Caenmore 1065. 
And now it was that the ambition of Macbeth began. 
He was lord of Ross and Cromarty by birth, and of 
Murray by marriage, and his step-son, Lulach*, evidently 
the neare'st heir to the crown. He had thus not only 
justice on his side, but the slaughter of his own father, 
and his wife's kindred to revenge. In these, and much 
later days, injuries of this kind were never appeased un- 
less washed out by blood; and in judging of character 
the times and circumstances must always be taken into 
consideration. If he listened to the promptings of Lady 
Macbeth whose feelings may well be conceived he 
had every apology. He had himself a claim to the crown, 
in right of his wife, and as the guardian of the youthful 
heir. The leniency of Macbeth contrasts to advantage 
with the bloody steps which marked the ascent of Mal- 
colm II. to the throne. Duncan seems to have been the 
sole victim even his sons were allowed to escape. 
The deaths of Banquo and others are mere fictions. That 
the nation generally was favourable to his assumption 
of the regal power is apparent from the fact of his having 
been permitted to exercise it so long without opposition ; 
and it is well known that the Scots enjoyed much peace 
and prosperity under his reign, at least during the earlier 
portion of it," before the insurrections occasioned by the 
sons and partizans of Duncan led to strong retaliatory 
measures. Indeed, unless for the aid of the Northum- 

* In an ancient MS. Lulach is styled " Nepos filii 
Boide" thus making him grandson of the son of Boide, 
and consequently grand nephew of Lady Macbeth. It 
looks, however, like a mistake. - 

S. XL JAN. 12. '61.] 



brians, it is not likely that Malcolm III. would ever have 
been crowned. That Macbeth was not the blood-stained 
usurper he has been represented, is thus clear, and it is 
rather a peculiar evidence of his mildness of disposition, 
and of his sense of justice, that the assassination of Dun- 
can la} 7 corrosively at his heart. While others had nu- 
merous crimes of a similar character to deplore, and 
appear to have felt no particular uneasiness in conse- 
quence, this simple act of blood called forth from him 
numerous deeds of charity. He is even said, by Florence 
of \Vorcester, to have bribed the Court of Rome for atone- 
ment. As a farther evidence of his singleness of heart, 
his step- son, Lulach which, in Gaelic, signifies fatuous 
although of weak intellect, seems to have been carefully 
protected. Had his ambition been selfish, he might easily 
have found ways and means to despatch one so helpless, 
and thus make room for his own progeny, which tradi- 
tion affirms he had. After his defeat and slaughter by 
Malcolm III. (5th December, 1056), his fatuous step-son, 
Lulach, was placed on the throne by his relations, but no 
party espoused his cause, and he was discovered in his 
lurking-place and slain at Eski, in Strathbogie, 3rd April, 
1057. Macbeth filled the throne for seventeen years 
a long period considering the era. It is not known when 
his wife died. 

" That his assumption of the throne proceeded in right 
of his wife, is apparent from her name being associated 
with his in all public documents Rex et Regina 
similar to 'William and Mary' of the Revolution settle- 
ment. The following charter, by Macbeth and Gmoch, 
to the Culdees, besides illustrating our statement, is in 
itself very curious : 

Machbet filius Finlach et Gruoch dederint Sancto 

Servano, Kyrkenes. 

"'Machbet filius Finlach contulit pro suffragiis ora- 
tionum et Gruoch filia Bodhe, Rex et Regina Scotorum 
Kyrkenes, Deo Omnipotent! et Keledeis prefate Insule 
Lochleuine cum suis finibus et terminis. Hii enim sunt 
fines et termini de Kyrkenes et villule quae dicitur Peth- 
mokanne, de loco Moneloccodhan usque ad amnem quae 
dicitur Leuine, et hoc in latitudine, item a publica strata 
que ducit apud Hinhirkethyn et usque ad Saxum Hiber- 
niensium quod Malcolmus Rex, filius Duncani concessit 
eis salinagium quod Scotice dicitur chormane. Et vene- 
runt Hibernienses ad Kyrkenes ad domum cujusdam viri 
nomine Mochan qui tune fuit absens, et solum mulieres 
erant in domo quas oppresserunt violenter Hibernienses, 
mm tamen sine rubore et verecundia. Rei et euentu ad 
aures prefati Mochan prevento et iter quam tocius domi 
festinavit et invenit ibi Hibernienses, in eadem domo cum 
matre sua. Exhortacione etenim matri sepius sue facta et 
extra domum veniret que nullatenus tioluit set (sed) Hi- 
bernienses voluit protegere et eis pacem dare, quos omnes 
prefatus vir in ulcione tanti facinoris, ut oppressores mu- 
lierum et barbaros et *acrilegos in medio flamme ignis 
una cum matre sua uiriliter combussit et ex hac causa 
dicitur locus ille Saxum Hiberniensium.' * 

" The foregoing is taken from the chartulary of the 
Priory of St. Andrews. It is a grant to the Culdees by 
'Machbet, son of Finlach,' and 'Gruoch, daughter of 
Bodhe, King tnd Queen of the Scots,' of Kyrkenes. It is 
remarkable for the description of the boundaries. Amongst 
others, it will be observed, Saxum Hiberniensium, the 
Irishmen's stone, or hill, is mentioned detailing, at the 
same time, the cause of the locality becoming known by 
this name. Certain Hibernians, it appears, had taken 
possession of the house of a man named Mochan, who 
was absent at the time, no one being at home but his 

* P. 114. Printed for the members of the Bannatyne 
Clttb, by the late 0. Tindal Bruce, Esq., of Falkland. 

mother and her females. On his return he was naturally 
surprised and wroth at what had occurred, and having 
urged his mother in vain to leave the premises, he at last 
set fire to them, burning the Irishmen, together with the 
lady-mother and her handmaids. 

' This charter throws some light on the state of Scot- 
land at the time. There was, it is evident, a thorough 
distinction between the Scoti and Hibernii, and it makes 
known the fact that the language of the Scots, in the 
reign of Macbeth, was Gaelic : ' Salinagium quod Scotice 
dicitur chonnane,' that is, the salt-work, in Scotice 
called chonnane. The circumstance which gave rise to 
the Saxum Hiberniensium no doubt occurred prior to the 
time of the charter. It is referred to as an event of the 
past, and it seems to bear out what we have in a little 
work, on The Origin of the Scots, endeavoured to prove, 
that the Scoti were known in Scotland long before the 
settlement of Fergus in Cantyre. There can be no doubt 
that Argyleshire and the Western Isles were often spoken 
of as Hibeniia, inclusive of Ireland proper. The Scots 
from Ireland, under Fergus, were frequently called Irish- 
men, in contradistinction to the Scots of the mainland. 
The stone or hill at Kirkness in Fileshire, may therefore 
have derived its name from a party of West Highland- 
men although then unknown by that name.* Even so 
late as the sixteenth century we find them styled Irish 
Patten, in his account of that ill- managed battle, Pinkie, 
in 1547, mentions the presence of Argyie with 3 00 Irish 
archers (Western Highlanders). In Scotland, where the 
distinction came to be better understood, they were called 
Earsch, or Erse, as different from Irishmen proper. In 
the Chamberlain's Rolls, in 1502, disbursements are made 
to 'Pate, harper on the harp; James Unglsoun, harper; 
the Inglis harper; Pate, harper on the clarscha; the 
Irland clarsha.' The Ersh clarscha ' occurs sometimes 
in the same list, and is distinguished from the Irland 
harper the one evidently being West Highland, and 
the other from Ireland. It is therefore a matter of strong 
presumption, if not certainty, that there were other Scots 
in Scotland prior to the advent of Fergus, the reputed 
leader of the first colony, seeing that the distinction was 
so long kept up for there is no other event known in 
history which would warrant the West Highlanders to 
have been at any time designated Irishmen." 

Perhaps the following may be a correct list of 
the marriages of Queen Gruoch : 

Gruoch married, first, the Marmor of Moray, 
who was burnt, with several of his subjects, by 
Malcolm II. Of this match we suspect came 
Lulach, who, upon the death of Macbeth, was 
proclaimed King of the Scots by the body of the 
nation. He reigned six months, when he was 
slain by the Saxon invaders aad the rebellious 
adherents of Malcolm Caenmore. 

Her second husband was Duncan, by whom she 
had two children, Donald Bane, and one name 
unknown. Macbeth, who was Marmor of Ross and 
Cromarty, latterly obtained Moray. We suspect 
that, being too powerful, Duncan, alarmed for 
his growing, popularity, entered Morayshire hos- 
tilely, and, having been severely wounded in a 
conflict with the Marmor, was not slain on the 
spot, but was carried to Elgin, where he died of 
his wounds. This last fact is proved by the 
unquestionable evidence afforded by the Carmen 

The term Highlander is modern. 



XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

Elegiacum, which also records that Duncan's body 
was interred in lona, the burying-place of the 
Scotish monarchs. 

The third husband was Macbeth; but there was 
apparently no issue of this marriage, nor are there 
any traces of the period of her demise. Both Mac- 
beth and his Queen were great patrons of the Cul- 
dees. J. M. 


The Seal of which was attached by a Love-Ribbon, with 
a French Device. 

During a visit last autumn to Caen, I was gra- 
tified (through the kindness of M. Chatel, Keeper 
of the Archives of the Department) with a view 
of the MS. treasures in his charge, many of which 
are of great interest to the English archaeologist. 
Here, as in the Museum of Antiquities at Rouen, 
are to be seen the " mark " of William the Nor- 
man (knight and conqueror, but not clerk), and 
the more delicate, but still illiterate, cross which 
did duty as the autograph of his queen. There is 
one deed, however, which, as combining both law 
and love, business and romance, has a more than 
ordinary claim upon English attention. As it has 
never, I believe, been reproduced in England, an 
account of it, kindly furnished by M. Chatel. may 
not be unacceptable to your readers. 

The text of the deed is as follows : 

"Ricard(us) Dei gr(ati)a, rex Angl(orura) dux Nor- 
m(annorutn) Aquit(anorum) com(es) And(egavorum), 
Archiep(iscopis) ep(iscopis), abb(atibus) com(itibus) ba- 
r(onibus) justiciis, vicecom(itibus), senescall(is) p(re)- 
positis et om(n)ib(us) ministris et tidelib(us) suis toti(u)s 
t(er)re sue sal(u)tem :,Sciatis nos dedisse et reddidisse 
et present! carta n(ost)ra co(n)firmasse dilecto et fami- 
liar! n(ost)ro Ricardo de Humetis p(ro) servicio et homa- 
gio suo et Gile uxori sue, et heredibus eor(um) Papevillam 
et Warrevill(am) cum p(er)tinenciis suis om(n)ibus cum 
baronia sua, sicut jus et h(er}editate(m) suam ex p(ar)te 
p(re)dicte Gile, uxoris sue Quare volum(us) et firmit(er) 
precipim(us) q(uo)d predict(usy Ric(ardus) et p(re)dicta 
G. uxor sua, et heredes eor(um) h(abe)ant et teneant de 
nob(is) et heredibus n(ost)ris predictas villas cum om- 
(n)ibus p(er)tinenciis suis b(e)n(e) et in pace lib(er)e 
et quiete, integre, plenarie, et honorince in bosco et piano, 
in pratis et pasturis, in aquis et molend(inis) in viis et 
semitis, in vivariis et stagnis in mariscis et piscariis et in 
om(n)ibus aliis locis et aliis reb(us) ad p(re)dicta ma- 
neria p(er)tinent,ibus, cum serviciiset homagiia et releviis 
et cum om(ni)bus lib(er)tatibus-et lib(er)is consuetudi- 
nibus suis et cum omni integritate sua. 

Testibus: God(efrido) Winton(ensi) ep(iscopo) 
W(i)ll(elmo) filio Rad(ulli) sen(escallo) Norm(annie) 
Bag(ano) de Rochefort sen(escallo) And(egavie) 
Rob(erto) de Harec(urt) Philippe de Columb(eriis) 
Gaufr(ido) de Cella Will(elm)o de S(anc)te Marie 
eccl(esi)a decano Moret(onii). Data p(er) manum 
Joh(ann)is de Alenc(on) Lexov(iensis) archid(iaconi) 
vicecancell(arii) n(ost)ri [Date eaten away by a rat] 
apud Chin(onem) anuo primo regni nostri."" 

The seal having disappeared has left the attach- 
ments perfectly clear for inspection. They consist 
of two silken cords, of hollow cylindrical form, 

being beautifully and closely woven : one of them 
is of a faded blue colour spotted with black, the 
other of a pale greenish yellow. Each end of one 
cord is ornamented with curious lozenge-shaped 
devices, and the other two ends bear the following 
motto in early French : 

" 10 . svi . BRUERIE (I am a pledge of af- 


NK . ME . DUNEZ . MiE (Do not give me 


KI . NOSTRE . AMUR . DESEiVRE ( Who dissevers our 


LA MORT PUIST . . . (May death . . .) 

The end of the last line is illegible. 

The work of these hollow ribbons is most beau- 
tiful ; the letters, which are white, have been 
woven at the same time with the ground, and no 
trace of seam or join is visible throughout. The 
theory of M. Chatel, as to the way in "which these 
love-tokens found themselves attached to the deed, 
is, that they were given to Richard by the fair Gile 
herself, and that on her marriage he thus returned 
them, attaching them to the seal which gave to 
her husband the lands of Popeville and Varreville, 
as his " right and inheritance by the said Gile." 
But whatever explanation be given of the pos- 
sible history of these ribbons, they are highly in- 
teresting as evidence of the perfection attained 
by the Norman ladies at the beginning of the 
twelfth century in the art of weaving. M. Chatel 
says that he frequently finds ribbons of similar 
texture used for the same purpose on deeds in 
the public archives. In later times these love- 
ribbons, with their mottoes and devices, must 
have become pretty common. We have many 
dating from about the middle or end of the seven- 
teenth century ; constancy appears to be the virtue 
inculcated by them all. JOHN ELIOT HODGKIN. 

It is good to catch a critic tripping ; be kind 
enough, therefore, to accord space for the follow- 
ing correction of a blunder made in The Athe- 
naurn review lately (No. 1725. Nov. 17, I860.) 
The reviewer, while severely castigating a small 
work entitled Dinners and Diners, Sfc. #c., by 
E. L. Blanchard, charges Pope with stealing from 
Les Pensees of Blaise Pascal ; and then goes on 
to say : " So with Paley ; if he took with both 
hands from the logic and illustrations of the phi- 
losophic Hollander Nieuwentyt, he, at all events, 
built an elegant English mansion with his Dutch 
bricks, entitling his edifice The Evidences of 
Christianity" The writer in The Athenceum has 
here evidently mistaken the Evidences for the Na- 
tural Theology of Paley, a blunder the more 
strange for this reason, that it was in The Athe- 
nceum itself (1848, pp. 803. 907. 93.) that the 
obligations of the Natural Theology to the Dutch* 


S. XL JAN. 12. '61.] 



man were first pointed out. It is true, the Eng- 
glish editions of Bernard Nieuwentyt, translated 
by Chamberlayne, and entitled the Religious Phi- 
losopher furnished the general idea, and many of 
the illustrations to the Natural^ Theology, and were 
copied by the archdeacon without the slightest 
acknowledgment. But out of Butler's Analogy, 
Lardner's Credibility, and Douglas' Criterion, he 
quarried the materials for his Evidences of Chris- 
tianity. (See Mackintosh's Ethical Philosophy, ed. 
Whewell, p. 275., et passim.} As for the Moral 
Philosophy, he was largely indebted to Puffendorf. 
who, again, helped himself to much from Hobbes, 
and to a great deal more from Grotius. To Abra- 
hamTuckerhe is candid enough to confess his debt. 
But from Puffendorf, in particular, he borrowed 
"several minor illustrations, such as the equivocal 
promises of Timur (called by Paley Temures) to 
the garrison of Sebastia, and the rules for divi- 
sion of profits in partnership." (Hallam's Lit, Hist. 
vol. iv. p. 178.) 

One may learn from his own admission (Pre- 
face to Moral Philosophy} that his practice was 
to extract passages without noting down their 
source, and store them up for future use. Ac- 
cordingly, he may be held up as an example to 
all readers of " N. & Q." an example to be 
shunned. For this is no trifling matter, nor a 
subject for the poet's stricture " rixatur de lana 
saepe caprina." Let every reading man, on book- 
ing even a line in his C. P- B., mark the title, 
page, edition, &c., of the work from which he culls; 
so that matter may be forthcoming, when wanted 
for future " Notes and Queries," in that formal 
precision and exactitude as to. references, so ac- 
ceptable to the editor. F. S. 


[We receive so many communications pointing out 
errors, or assumed errors, of fact or language in our con- 
temporaries, that we fear an erroneous notion exists that 
it is the especial province of "N. & Q." to record and 
correct such mistakes. We decline such an invidious 
task. Errors, in spite of the greatest care, will occur in 
the very best conducted journals, and the proper place 
for their correction is obviously the columns in which 
they have occurred. We make an exception in favour of 
the present communication upon several obvious grounds. 
The error, in itself a venial one, as likely to occur in the 
hurry of writing, is treated with very good taste, while 
its correction is made the medium of conveying some 
useful literary information. But we gave place to the 
communication chiefly for the opportunity which it affords 
us of making this explanation, and because we agree 
with the writer in insisting (which cannot be done too 
frequently or too earnestly) on the necessity of "every 
reading man, on booking" even a line in his C. P. B., 
marking the title, page, edition, &c. of the work from 
which he culls." ED.] 

weather of Rome is a subject of interest, on ac- 

count of different passages in the classical* writers 
(see "N. & Q.," 2 nd S. v. 186.), I subjoin the 
following extract from a letter of The Times cor- 
respondent, dated Rome, Dec. 25, 1860, and in- 
serted in The Times of Jan. 5, 1861 : 

"There has been shocking weather in the Mediterra- 
nean, and Rome has been visited by such a fall of snow 
as is not witnessed here once in twenty years. It fell on 
Saturday night [Dec. 22], and Sunday's sun, although 
bright, did not succeed in melting it. The view of Rome, 
snow-covered, from the Pincio was novel and curious. 
A heavy rain yesterday, and the return of the scirocco 
last evening, cleared the last vestiges of the white man- 
tle from churches and housetops." 

Your correspondent F. C. B., " N. &. Q.," 2 nd 
S. v. 344., quotes Juvenal as saying that " it is 
necessary to break the ice of the Tiber in order to 
get water." The passage to which he alludes 
occurs in the description of the superstitious wo- 
man in vi. 522. : 

" Hibernum fractal glacie descendet in amnem, 
Ter matutino Tiberi mergetur, et ipsis 
Vorticibus timidum caput abluet." 

In this passage, however, the first verse is in- 
dependent of the second ; Juvenal does not imply 
that the Tiber is frozen. The importance of the 
morning, for lustratory bathing in the Tiber, is 
indicated by Horace, Sat. ii. 3. 291. L. 

" POETRY, A RHAPSODY." Swift, we are told, 
received the thanks of the royal family for this 
poem. This can only be explained, as Dr. King 
explained it, by the assumption that "irony is not 
a figure in German rhetoric." It is probable, 
however, that the royal family had seen only the 
London edition, from which Swift had struck out 
the more offensive passages. Sir W. Scott has 
professedly given these in notes on the poem; 
but two which escaped his observation I shall 
here quote for the information of the curious, 
marking the lines in italic : 

" A prelate who no God believes, 

A or den of thieves ; 

A House of Peers or gaming Crew, 

A. griping Monarch or a Jew." 

From the description of Britain's Monarch the 
following were also omitted : 

" How well his public thrift is shown, 

AH coffers full, except his own." 

P. A. R. 

AN OLD PROVERB. In a letter dated 2 Oct. 

! 1602, in the State Paper Office, may be seen the 

following " household " proverb : " For yt is odds 

that between two stooles somwhat will go to the 

ground." Perhaps there are as many readings to 

this well-known proverb as have been attributed 

to any passage in Shakspeare. It would be rather 

curious to trace the first or original, and also the 

earliest period at which it was used. It is evident 

j from the above that the proverb has been in use 

I for more than two centuries and a half. 

W. 1ST. S. 



[2*i S. XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

INGOLDSBY. I happened at dinner to sit next to 
the lamented gentleman, so well known by this 
nom de plume, when a lady opposite asked for 
some duck. The footman, handing it in a hurry, 
spilt some gravy on her dress. " Oh ! " said she, 
" my dress is ruined" I observed to him, " Gram 
labit ruind" To which he replied instantly, " Dux 
fcemina facti." A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 


The enclosed extract from a book entitled No- 
titta Anglicana, published in London A.D. 1724, 
appears to me to possess considerable interest ; as, 
if the story which it relates be true, a claim of 
antiquity is made out in favour of the coat of 
Cecil far exceeding in date any _ ascertained in- 
stance of the assumption of armorial bearings, and 
indeed controverting the opinions expressed by 
Mr. Planche and other of our eminent writers on 
blazonry. Hoping for an explanation through the 
good offices of some correspondent of yours, I 
copy it verbatim from p. 47. of the work in ques- 
tion : 

" The paternal coat of the Cecils appears to be very 
antient, by a Letter Testimonial under the Hand and 
Seal of the King of Arms, bearing date the fourth of 
April, in the fifth Year of King Edward the Third, ex- 
hibited to Edward de Beaulil and John de Mowbray, 
Commissioners appointed by the said King, to determine 
a Controversy between Sir John Sitsill, Knt, and William 
de Fakenham, concerning their pretended right to bear 
the said Coat, which happened at the Siege of Berwick 
in the said Year, in the Field of Mount Helikon, now 
called Hallydown Hill, near the said town. It seems 
they both claimed it by Descent, and were so earnest in 
that their Claim as to desire a Decision of their Title by 
the Sword; but the King (as well to avoid shedding 
noble Blood, and deal Justice between the Claimants) 
appointed the said Commissioners to determine the Affair, 
who finding the said Sir John Sitsill by the said Instru- 
ment to descend lineally from James Sitsill, Esq., Lord of 
Halterness and Beau port, and that the said James did 
Advance the said arms in Ensign at the Siege of 
lingford Castle in the seventh Year of King Stephen, 
wherein he was slain ; it was thereupon decreed by pub- 
lick Judgement, that the said William de Fakenham, or 
Feckenham, should not challenge the said Arms, under 
the Penalty of forfeiting his sharp Sword and gilt Spurs 
for ever." 

This would fix the date of the Cecil arms at the 
year 1 1 42 ; but they do not present the appear- 
ance of simplicity peculiar to the early coats ; and 
yet Edward III.'s commissioners had surely a 
better opportunity of judging than heralds of the 
present day. 

It is noteworthy that the book I have quoted, 
under the tit'e "Exeter," says, the "Earl bears 
the same as the Earl of Salisbury, without the dif- 
ference, being Chief of the Name, though youngest 

peer;" and accordingly the arms of the Earl of 
Salisbury are charged with a crescent. In mo- 
dern peerages this is reversed, and the Marquis of 
Exeter's coat is differenced. 



Can any of your readers point out to me in any 
collection of ancient or modern fables, the sub- 
stance of the following, which I transcribe from 
Mr. Davies' recently published translation of 

" Lies and Truth. 

" A haughty troop unto a village hies, 
A muster strong of over-ruling Lies. 
Of broidered purple were the robe 1 ! they wore: 
Each of their steeds its golden cheek-piece bore. 
Behind, a throng audacious followed quick, 
Deceit and Guile, and every knavish Trick. 
And lo ! they met a maiden on their road, 
Her dress and fashion of a simple mode; 
Nay, somewhat poor: yet stately was her mien, 
And long unfed, poor sufferer, had she been. 
Her did these Lies accost, and sought to know 
Whither, and on what errand she would go. 
She answered : ' Pardon, sirs, if no reply 
Comes from a throat with thirst and hunger dry.' 
So then the Lies thus answered her again : 
' To yon near village follow in our train ; 
'Tis but a small one, yet 'tis well supplied ; 
Well-victualled hostels will good cheer provide : 
Come as our guest, and you shall eat your fill.' 
She followed them, deject and downcast still, 
Into the inn : but ne'er a word she said. 
Mine host on their arrival quickly spread 
For them a table filled with various meats, 
Whence each one, as he lists, his fancy treats. 
This done, they bridled steeds, and cried ' to horse; ' 
When for his reckoning asks the host, of course. 
On this the Lies were wroth at his demand, 
Which they nor paid, nor yet would understand. 
The brood of impudence in vain he sues : 
They answered straight 'that he has had his dues: 
That they have paid, like gentlemen, the cost.' 
To press each for his share was labour lost : 
And much less could he force the banded throng: 
Against a troop was ever one man strong? 
Upon the door-step stayed the fellow-guest, 
Without a word, but still with look deprest. 
The landlord now despaired to see his own, 
And ' Truth, where art thou ? ' cried in heightened tone, 
She answered : 'Here, good sir: but what to do 
I knew not : till I met 3 r on reckless crew, 
My want of food was wholly unsupplied; 
Aye, and without them, I had long since died." " 

J. C. 

ANGEL HALFPENCE. Will some one kindly 
refer me to an explanation of the above source of 
churchwardens' revenue in early times ? It oc- 
curs thus in some parish accounts for 1524 : 

" Mem. Ther 1's reraayng of angell halpens and other 
ayll money vj 1 viij d ." 

I have searched in vain through all my books 
of reference. J. EASTWOOD. 

S. XL JAN. 12. '61.] 



BOMB. Can any of your readers furnish in- 
formation upon the first use of the iron ball named 

* The work entitled English Military Discipline, 
8vo. Lond. 1680, p. 88., says the bomb was not 
used in France before the year 1635, at the siege 
of Dole. Wraxall points out an earlier use of the 
bomb : he eays it is described by Cayet, as thrown 
into Nimeguen by Maurice, Prince of Orange, in 
1590. FUSEE. 

CHEQUERS. The fruit of the service, or sorb- 
apple tree, are so called, not only popularly, but 
by John Evelyn in the Sylva (sub voce). Whence 
is the word derived ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

HARVEY COMBE. In 1714, Sir John Paking- 
ton, Sir William Wyndham, Harvey Combe, and 
others were committed to the Tower for high trea- 
son. Can any of your readers tell me who the 
said Harvey Combe was, and what became of 
him ? w - H . C. 

man, who was Chief Secretary for Ireland in 
1807, was a leading politician, it is believed, dur- 
in- the greater part of his life. He was a frequent 
speaker in the House, and his opinions were much 
respected. The first Lord Minto, to whom he 
was related, and who became Governor- General 
of India, kept up a great intimacy with him. He 
died in 1818, having bequeathed his estate to Sir 
William Francis Eliott, the present possessor, who 
was his distant relative. Can any of your readers 
point out where any of the speeches or pamphlets, 
which he is believed to have published, can now 
be found? T. 

CAN. Thomas Hearne states in his Diary (July 
28, 1723), that Mr. Freebairne, a Scottish printer, 
who had resided long at Rome with the exiled royal 
family, "had the use of the Vatican Library as he 
pleased, and transcrib'd a great many excellent 
papers from thence relating to the English Refor- 
mation, not taken notice of by our public writers." 

Is it known what has become of these papers ? 
It is possible that a notice in " N. & Q." may 
bring them to light. K. P. D. E. 

MR. S. GRAY. Can any of your readers give 
me any information regarding Mr. S. Gray, 
author of a book called The Messiah, published 
about 1842 ? Mr. Gray was, I believe, a native of 
Scotland, and was at one time in the War Office. 
Is the author still living ? X. Y. 

painter's book, I found the following coat, &c., 
inscribed, " Llandley and Pickering at Barns. 
March, 1738. Crest, a hand holding a bunch of 

quills, ppr. Mofcto, Equity. Arms: Gules, a 
bend or between six mascles of the second im- 
paling, ermine a lion rampant azure, crowned or." 
Can any of your correspondents assist me in iden- 
tifying the possessor of this coat ? The arms at- 
tributed to Handley are totally unlike any given 
in Burke's Armory. C. J. ROBINSON. 

respondent EBORACENSIS inform me where I can 
meet with a copy of one of the provincial ballads 
of " Nevison's famous ride to York," mentioned in 
" N. & Q.," 2 nd S. ix. 433. A ballad on his cap- 
ture is given in the Ballads and Songs of York- 
shire, beginning 

" Did you ever hear tell of that hero, 

Bold Nevison, that was his name? 
He rode about like a bold hero, 

And with that he gained great fame." 

North Allerton. 

Diary of Thomas Hearne, Nov. 5, 1726, mention 
is made of several manuscripts then about to be 
sold by auction. They belonged at that time to 
Sir Norton Knatchbull. Among them is one which 
I am very anxious to trace : 

"John Norden's Abstract of the General Survey of the 
Soke of Lindsey in the County of Lincoln, with all the 
Manners, Townships, Lands, and Tenements, within or be- 
longing to the same : being a Parcel of the Dutchy of 
Cornwall, 1616, fol." 

If it be in private hands, the owner will confer 
a great favour if he will communicate with me. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

JOHANNES PERCY. Was Johannes Percy, who 
was a burgess in parliament for the town of 
Grimsby in the 36 Edward III. and other suc- 
ceeding years, a member of the noble House of 
Northumberland ? GRIME. 

"PROTESTANT MAGAZINE." Can any of the 

readers of " N. & Q." state how many volumes 
u The Protestant Magazine, or Christian Trea- 
sury, designed to encourage a perfect Knowledge 
of the Protestant Religion, by several eminent 
Divines of different Denominations, assisted by 
many private Gentlemen, 8vo., London, printed 
by R. Denham, Primrose Hill, Salisbury Square, 
1781," &c. reached, and who was the editor ? 

Sun Street. 

cords and papers in the State Paper Office, there is 
one of the year 1623, a warrant for the delivery at 
Tower Wharf of 1000 tons of Portland stone, for 
the use of the Duke of Richmond for Richmond 
House, Holboru. Also for payment of sums not 
exceeding 8001. to Henry Wicks, paymaster of the 



[2as.XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

works, for the same. Can any of your readers in- 
form me in what part of Holborn this Richmond 
House stood ? Y. S. 

SEVERE WINTERS. The records of. these are 
of value both to the natural philosopher and the 
historian, but the accounts we ordinarily have 
do not appear to be practically satisfactory. 
Some take the average range of the thermometer, 
but this is no index of what is commonly called a 
hard winter. We may get cold drizzly weather 
early in autumn, which will continue till April ; 
and yet we may have no frost at all. Never-* 
theless, with a low average for five months, it 
may be registered as a cold year. On the other 
hand, the minimum of the thermometer is also no 
guide. We may have warm weather up to Christ- 
mas, then an unusually sharp frost for a week or 
ten days, which may break up at once, and leave 
us comparatively warm weather till spring. In 
other words, a low minimum with a high average. 
It strikes me that a very good practical index 
would be a record of how many days in a year 
there is ice enough to allow of skating. I should 
think there must be some persons, connected with 
the different skating clubs about London, who have 
noted the number of days in each year the ice was 
practicable : if so, I think it would be a very desir- 
able thing if they would kindly send the results 
to " N". & Q." A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

WELCH WHITSUNTIDE. In a little work of 
great rarity, the Autobiography of Arise Evans, 
1653, p. 6., he records that in 1611, he being 
" about fourteene yeares of age, 
" hearing: some say that whatsoever one did aske of God 
upon Whitsunday morning at the instant when the sun 
arose and plaid, God would grant it him. Having a cha- 
ritable beliefe of the report, being willing to try all the 
wayes possible to obtaine my petition, I arose betimes on 
Whitsunday morning, and went up a hill at a place called 
Gole Ronnw to see the sun arise; and seeing the sun at 
its rising, Skip, Play, Dance, and turne about like a wheele, 
I fell downeupon my Knees, lifting up mine Eyes, Hands, 
and Heart unto God: I cried, saying, Lord most high, 
that hast made all things for my glory, give me Grace, 
Wisdome, and Understanding, that I may glorifie thee, 
as this instrument doth now before all the World." 

Evans does not say that this prayer was an- 
swered, but intimates as much when he states 
(p. 7.), " God hath a purpose to make me like 
his Sonne in opening the mysteries of Scriptures." 
He, like Naylor, considered himself to be Jesus 
Christ, and was hunted by an enraged mob from 
Spital Square till he found refuge in Bishopsgate 

Have any of your readers met with such a 
custom, or saying, about Whitsunday ? What 
can be the meaning of the sun skipping, playing, 
dancing, and wheeling? GEORGE OFFOR. 

pamphlet of twenty-four pages entitled The Last 
Masquerade at Mrs, C ^X with a Plate of the 
Characters, London, 1772. The plate is unfortu- 
nately lost. The matter is not very intelligible or 
interesting, but the following lines excite curiosity, 
as directed against Johnson : 

" Much fear'd and much flatter'd by people of note, 
With cash in his pockets for turning his co^f, 

Surly J n, as Crispin the Second, comes pat in, 

Talking Latin in English and English in Latin. 

Successor of S e, but missing the wood, 

Where, pamper'd by B e, his prototype stood; 

Though with him neither M nor C could cope, 

Dr. H came up boldly with towel and soap ; 

He started, he trembled, he made for the door ; 
He had seen, but not taken, such physic before." 

"Why Crispin the Second ? " and who was Crispin 
the First ? I shall be glad if any of your corre- 
spondents can tell me, and also if they can fill up 
the other blanks. H. 

[Not being able to get a sight of the pamphlet in 
question, we will not hazard a conjecture as to the im- 
mediate occasion of the. satire on the "surly" Doctor. 
The principal allusion, however, in the above lines is to 
Johnson's well-known objection to teaching by lectures. 
" I know nothing," said he, " that can be best taught by 
lectures, except where experiments are to be shown. You 
may teach chymistry by lectures: you might teach making 
of shoes by lectures." We presume his friend Richard 
Savage, the poet, who narrowly escaped the gallows, is 
onlv here associated with him because he had been ori- 
ginally apprenticed to a shoemaker. Of the other in- 
cluded names we are able only to recognise B e 

(Burke) and Dr. H (Dr. John Hall). The masque- 

rade, of which amusement, by the way, Johnson enter- 
tained the lowest opinion, appears to have been held at 
Carlisle House, Soho Square, the residence of Mrs. Teresa 
Cornelys, " the Heidegger of the age," who, from 1763 to 
1772, gave a series of balls, concerts, and masquerades 
unparalleled in the annals of public fashion.] 

BLEMUNDE'S DICHE. This is said to have been 
the name of a large fosse somewhere between the 
parishes of St. Giles in the Fields and St. George, 
Bloomsbury. Can anyone throw light upon this 
point o/ metropolitan topography ? C. 

[The manors of St. Giles and Bloomsbury were origin- 
ally divided by a great fosse or ditch, called Blemunde's 
Diche, which ran east and west at the back of the north 
side of Holborn. It was subsequently called Bloomsbury 
Great Ditch and Southampton Sewer. Its course is 
clearly shown in a map of St. Giles's in the Fields be- 
tween the years 1200 and 1300, engraved in Parton'a 
History of the latter parish, p. 63.} 

relating to the Rowley controversy is one entitled 
Rowley and Chatterton in the Shades ; or ^ Nugce 
Antiques et Novae, 1782. Is this work noticed in 
Mr. Gutch's Sale Catalogue, 1858 ? Who was the 
author ? ZETA. 

[This is one of the burlesque performances of George 
Hardinge, the Welsh judge, author of Chalmeriana, 8vo., 


S. XL JAN. 12. '61.] 



1800, and of The Essence of Malone, 8vo., 1800-1. Two 
conies of Rowley and. Chatterton were in Mr. Gulch's 
library. In 1800, Mr. Hardinge had made considerable 
progress in a Letter to Mr. Walpole on the subject of 
Chatterton and Rowley, which is now lost] 

the word " drug " acquired its secondary meaning 
of " anything without worth or value ? " 


TTooke (Diversions of Purley, ii. 414.) has the follow- 
ing note: "DRY, A.-S. Drug, is the past participle of 
Drougth. As is alsoDuucs, a name common to all Eu- 
rope, and which me^ns Dryed (subaud. Herbs, roots, 
plants, &c.) When we say, that anything is a mere 
DRUG ; we mean dried up, worthless."] 

" FLIM-FI.AMS," ETC. Flim- Flams ! or, the 
Life and Errors of my Uncle, and the Amours of 
my Aunt. Murray, 1805, 3_vols. Was this per- 
formance (a kind of novel, satirising many lite- 
rary characters) really the production of the elder 
D'Israeli, to whom it is attributed ? The style 
and manner of it are so extremely different from 
those of the Curiosities of Literature, and other 
acknowledged works of D'Israeli, that it seems 
hardly possible to believe that it proceeded from 
the same hand. The present Mr. D'Israeli, in his 
Memoir of his father, prefixed to Routledge's 
edition of his Works, makes no allusion to Flim- 
Flams. May the novel have been a joint pro- 
duction of Isaac D'Israeli and some other person 
or persons ? LESBY. 

[" The Rabelaisian romance of Film- Flams and the novel 
of Vuurien, written in all the lurid blaze of French con- 
ventions and corresponding societies, have both,we believe, 
with authority, been attributed to Mr. D'Israeli." The 
Times biographical sketch of Mr. Isaac D'Israeli, Jan. 
21, 1848. 'Both editions of Flim- Flams are also attributed 
to Mr. Isaac D'Israeli in the Catalogue of the British 

(2 nd S. x. 351. 413.) 

It is only within the last two or three days 
that circumstances have permitted me to look at 
the November monthly number of " N. & Q." 
In it I find there is a reply from MR. GARDINER 
to my communication, published on the 3rd of 
November ; but it is written with so much cour- 
tesy, and generally with so much candour, that 
it leaves me but little more to do, than to acknow- 
ledge the one, and thank him very cordially for 
the other. 

Of course I cannot for a moment assent to 
arguments and inferences, many of which are 
based on mere conjectural possibilities. At the 
same time, I entered on this correspondence, not, 
as I at first observed, with a view to discuss the 
general question of James's conduct to the Catho- 
lics, but simply to relieve myself from an imputa- 

tion, which MR. GARDINER appeared to have cast 
on me. That imputation, however, he has at 
once most handsomely disavowed ; and, for the 
rest, as our respective statements and conclusions 
are before the world, I think I may very safely 
leave the readers of "N & Q." to compare our 
arguments, and form their own judgment between 

To one only point in the reply will I venture 
to direct their attention, and this more particu- 
larly because the passages connected with it may 
not otherwise be within their reach. Referring 
to a remark of mine (" N. & Q." x. 353, 354.), 
MR. GARDINER says : 

"It is not the case that Parry was invested with power 
to treat with the Nuncio ' in any manner,' nor that the 
instructions about negotiating through a third person 
were only given 'privately' to Parry. 'Illo' (Dodd, 
'App. Ixviii.) plainly refers to ' nomine,' not to ' Nuncii.' " 
(" N. & Q." x. 4140 

Now, in the first place, as we shall see presently, 
the words, by which Parry's power to treat is 
accompanied, are " quotiescumque utrique ves- 
trum, et quoquo modo videbitur." Surely, this 
can only mean that he was to treat, as I have ex- 
pressed it, " at any time, and in any manner, he 
might choose." 

Secondly, the words " quoquo modo " are in the 
Latin letter, which was to be shown to the Nuncio : 
but, in the letter of private instructions sent at 
the same time to Parry, we find the following pas- 
sage : 

"Now, Sir, for the conduct of your correspondency 
with the Pope's Nuncio, as it doth not appear that you 
have yet in person met him, so the King doth hold it 
very convenient that you should no ways give an}' such 
scandal, as such a meeting would breed. You must 
therefore choose some third person, by whom you may, at all 
times, impart your minds one to another." (Cecil to Parry, 
France, Nov. 6, 1603.) 

Finally, if MR. GARDINER will reperuse the 
passage, to which he alludes in my Dodd, he 
will, I am sure, perceive, in common with every 
one conversant with the Latin language, that .the 
word " illo " refers, and can only refer, to the 
Nuncio. The Pope had suggested the appoint- 
ment, on the part of James, of an agent to confer 
with the Nuncio, on any matters that might arise 
between the two Courts. James, in his letter, 
professes to adopt the proposal. He has, he 
says, the greatest confidence in the character of 
the Nuncio: and therefore, he adds, addressing 
Parry, I reply at once to the suggestion, and give 
to you yourself {tibi ipsi) full power to commu- 
nicate with him on our common affairs. I sub- 
join the passage : 

"Denique quod propositum est de homine quodam con- 
stituendo, qui cum ipso Nuncio (ut occasio postulabit) 
consilia conferat, facit quidem ilia opinio, quam de fide 
et integritate ipsius Nuncii concepimus, ut facile assentia- 
mur, impromptuque responsio sit; ob eamque causatn 
tibi ipsi mandamus atque authoritatem concedimus, ut, 



[24 S. XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

omnibus temporibus (quotiescumque utrique vestrum, et 
qnoquo modo videbitur}, cum illo de rebus nostriS com- 
munices." (Dodd,iv. Append. Ixviii.) 




(2 d S. x. 487.) 

His name was Payne Fisher, not Ficher (Pa- 
gdnus Piscator, he sometimes used to style himself), 
nor can he be very well termed a Commonwealth 
poet, except as far as regards his living in that 
era : for he was Presbyterian, Royalist, Crom- 
wellian, all by turns ; and, finally, wheeled round 
again to the dominant power at the Restoration. 
Four of Fisher's unprinted poems, relating to Ire- 
land, extracted from a MS. volume of his own 
writing in the British Museum, with a short ac- 
count of his life, and a few notes written by my- 
self, were published in the last July number (vol. 
viii. pp. 153 167.) of the Ulster Journal of Ar- 
chceology. Among those will be found " Newes 
from Lough Bagge" ; and as the querist acknow- 
ledges he knows little of the history and locality, 
I beg to refer him to the above-mentioned work. 

Notices of Fisher will be found in the Atlience 
Oxonienses, and other biographical compilations. 
He wrote an immense number of all descriptions 
of poems, on all varieties of subjects, yet I very 
much doubt whether " A Contemplation on the 
Sight of a Tombe" were written by him. I have 
a vague recollection, however, of seeing it, or 
something very similar, in Latin, and Fisher was 
no mean proficient in Latin versification. 

I must confess that I have a considerable curi- 
osity to learn a little more of .'s " small collection 
of inedited poems"; and, if he will gratify that 
curiosity, either by private communication or 
through " N. & Q.," I may probably, in return, 
be able to afford him some useful information. 

In our own days of sudden acquirement of 
riches, when not pedigrees alone, but ancestorial 
portraits are made to order, a "dodge" of this 
very Fisher is worthy of being fished up out of 
the limbo of forgotten frauds, to show that men 
are pretty much the same at all periods. The 
great civil war, though it ruined numbers of the 
nobility and gentry, enabled many of the trading 
classes to acquire immense fortunes. These last 
were sadly in want of pedigrees, and Fisher un- 
dertook to supply them in a rather ingenious 
manner. St. Paul's, and many of the city churches, 
having been destroyed by the great fire, Fisher, 
styling himself Student of Antiquities, announced 
that, previous to the fire, he had copied all the 
monumental inscriptions in those churches, and 
intended to publish them by subscription. The 
reader will at once see the trick, which for a time 

was successful. Fisher, according to the amount 
of subscription received, gave in his books (three 
of which, I think, were published,) marble monu- 
ments and grandiloquent inscriptions to persons 
never so recorded in city church, or elsewhere ; 
but pseudo -grandfathers, great-grandfathers, &c., 
of his pedigree-desiring subscribers. I may add, 
that those inscriptions are curious studies to per- 
sons interested in that description of literature. 
They are in Latin ; their similarity of style show 
they were all written by one person, while they 
also prove that Fisher had almost extraordinary 
facility in that kind of composition. To such de- 
ceptions, reduced by poverty, fell the unfortunate 
Fisher the gallant scholar volunteer, who left 
his college to " trail a pike," under the Prince of 
Orange, at the siege of Breda ; the Parliamentary 
lieutenant under Sir John Clotworthy, in Ireland ; 
the Royalist captain, under Prince Rupert, at 
MaTston Moor ; the poet laureat of the Protector 
Cromwell. Probably he might have succeeded 
better in life by wielding the sword than the pen ; 
for he himself acknowledges that he was " a better 
pikeman than a poet." W. PINKERTON. 


Should not your correspondent read P. Fisher 
for P. Ficher f Payne Fisher, a poetical writer 
of the period, is styled Laurent to Cromwell, and 
also figures in a volume of his poems as Sergeant 
Major P. F., which latter would account for the 
poet being with the army in Ireland. He would 
also appear to have been of a sepulchral cast of 
mind, having late in life (besides other congenial 
pieces) published The Tombes, Monuments, and 
Inscriptions lately visible in St. Paul's, which 
apparently identifies him as the writer of the 
Contemplation upon a Tomb, supplied by your 
correspondent. A long list of Fisher's works will 
be found in the new edition of Lowndes, with a 
reference to Wood's Athence Oxon., for an account 
of the author. J. O. 

Oliver Cromwell's poet laureat, Payne Fisher, 
must surely be the person alluded to. As to him, 
see Wood's Athen. Oxon, ed. Bliss, iii. 108. 749. 
1045. 1080. 1189.; Bibl Anglo- Poetica, 229.; 
Censura Literaria, 1st ed., iii. 273., vi. 229.; 
Cowie's Cat. of MSS. in Library of St. John's 
Coll, Camb., 84, 85. ; Elrington's Life of Ussher, 
279.; Gent. Mag., Ixvi. (1.) 367. ; N. S. xlii. 147. ; 
Gough's Anecd. of Brit. Topogr., i. 606, 607. ; 
Granger's Biog. Diet, of England, 5th ed., iv. 37 n. ; 
Moule's Bibl Herald., 111.-, Pepys's Diary, 3rd 
ed., i. 118. 121, 122.; Restituta, i. 366.; and 
Willmot's Lives of Sacred Poets, i. 348. 



2* S. XI. JAN. 12. '61.] 




(2 nd S. x. 451.) 
I heard Praed make his maiden speech at the 
Cambridge Union, and I also heard him on several 
other occasions, but I was absent on the night 
your correspondent E. J. P. refers to. I think, 
however, I can help him to the verses he alludes 
to, which were repeated to me the next morning ; 
and which, though I did not make a note of them, 
I perfectly recollect. I am not quite sure about 
the first two lines of the last stanza ; perhaps 
some other correspondent can supply a better 
version. To explain the allusions, I must pre- 
mise that one of the leading topics of the day was 
the forthcoming sale of the Duke of York's estate 
at Oatlands ; that the subject of the debate was 
the Corn Laws ; and that the previous speaker, 
to whose "prophecies" Praed replied, was a Mr. 
Byland, who had argued, that one consequence of 
the repeal of the Corn Laws would be, the ruin 
of those landowners whose heavy wheat-lands 
would be thrown out of cultivation. It was in 
reply to this argument, that Praed said that the 
speech of the Hon. Member brought to his recol- 
lection the following prophecy of Mother Shipton, 
which, of course, he had manufactured on the 
moment : 

" When Nobles get drunk on their arrack, 

And the people grow thin without meat, 
When soldiers look red in the barrack, 
And beggars look blue in the street ; 
" When taxes, for places and pensions, 

Are levied without any qualms, 
Bv a King of the purest intentions, 

Who reads in the Prophets and Psalms 1 
" Then the weal and the wealth of these Islands 

Will be lost in that turbulent weather, 
And Oatlands, and WTieatlands, and Rylands 
Knocked down by the hammer together." 

And now permit me to inquire, through " N. 
& Q.," when we may expect to see an English 
edition of the poems of one who was one of our 
most successful writers of vers de societe? The 
American edition is full of the most stupid 
blunders. C. H. 


The debate took place in the Prascutlean age, 
when we did not make notes. The verses were 
talked of till the next Union night, and from that 
time till the Query appeared, nothing has occurred 
to revive them in my memory. I can only offer 
what is probably a very inaccurate recollection, 
and beg that it may not be inserted, if you re- 
ceive a better. 

We were not then allowed to discuss matters of 
later date than 1800. We observed the law with 
tolerable honesty, but sometimes evaded it by, " If 
at any future time a state of things should arise, 

&c." I do not remember the subject of the de- 
bate, but Ryland of St. John's had made a very 
energetic ^tory speech, and in the discussion, the 
Holy Alliance, Madame Krudner, Agricultural 
Distress, " the Six Acts," and the habits of George 
the Fourth had been alluded to. Praed spoke, 
well answering others, and finishing with Ryland] 
whose prophecies, he said, were borrowed from 
Nostradamus *, " as done into English by Mr. John 
Dean of the Custom House." 

" When princes get tipsy on arrack, 

And farmers grow thin on cold meat ; 
When soldiers look red in their barrack, 
And beggars look blue in the street ; 

" When monarcbs, with purest intentions, 

To settle all national qualms, 
Assemble in holy conventions, 

And study the prophets and psalms ; 
" Strange things upon wet land and dry land, 

On wood land and waste land shall" be, 
And Oat-land, and Wheat-land, and Rye-land, 
Together be sunk in the sea." 

" A jest's prosperity lies in the ear 
Of him that hears it." 

Very likely what was then so clever to us who 
were ready and excited, may be flat to readers in 
1860. It has called up so many pleasant recol- 
lections that I am not a competent judge. 



(2 nd S. ix. 242.) 

There is no doubt the Romans made careful 
surveys and levels, both of their roads and ac- 
queducts, before they were made. In fact the lat- 
ter could never have been constructed without 
complete plans and sections. Your correspon- 
dent, SMITH, will find an excellent article on the 
Agrimensores or land surveyors of antiquity in 
Smith's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, sub voce, 
and also much information in Goesius, ReiAgrarice 
Scriptores. They seem to have used an instru- 
ment called a Groma, which is supposed to have 
been something like our cross-staff. One is 
figured in the BoUetino Napolitano, vol. i. plate 5. 
fig. 3., and there is a very good dissertation thereon 
at p. 68. It is taken from the tomb of a Mensor 
buried at Ivrea, and seems to have been a sort of 
metal cross with plummets, and probably sights. 
Delambre, who entered very deeply into the subject 
(Histoire de I' Astronomic Ancienne), is of opinion 
that the chief instrument used by Hipparchus, 
Ptolemy, and the astronomers of that period, was 
an armillary sphere. When we know the profi- 
ciency of the ancients in this science, and in ma- 
thematics, it seems easy to suppose that both 

* Not Mother Shipton. 



[2 nd S. XI. JAN. 12. '61, 

surveyors and engineers also used some similar 
instrument for taking angles both horizontal and 
vertical. For levelling they used a Dioptra men- 
tioned by Vitruvius, viii. 6. This, Suidas says, is 
used by geometers to ascertain the heights of 
towers, and was probably a sort of quadrant. The 
former author, however, says he prefers an instru- 
ment which he calls Chorobates, which from his 
description appears to have been a long level with 
a groove at the top filled with water, and which 
served the purpose of our spirit level. Both these 
instruments are described in the Dictionary of the 
Architectural Publication Society, who are now 
making careful inquiries as to the exact form and 
use of the Groma. Lengths were generally taken 
by the Pertica or pole, called also from its length 

The only ancient plan, of which there are any 
remains, is the very curious one of Rome, which 
was incised in the marble pavement of the temple 
of Romulus in the Forum ; but unfortunately 
broken to pieces by ignorant workmen, before 
anyone found out what it was. The fragments 
which were preserved are now fixed to the walls 
of the Capitoline Museum. They have been most 
carefully published by the celebrated Canina in 
his noble work, JRoma Antica , and have been 
found extremely correct, and very valuable in the 
investigation and restoration of existing monu- 
ments. They are to such a scale, as to show 
every house and shop ; every temple and colon- 
nade, in fact, almost every column, is carefully 
marked. If the surveyors of those times could 
map a city like Rome so well, there would be no 
difficulty as to their making plans of roads. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

(2 nd S. x. passim.') 

In consequence of the discussion as to the de- 
flection in chancels, I wrote to Mr. Robinson, of 
Whitby, as to the deflection of the nave in Whitby 
Abbey, which he had noticed in his excellent 
Guide to Whitby (p. 82.), and I have received 
from him the following particulars and remarks : 
Many years ago, when he was talking with the 
late Mr. Pugin as to the bend in the nave in 
Whitby Abbey, Mr. Pugin spoke of it as having 
a symbolical signification, and said, " A bend is a 
sign that the debt of our redemption has been 
paid ; for, after our Saviour had expired on the 
cross, his head would naturally lean or incline to 
one side." On this, Mr. Robinson observes, that 
Mr. Pugin's meaning appears to be only applica- 
ble to the deflection of a chancel or head of a 
cross, and not to a nave or foot of a cross, as at 

Mr. Robinson mentions another reason which 
he has heard assigned ; viz. a double dedication 

the nave being dedicated to one saint, and the 
choir to another; but he cannot point out any 
instance where the nave and choir have ever been 
thus separately dedicated. The whole of Whitby 
Abbey was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Hilda ; 
and St. Peter's Day is the 29th of June, and St. 
Hilda's the 25th of August.* 

Mr. Robinson remarks, that the point of orien- 
tation, or that point in the heavens, in which the 
sun rises on the anniversary day of the saint to 
whom the church is dedicated, was carefully as- 
certained, so that the building might be placed in 
that precise direction ; and thus we can perceive 
the cause for a deflection in the choir or nave 
when the saint's day, to which the one was dedi- 
cated, occurs at a different part of the year from 
that of the other ; and I venture to suggest, that 
where an abbey, like Whitby, was wholly dedi- 
cated to two saints, one part of it may, peradven- 
ture, have been built in the precise direction of 
the orientation of one saint, and another part in 
that of the other saint. 

The dimensions of Whitby Abbey are as fol- 
lows: The external length of the nave is 140 
feet ; the external length of the choir, 105 feet ; 
the distance across the north transept, between 
the nave and the choir, 65 feet : so that the total 
length, from east to west, is 310 feet. The nave 
exhibits a deflection at the west end of nine feet 
towards the north, from the line of the choir. 
The choir is said to have been built between 1148 
and 1175 ; the north transept at the beginning of 
the fourteenth century ; and the north wall of the 
nave, in which the deflection is, about the middle 
of that century. 

There was nothing whatever to prevent the 
builders of Whitby Abbey from building the nave 
and choir in the same line, if they had thought 
fit so to do. 

It seems to me that Mr. Pugin's opinion, given 
to a gentleman so well versed in antiquarian 
knowledge as Mr. Robinson, was probably the 
result of his deliberate conviction ; and is, there- 
fore, worthy of more attention than his statement 
which has already appeared in " N. & Q.." 2 nd S. 


x. 357. 


(2 nd S. x. 447.) 

In the Life of St. Francis Xavier, by F. Bo- 
hours, translated by Dryden, an account is given 
in Book V. of the famous conference between the 
saint and the Japanese Bonza Fucarandono, which 
shows at least some resemblance between the lat- 
ter's system and that of Dr. Darwin. After the 
Bonza had fixed his eyes earnestly upon the saint, 

* The inscription on the Abbey seal is " Sigil. sci 
Petri et scae Hilda} de Wyteby Monas." (Robinson's 
Whitby, p. 84.) 

AN, 12, '61.] 



" I know not," said he, with an overweening look, 
" if thou knowest me ; or, to speak more properly, 
if thou rememberest me." " I remember not," 
said Xavier, " that I have ever seen you." Then 
the Bonza, breaking out into a forced laughter, 
and turning to his fellows, " I shall have but little 
difficulty in overcoming this companion, who has 
conversed with me a hundred times, and yet would 
make us believe he had never seen me." Then, 
looking on Xavier with a scornful smile : " Hast 
thou none of those goods remaining," continued 
he, " which thou soldest me at the port of Frena- 
joma?" "In truth," replied Xavier, with a sedate 
and modest countenance, " I have never been a 
merchant in all my life, neither have I ever been 
at the port of Frenajoma." " What a beastly for- 
getfulness is this of thine ! " pursued the Bonza, 
with an affected wonder, and keeping up his bold 
laughter ; " how canst thou possibly forget it ? " 
" Bring it back to my remembrance," said Xavier 
mildly, "you who have so much more wit, and a 
memory happier than mine." " That shall be 
done," rejoined the Bonza, proud of the commen- 
dations which the saint had given him. " 'Tis now 
just fifteen hundred years since thou and I, who 
were then merchants, traded at Frenajoma, and 
where I bought of thee a hundred bales of silk at 
an easy pennyworth ; dost thou yet remember 
it ? " The saint, who perceived whither the dis- 
course tended, asked him very civilly, of what age 
he might be : "I am now two-and-fifty," said 
Fucaraudono. " How can it then be," replied 
Xavier, " that you were a merchant fifteen hun- 
dred years ago; that is, fifteen ages, when yet 
you have been in the world, by your own confes- 
sion, but half an age ? And how comes it, that 
you and I then trafficked together at Frenajoma,- 
since the greatest part of you Bonzas maintain 
that Japan was a desert and uninhabited at that 
time?" This brought out a pompous profession 
of the Bonza's theory, from which it will suffice 
for the subject before us to give the following 
few words bearing upon it. " Thou art then to 
understand," said Fucarandono, "that the world 
had no beginning ; and that men, properly speak- 
ing, never die. The soul only breaks loose from 
the body in which it was confined ; and while that 
body is rotting under ground, is looking out for 
another fresh and vigorous habitation, wherein we 

are born again These alterations in our 

birth produce the like changes in our fortune." . 

F. C. H. 


(2 nd S. x. 506.) 

Perhaps the results of the last half century's 
philological studies are not so well known in New 
York as they are in London. No European phi- 
lologist would now affirm that " a specimen of the 

Irish language" appears in " Plautus." Thanks 
to the labours of Gesenius, and other scholars, 
Phrenician (in its Punic variety) has taken its 
proper place amongst the other Semitic tongues. 

, General philologists such as Pictet and Zeuss 
following in the path traced out by Pritchard, 
have given Irish its proper position with the other 
Celtic languages, amongst the outlying members 
of the Indo-Germanic family. 

Valiancey and the like were incompetent to 
enter upon an investigation, for which they had 
neither the abilities nor the attainments required. 

General knowledge of language and languages, 
special knowledge of the Celtic languages, are the 
attainment : power of patient research, and the 
faculty of strict methodical induction, are the abi- 
lities of which the Celtic philologist must be 

Unfortunately, until lately, the Celtic scholar 
has not often been a general scholar ; and the 
general philologist has known but little of the 
Celtic tongues. 

And perhaps the faculty of strict methodical 
induction is, of all things, that which is most 
" conspicuous by its absence" in the reasonings of 
philological amateurs. W. C. 

MB. DOWE, in his charming note upon these 
words, has not only explained satisfactorily a 
dark allusion of the great English poet, but has 
also opened up to the English mind the fact (or 
the probability) that Queen Elizabeth and her 
courtiers knew, and no doubt appreciated, what 
we now call Moore's Melodies. 

I should mention, that the commencing words 
of the air as I know them are : " Taimse am' chodla, 
s'na duisigh me" that is, " I am asleep, do not 
wake me." The last verb being given actively, 
while MB. DOWE has put it in the passive form. 

I will also mention, for the benefit of the mere 
English reader, and to assist his comprehension, 
that the " d" as being in regimine, is quiescent ; 
or rather is pronounced like "g-," in the polite 
Munster dialect. Without this explanation, an 
Englishman might ask what had become of the "d." 

After these premises, I will put a Query. The 
" fonn," or air, known by the words given by MB. 
DOWE and myself, being the one to which Moore 
has wedded his words "Erin, O Erin!" is to 
be found in every musical edition of Moore's 
Melodies. But is it the air which the Virgin 
Queen thrummed on her virginals ? It can be 
easily ascertained, whether it is so or not, by a 
reference to Mr. Chappell's book. Will any reader 
of " N. & Q." make the comparison between 
" Erin, O Erin ! " and the airs in the Virginal 
Hook ? If the result be affirmative, it will prove 
a fact of some interest both to England and 
Ireland. H. C. C. 



XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

ME. DOWE is quite mistaken in supposing that 
he has given the real Irish words, of which this is 
a corruption. His line will not Jit, as it must be 
of no more than seven or eight syllables ; being, 
of which he seems not aware, the burden of an 
English song of the four-foot measure : 
" When as I view your comely grace." 
" Coliino castors me."" 

In the old copies this is printed Calmie custure 
me -, but Malone discovered the song, and gave 
the passage as it stands now, and got from an 
Irish teacher, of the name of Finnerty, the fol- 
lowing translation "Little girl of my heart for 
ever and ever" of which the two first words 
alone are right. How Finnerty got the "for ever 
and ever," I am unable to guess ; but he seems to 
have had an indistinct idea of the true meaning 
of the whole. I presume the real Irish may have 

" Colleen 6g a stdr mo chree" 

(CAi'm 63 <vn frop mo cpoi^e.) 

" Young girl, the treasure of my heart." 
In Love's Labour's Lost (Act III. Sc. 1.), Ar 
mado says, " Warble child," &c. ; and Moth be- 

fins, " Concolineir This we are told is some 
talian song which cannot now be discovered ; 
but surely no Italian song began with Con colo- 
nello, the only Italian words that would agree 
with it. My own opinion is, that it is Irish, the 
second and third syllables being the Irish Colleen 
(coilm); and if, with my very slight knowledge 
of Irish, I might venture to give a guess at the 
original of the whole, I would say it was "Do'n 
colleen alivin" (>o'n CAilm Alum) "To the 
lovely girl," the printer giving C for D. This 
conjecture, however, I give under correction ; it 
may perhaps lead some better Irish scholar than 
myself to a more probable solution. 


472. 518.) I can inform F. H. that this tragedy 
is by the celebrated poet Vondel. Its title is Pa- 
lamedes, oft Vermoorde Onnooselheyd (" P. or Mur- 
dered Innocence "), alluding to the murder of 
Barneveldt. The poet was fined 300 florins, and 
had to take flight. Thirty editions were sold in a 
few years. K. 

DOLDRUM, KING OF THE CATS (1 st S. vi. 70. ; 
2 ud S. x. 463.) This tale is told in Ireland also, 
" with a difference " which makes it somewhat 
more poetical. [By the bye, Doldrum, not Dtl- 
drum, was the Lancashire cat-king : in these days 
of dynastic vicissitude, " 1ST. & Q." should be 
especially correct about royal matters ; posterity 
might be puzzled else.] A county- of- Meath farmer 
was riding home at nightfall, when, in hastening 
past a suspicious-looking churchyard, a cat jumped 

from the wall on his horse's back, clawed up his 
shoulder, and whispered in his ear : " Go home, 
and tell Maud that Maudlin is dead." Home he 
| sped ; and taking off his boots at the kitchen fire, 
! where his own cat gravely superintended the ope- 
ration "I have just had a beautiful fright, my wo- 
man," says he ; "I was bid to go home and tell you, 
Maud, that Maudlin is dead." Into the middle of 
the room jumps she ; sets up her back and like- 
wise a terrible howl, dashes through the window, 
and was never seen or heard of from that hour. 
Maudlin, I suppose, was the Irish Queen of the 
Cats, or at least the Lady-Lieutenant ; and Maud 
was, perhaps, one of her Maids of Honour. Any 
how, the story is religiously believed in Ireland 
by every true PUSSEYITE. 

This is a Scandinavian legend, probably, like 
some others, brought in by the Danes. Its more 
complete form will be found in the legend of 
" The Troll turned Cat," one of the Scandinavian 
legends in the Fairy Mythology. K. 

326., &c.) Allow me to add to the list of 
churches where this custom is observed : Coton, 
Cambridgeshire ; Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire; 
and Durham Cathedral. 

" The custom (says The Ecchsiologist, vol. v. p. 166.) 
continued in St. Pratt, Blisland, Cornwall, even after peus 
had superseded open seats ; and so natural was the feel- 
ing, that when a conventicle was opened about thirty 
years ago in the parish, the men and women arranged 
themselves on opposite sides, and have continued the 
practice ! " 

G. W. M. 

IRISH MANUFACTURES (2 nd S. x. 510.) I take 
leave of N. & Q.'s" delightful Tenth Volume, 
expecting no less delight in its Eleventh, with a 
pendant to this scaffold ish story. 

In 1814, when the French Legion of Honour 
was under discussion among the revolutionary em- 
barrassments of the Restoration, somebody (whose 
name, he being yet surviving, it is as well not to 
set down) suggested that its decoration should be 
sported by the Executeur de la Haute Justice on 
the first guillotining day. 

During the last half-century I have read Irish 
speeches, and letters, and pamphlets enough to 
bring in question my countrymen's antipathy to 
" flowered fustian." OLD MEM. 

SMYTANITES (2 nd S. x. 518.) In answer to 
INQUISITION, Mr. Smytan was an Antiburgher 
minister at Kilmaurs, Ayrshire ; and a dispute 
having arisen between him and his associate bre- 
thren about lifting the whole bread to be used in 
the sacrament, and holding it during the prayer 
of consecration, Mr. Smytan refused to hold 
communion with those who continued the old 
practice of lifting a portion, and the synod ex- 
pelled and deposed him. It then became a ques- 

ni S. XI. JAN. 12. '61.] 



ion who had right tb the meeting-house, and the 
}ourt of Session decided in favour of Mr. Smytan 
,nd his adherents. The swarm that went off built 
i new meeting-house, and the two bodies were 
/ulgarly called the Lifters and Antilifters, or the 
New and Auld Light. The Burghers and Anti- 
aurghers, the Lifters and Antilifters, and the New 
ind Auld Light, have associated and re- associated, 
and are now principally connected with the United 
Presbyterian Church. The Smytanites have sunk 
into oblivion. S. B. B. 

HENSHAW (2 nd S. x. 331., &c.) Since my 
Query relative to the name of Henshaw, I have 
referred to Elisha Coles' s English Dictionary, and 
found the word haw means black. May not the 
name have been adopted in allusion to the arms 
argent, a chevron between three heronshaw ? 
In all the various drawings of the arms, the birds 
are always sable. G. W. M. 

514.) As a help to MR. GOUGH NICHOLS, in his 
wish to discover some example of the early use of 
the Latin word Stationarius in this country, I 
would refer him to the council held at London by 
the Abp. of Canterbury, Thomas Arundle, A.D. 
1408, against the Wycliffites and Lollards. In its 
sixth decree it ordains : 

"Quod nullus libellus sive tractatus, &c. amodo legatur 
in scolis, &c. nisi per universitatem Oxonii aut Cantabri- 
giaa primitus examinatur, &c. et universitatis nomine ac 
auctoritate stacionariis tradatur ut copietur, et facta col- 
latione fideli petentibus vendatur justo pretio sive detur, 
&c." Condi. Britann., ed. Spelman, ii. 665. 

From the unqualified and ready way in which 
the archbishop uses the word, it seems that both 
the name as well as trade were well known, and 
of somewhat old standing in England, at the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century. 

The celebrated English canonist, William Lynd- 
wood, who died, A.D. 1446, in his gloss upon this 
very constitution, says : 

'^Stationariis, i. e. His, in quorum statione libri sunt ex- 
positi ad vendendum. Est enim statio locus ubi naves 
vel rnerces tute stare possimt ad tempus . . . Et sic simi- 
liter potest statio dici locus ille ubi aliquis pro tempore 
exponit aliquas merces venal es," &c. Provinciate, &c., 
ed. W. Lyndwood, Oxoniae, 1679, p. 285. 


Brook Green. 

MR. NICHOLS says in his Note on this subject, 
that he is " desirous to discover some example of 
the early use of the Latin word Stationarius in 
this country." The following note from the cata- 
logue of Sir J. Savile's books, appears to give 
exactly what is desired : 

" A leaf of contemporary MS. is preserved in this vo- 
lume (a French Livy of 1486) of very peculiar curiosity 
and interest as regards the first printer at Oxford. The 
heading is as follows : 

" Secuuntur Inventorium librorum quos ego Thomas 

Hunt, Stationarius Universitatis Oxoniensis, recepo de 
Magistro petro actore et Johanne de Aquisgrano, ad ven- 
dendum, cum precis cujuslibet libri etpromitofidelitur re- 
stiturus libros aut pecunias secundum precium inferiua 
scriptum prout patebit in sequentibus, anno MCCCC. octo- 
gesimo tertio.' " 

The extract is certainly most curious and inter- 
esting for the history of bookselling, and worthy 
of being printed in a place where it can more 
easily be found than a sale catalogue. 


33. King Street, Covent Garden. 

HADDISCOE FONT (2 nd S. x. 411.) There is 
at Pewsey, in Wiltshire, an arrangement similar 
to that described by MR. D'AVENEY as existing 
at Haddiscoe. I have not been into the church 
at Pewsey for many years, and therefore feel in- 
competent to describe details with accuracy ; but 
I recollect that the font is placed close to the 
south-westernmost pier of the nave, and that im- 
mediately above the font is a niche sunk into the 
pier, which is, by tradition, considered to have 
been a receptacle for the holy oil used in baptism. 


PRINCE MAURICE (2 nd S. xi. 11.) R. R. does not 
give any idea of the information he himself pos- 
sesses relative to Prince Maurice. He thus leaves 
rather a wide field for reply. Should R. R. not 
have seen the following works, he may consult 
them with advantage : 

History of the Wars of Flanders, by Cardinal 
Bentivoglio, Englished from the Italian, by Henry 
Earl of Monmouth, fol. 1678, commencing at p. 
189. Though written by an enemy to the Low 
Country struggle, the learned Grotius commends 
it for its impartiality. 

Hugo Grotius's De Rebus Belgicis ; or the An- 
nals and History of the Low Countrey Warrs by 
T. M. (T. Manley), 12mo. 1665, pp. 145-937. 

Little is said in Bentivoglio of Barnevelt. At p. 
375. (mispaged 373.), he is styled the Advocate- 
General of the Province of Holland. His speech, 
in 1607, against Prince Maurice, is there given at 
length. Barnevelt's name does not appear in the 
Index of Manley's Grotius, but it occurs in the 
text at pp. 917. 938., and elsewhere. 

Among the Cottonian MSS. in the British Mu- 
seum are many papers of great interest and value 
concerning the prince. R. R. will find them in 
Galba, C. vn. pp. 302. 306., vnr. 176. b. 180. 
189. b. 407. 409. ; D. n. 80. 338., iv. 222., v. 300., 
vm. 104. 129., x. 20. 148., 183. b., xi. 73. 131. 
202., xii. 115. ; E. 1. 120. 124.; Cal. E. xi. 204. ; 
Nero, B. vi. 331.333. M. S. R. 

Brompton Barracks. 

404.) SPAL is informed that the last in his list 
of Jamaica names, " Hill Hochryn," misrepresents 
Hill Hotchkin, the wife of Robert Hotchkin, Esq., 
Attorney-General, Her maiden name was Boui- 



[2 nd S. XI. JAN. 12. '61. 

ton, of an Irish family. She married, firstly, John 
Childerraasse, a planter ; 2ndly, Henry Brabant, 
Esq., Provost-Marshall ; and, lastly, my collateral 
ancestor, the Attorney-General. She died child- 
less. Will SPAL communicate by letter to 

Thimbleby Rectory, Horncastle. 

STORY or A Swiss LADY (2 nd S. x. 348.) The 
story is Voltaire's. The lady, on her wedding- 
day, is in a pleasure-boat, which is upset in the 
Lake of Geneva, and she is apparently drowned. 
Two physicians, Bonnet and Covelle, give her up. 
Lord Abingdon, who is on his travels, arrives at 
the moment, and asks what is the matter 

" Bonnet disait, ' Notre art n'est que trop vain ; 
On a tente des baisers et du vin ; 
Rien n'a passe'. Cette pauvre bourgeoise 
A fait son temps ; qu'on 1'enterre, et buvons.' 
Milord reprit, ' Est-elle Genevoise ? ' 
' Oui,' dit Covelle. ' Eh bien ! nous le verrons.' 
II saute en bas, il ecarte la troupe, 
Qui fait un cercle en lui pressant la croupe ; 
Marche k la belle, et lui met dans la main 
Un gros bourson de cent livres sterlin ; 
La belle serre, et soudain ressuscite." 

La Guerre Civile de Geneve, chant iii. 

w. D. 

SIR JOHN LE QUESNE (2 nd S. v. 216.) In the 
register of burials at St. Benet Fink, London, 
occur notices of the children, Francis, Jane, and 
Maudlyn, and of the wife of James Le Quien, who 
is described as " stranger, lying within the Cock." 
These deaths occurred within a few days of one 
another in the year 1570, and were apparently 
from the plague. 

In 1708, May 14, is the burial entry of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Le Quesne. 

In the registers of St. Peter le Poor may be 
found the marriage of Sir John Lequesne and 
Mrs. Mary Knight, performed by the Bp. of Nor- 
wich in 1738 ; the baptism of a daughter (Mary) 
to the above in the following year, and the burials 

Sir John Le Quesne, Knt., in 1741. 

David Le Quesne, Esq., in 1753. 

Mrs. Susanna Le Quesne, in 1760. 


NEW MODE or CANONISATION (2 nd S. ix. 383.) 
Perhaps either your correspondent T. LAM- 
PRAY, or the writer in the Gentleman! s Magazine, 
would not object to give their authority for the 
statement " that St. David's Chapel in the Lewis- 
ham Road is so named in honour of the late Al- 
derman Wire," who, by-the-by, was not an 
Independent at all. At present the story reads 
like a hoax. ALFRED COPLAND. 

TURY (2 nd S. x. 471.) In reply to POLECARP 
CHENER'S Query respecting the word palde in the 
the term palde ivine, I would beg to suggest that 

the word palled is intended, which, according to 
Bailey's Dictionary (1788), means " stale, also 
flat, dead, without spirits, as wine, liquors," &c. 


In the very interesting account given by MR. 
D'AVENEY there are one or two points upon which 
I am in hopes that he may be able to throw some 
farther light. 

The pitchers are stated to have a hand-hold, 
and a mouth for pouring off the contents ; evi- 
dently, therefore, they were meant to be move- 
able, and yet they are described as being placed 
horizontally in the perpendicular walls, and 
bedded in mortar with their mouths open to 
the trough. This appears to be so very singular, 
that I am led to inquire whether I am correct in 
interpreting the description as meaning that the 
pitchers were placed on their sides, and let into 
the substance of the wall, with their mouths flush 
with the surface ? 

The pavement of the chancel appears to have 
shown no indication of the troughs below. Can 
it be ascertained when this pavement was laid 
down, and whether there ever was any contrivance 
for opening part of the trough by means of a 
wooden lid, or otherwise ? 

I would also beg to inquire what is the distance 
of the trough from the side wall of the chancel ? 


ARMS OF HAYNES (2 nd S. x. 387.) The arms, 
No. 1., inquired after by SPALATRO, appeared to 
be those of Haynes : Argent, three crescents 
barry undee azure and gules; confirmed to Ni- 
cholas Haynes of Hackney, Middlesex, 1578. 

J. G. N. 

GREENE FAMILY (2 nd S. x. passim.) In addi- 
tion to the marriage of Dr. Thomas Greene in 
1681, the Register of St. Olave's Jewry records 
that of " M r . Hadsley Greene, of Shelley Hall, co. 
Essex, gentl n and Bach r ., and Mary Nicholls of 
Stondon Massy in s d . county, 11 Aug*., 1692," 
and (with others of the name), " 1707. Aug*. 26. 
My brother, Mr. Jermyn Greene, was buried in 
my vault." C. J. R. 

S. x. 370.) The author of the lines beginning 
as above is Tickell. They are an extract from 
"A Poem on the Prospect of Peace," and are 
printed in Dodsley's Collection of Poems, in 6 vols., 
1758. HENRY W. LIVETT, M.D. 

409. 454.) It appears from a work entitled 
The Antient and Present -State of Germany, Lon- 
don, 1702, p. 197., "Lothair, Duke of Saxony, 
being elected Emperor in the year 1135, re- 
signed his Electorate to Henry Guelph, commonly 
called Henry the Proud." From which it seems 


S. XL JA*. 12. 'fil.] 



' Guelph " is the family name of the House of 
Saxony. W. W. L. 

East View, Cork. 

THE O'DRISCOLL FAMILY (2 nd S. x. 521.) In 

the Miscellany published by the Celtic Society in 
1849, your correspondent THETA will find ample 
information regarding the O'h-Eidirsceoils, now 
barbarised into " O'Driscoll." Prefixed to that 
volume is the genealogy of Cone A LAIDHE, a dis- 
trict or barony in the west of the co. of Cork, the 
ancient patrimony of the O'Driscolls, with an illus- 
trative map of the territory. 

" In the year 1413, Simon Wickin, Mayor of Water- 
ford, Roger 'Walsh and Thomas Sault, Bailiffs, surprised 
and took prisoners O'Hedriscol, his family, and the rest 
of his followers, in his strong Castle of Baltimore, in the 
Co. of Cork. They took with them a strong band of men 
in armour, on board a ship belonging to the City, and 
arrived at the Castle on Christmas-day at night. The 
Maj'or landed his men and marched up "to the gate, and 
called to the porter, desiring him to tell his lord that the 
Mayor of Waterford was come to the Haven with a ship 
of wine, and would gladly come in to see him ; upon this 
message the gate was set open, and the whole family 
made prisoners." MS. in T. C. D. Library. 

In the year 1450, stat. 28 Hen. VI. No. 10. : 

" As divers of the King's subjects have been taken and 
elain by Finin O'Hedrischol, Chieftaine of his nation, an 
Irish enemy, enacted that no person of the ports of Wex- 
ford, Waterford, &c. shall fish at Korkly (Corca Laidlie) 
Baltimore, nor go within the country of the said O'He- 
drischol with victuals, arms, &c., and that proclamation 
be made of this by Writs in the parts aforesaid, under 
the penalty of the forfeiture of their goods and ships to 
those who'shall take them, and their persons to the King; 
and the town who receives the said O'Hedrischol or any 
of his men shall pay 40 to the King." (See the Statute 
itself; see also Rot. Stat. 28 Hen. VI. a 10.) 

The Irish name for Baltimore in Dun na Sead, 
i.e. the fortress of the jewels. CLARAGH. 

(2 nd S. x. 401.) I cannot agree with T. B. P. in 
looking upon this as a petition against an existing 
corporation. If I understand it rightly, it is a 
petition consequent upon the dissolution of the 

The facts to be inferred from the petition ap- 
pear to be, that a surrender had been made in 
the time of King Charles II. ; that this surrender 
was enrolled on the 23rd of March, 1687-8 ; that 
the corporation was thereby dissolved ; and that 
the beggars had, consequently, ceased to be re- 
lieved out of the corporation estate. 

The prayer of the petition is, in effect, that the 
fines to be imposed upon the officers of the late cor- 
poration should be distributed among the beggars, 
and that a Commission of Inquiry should be issued 
to members of the late corporation not having 
held office. 

If, as T. B. P. suspects, the petition was got up 
to serve a purpose, the main object probably was, 
by means of a Commission, to further the interests 

of such of the townspeople as sought to be 'ap- 
pointed to the vacant offices, and to have the 
management of the estate ; the distribution of the 
fines being introduced with no other view than to 
gain the signature of the beggars. 

Perhaps some of your correspondents, ac- 
quainted with the history of Winchester, may be 
able to explain what were the legal proceedings 
taken with reference to the surrender ; and what 
were the consequences that resulted from it ? 

P. S. C. 

HOPPESTERES (2 nd S. x. 227. 523.) I am ac- 
quainted with most of the explanations of the 
word offered by commentators. Speght inter- 
prets it, pilots ; Tyrwhitt, female dancers ; MR. 
Boys, in your pages (2 nd S. iv. 409.), suggests up- 
holsteries, i. e. places where ships are built and 
fitted out, dockyards. 

All these explanations are, to say the least, un- 
satisfactory ; and I humbly offer mine as more 
reasonable than any yet given. 

I used the word composants, from having heard 
it commonly employed by sailors ; but, as it is 
evidently corrupted from the Spanish designation 
of this meteor, cuerpo santo, E. G. R. is quite right 
in supposing corpusants to be its orthography. 

T. Q. C. 

S. x. 500.) PHILOMATH is clearly correct in be- 
lieving that the science is still studied in England ; 
but the nature of the books used in learning its 
principles, which are chiefly applicable to ad- 
vanced students, and are generally of a dry and 
repellent character, is a serious drawback in the 
case of the amateur, who will find in the Manual 
of Raphael an exception to this objection ; as it 
is as readable a work upon the subject, generally, 
as the inexperienced traveller to the Temple of 
Urania can desire to have, and is well calculated 
to explain some of its numerous curiosities. All 
the authorities named by PHILOMATH are ortho- 
dox, but the Manual is for the young artist espe- 
cially. MERCURY. 

LATE HARVEST (2 nd S. xi. 9.) Your corre- 
spondent X. quotes, from the Suffolk Chronicle, 
an instance of harvest in December in the late 
extraordinary season. I may mention as a pa- 
rallel case, that a field of wheat in the parish of 
Lindridge, co. Worcester, not usually a late dis- 
trict, was partly uncut at the commencement of 
January, 1861. And a field of oats, in a neigh- 
bouring parish of Upper Sapey, co. Hereford, was 
only secured at the close of December last. 


GUN- MONEY OF JAMES II. (2 nd S. xi. 13.) The 
Roman numerals vi., xii., xxx., were intended to 
denote the current value of each piece in pence, 
and not the day of the month. JOSEPH Rix. 

St. Neots. 



. XL JAN. 12. '61. 

" THINKS I TO MYSELF " (2 nd S. ix. 64.) 
This work was republished in Dove's English 
Classics, and was some few years since to be 
bought for a mere trifle. ALFRED COPLAND. 

" LIFE OF PETER D'AUBUSSON" (2 nd S.x. 513.) 
If J. M. will go to the British Museum and 
consult the Grenville Catalogue, Part I. p. 114., 
he will find three articles under the name of 
" Caoursin " which will give him the information 
he requires. All these three books are rare and 
interesting. F. H. 


Carthage and her Remains : being an Account of the 
Excavations and Researches on the Site of the Phoenician 
Metropolis in Africa, and other adjacent Places. Con- 
ducted under the Auspices of Her Majesty's Government. 
By Dr. N. Davis, F.R.G.S. (Bentley!) 

The recent discoveries at Carthage that Carthage of 
which it has -been said that all traces of it are so com- 
pletely lost, that the very ruins of it have disappeared 
have excited so much interest among scholars and anti- 
quaries, that a narrative of the excavations which have 
led to such important results cannot fail to attract a large 
share of public attention. And although classical stu- 
dents and admirers of ancient art will be among those 
who will peruse with the greatest anxiety Dr. Davis's 
narrative, its perusal will not be by any means confined 
to such classes. The volume abounds with so many pic- 
tures of the natural scenery of the country, and of the 
social condition of the people, as to make it one of con- 
siderable interest to the general reader. It is profusely 
and admirably illustrated, and must take its place 
among the most interesting books which the present 
season has produced. 

The Greatest of all the Plantagenets. An historical 
Sketch. (Bentley) 

Although distance may lend enchantment to a view, 
we doubi if it tends at all to give interest to history. 
Our sympathies are more alive to the times and con- 
temporaries of our grandsires than to the events and 
heroes of half-a-dozen centuries since. But despite of 
this disadvantage, and thanks to his own talents and 
researches, no less than the personal character of his hero, 
" the most sagacious and resolute of English princes," as 
Walter Scott describes him, the author of this historical 
sketch of the life and times of the first Edward has pro- 
duced a most interesting volume one which will well 
repay the time bestowed on its perusal, but which we 
fear will not be received with the same favour north of 
the Tweed, with which it will be regarded in England. 

The Bibliographer's Manual of British Literature. By 
William Thomas Lowndes. New Edition, revised, cor- 
rected, and enlarged. Part VI. (Bohn.) 

Manuel du Libraire et de V Amateur de Livres, #c. _ Par 
Jaques Charles Brunei. Cinquieme Edition Originale, 
entierement refondue et augmentee d'un tiers par VAuteur. 
Tome I. 2mepartie. (Williams and Norgate.) 

Le Bibliomane, No. I. (Trubner & Co.) 

This week has brought us three valuable additions to 
our stock of bibliographical knowledge. The new Part 
of Bohn's Lowndes, which extends from M to O inclu- 
sive, contains not only a number of names not contained 
in Lowudes's original work, but so much additional 
matter that the present part is fully one-fourth larger 
than the corresponding division of the first edition. - 

The second part of the new edition of Brunei, which 
occupies upwards of 900 closely printed columns, extends 
from Bibliothek to Chytrceus, and will be welcome to all 
lovers of books and students of literature. 

The third work on our list is a new periodical devoted 
to Bibliography, written in French, beautifully got up 
by our old friend Richards (the printer of the pretty- 
Percy Society's books), and in its materials principally 
devoted to English Bibliography. 


The Bee and the Wasp. A Fable in Verse, with Illus- 
trations designed and etched by George Cruikshank. 

A fable with a good moral, gracefully told; and ad- 
mirably illustrated by the immortal George. 

Routledge's Illustrated Natural History. Bi/ the Rev. 
J. G. Wood, M. A. Parts XIX., XX., XXL, XXII., and 
XXIII. (Routledge.) 

Mr. Wood seems to be on as familiar terms with the 
feathered creation, and as much master of his subject, 
when he comes to treat of them, as he was with the 
Mammals. The illustrations are of the same excellence, 
and we have no doubt the popularity of the book keeps 
pace with its progress. 

Correspondence between the Bishop of Exeter and the 
Rt. Hon. T. B. Macaulay, on Certain Statements respect- 
ing the Church of England. (Murray.) 

This interesting correspondence, "which took place in 
1849, is indispensable to the completion of Lord Macau- 
lay's History. 

Medals of the British Army, and how they were Won. 
By Thomas Carter. Parts IV. V. and VI. 

The medals treated of in these three parts are the Sar- 
dinian and Turkish, and that, noblest of all, " for distin- 
guished conduct in the field." 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, and whose name and ad- 
dress are given for that purpose: 



HERBARIUM OB.DINE ALPHABETI (circa 1484.) Sine loco et anno. Im- 
perfect copy. 

Wanted by Rev. J. C. Jackson, 5. Chatham Place East, Hackney, N.E. 


THE INDEX TO VOLUME TEN, SECOND SERIES, will be issued on Satur- 
day, January 1 9. 

COSTARD MONOER. Mr. ChadwicJc is referred to Richardson's Dic- 
tionary/or the etymology of this word. 

E. C. GRESFORD (Wrexham.) We have a letter which we are anxious 
should reach our correspondent. How can we address him? 

R. G. O. USED POSTAGE STAMPS are of no use. See Reports on Post 
Office. On supposed obiect of collecting them, sec " N. & Q.," 2nd S. iv. 

A CONSTANT READER will find the Rev. C. Colton's death noticed in 
our 2nd S. v. 238. Consult also any modern biographical dictionary. 

Q. N. The incident in the life of Dr. Goldsmith has been noticed by Ms 

ERRATA 2nd S. x. p. 305. col. ii. 1. T. from bottom, for " London " 

read " England ; " p. 512. col. i. 1. 44., for /' omne " read " omni ;" p. 
515. col. i. 1. 29.,/or JVraWQ read n^3B>D ; p. 516. col. i. 1. 21. .for 
" decreta " read " decreto ; " 1. 23., fi.r " optimatfam read optima- 
tum; p. 518. col. ii. 1. 24., for " assailed read " fell upon; p. 519. col. 
ii. 1. 10. , for " Grea " read " GreaJ; p. 520. col. ii. 1. 25., for " muleto 
read"' muleto." 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is publisJied at noon on Friday, and is aUo 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Half- 
yearly INDEX) is Us. id., which may be paid bu Post Office. Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLSET STREET, E.C.i to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOB THE EDITOR should be addressed. 

. JAN. 12. '61.] 



la the autumn of 1856 a farm-house, in the parish of Great Yeldham 
was partially repaired and opened for charitable purposes such as re- 
covery from sickness, for servants out of place, &c., and for other bene- 
volent work, as yet only in contemplation- the housework being 
chiefly done by a limi'ed number of girls, who are thus trained for ser- 
vice. The house has great capabilities, and the satisfactory results of 
the short period in which its useful labours have been carried on siiow 
how much more murht be achieved could increased funds be obtained. 
For this purpose, the Lady Superintendent earnestly solicits the prompt 
ASSISTANCE of the benevolent. 

Circulars will be forwarded, or money received, on application to the 
Lady superintendent, St. Andrew's Home, Great Yeldham, Halstead, 




Founded A.D. 1848. 


H.E. Bicknell.Esq. 

T. S. Cocks. Esq. 

G. H.Drew, Esq. M.A. 

W. Freeman, Esq. 

F. Fuller. Esq. 

J. H. aoodhart.Etq. 

E. Lucas, Eaq. 
F.B. Marson.Esq. 
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J.B. White, Esq. 

Physician.- W. R. Banham, M.D. 

Eanker* Messrs. Cock*. Biddulph and Co. 

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POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through tem- 
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LOANS from 100J. to 500Z. granted on real or first-rate Personal 

Attention is also invited to the rates of annuity granted to old lives, 
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SAVINGS BANKS, containing, besides numerous Tables and Statis- 
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The Lancet States, 


First of the kind Manufactured and Patented in the United Kingdom 
and France, as explained with Engravings in The Illustrated London 
News of May 26th, I860. Supplied by BKOWN & POISON, to Her Majesty 
the Queen, by order from Buckingham Palace. It is in great favour 
wherever it has been made known, for Puddings, Blancmange, &c., 
preferred to the best Arrow Root, and especially suited to the delicacy 
of Children and Invalids. 


Manufacturers and Purveyors to Her Majesty : 


, and LONDON. 

" NICOLL'S LACERNA." In old Rome, the "Toga" was for a time in 
danger. through an innovating garment, called " Lacerna," a species of 
sur-coat thrown over the rest of the dress; at one period it usurped the 
ilace of the "Toaa" to so great a degree that one of the Emperors 
aed special orders restricting the use of the " Lacerna" in either the 
n or Circus. For the use of Rifle Corps, or in private dress, Messrs. 
1 have, from coins in the British Museum, produced an adaptation 
from the classic model, and protected it by Royal letters patent. The 
original gracefulness being retained, the old name is, therefore, re- 
newed, and the trade mark " Nicoll's Lacerna "-may, like " Nicoll's 
Paletot," be as familiar in our mouths as " household words." Who. 
arrongst the higher and middle classes, has not proved the value of 
" Nicoll's " two-guinea Paletot ? and who will say that the many mil- 
lions of these garments sold by Messrs. Nicoll, at their well-known 
London premises 114. 116. 118. and 120. Regent-street, and 22. Corni.ill; 
also in 10. St. Ann's-square, Manchester have not greatly influenced 
the downfall of the padded, tight -fitting, high-priced, discomforts by 
which the lieges were encased in the reigns of George the 4th, William, 
and even far into the present reiin ? A Beautiful Cloth, marie from 
Picked portions of the Fleece of the Australian and European Merino, 
has been expressly manufactured, and is called " LACER.VA CLOTH," the 
nfentral colours of which are produced by undyed wools being carefully 
mixed, and a process, whereby this garment may be rendered Shower 
not Air-proof, may also be seen in operation in Regent-street. 


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man Street, London, E.C. have received the COUNCIL MEDAL of 
MEDAL of the PARIS EXHIBITION of 1855, "For the excellence 
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An Illustrated Pamphlet of the l(tf. EDUCATIONAL MICRO- 
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A GENERAL CATALOGUE may be had on application. 

TJ EDGES & BUTLER are now selling St. Julien 

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Steinberger Cabinet, 1834 vintage, 120s. ; good Hock and Moselle, 36*., 
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who want a delicious cup of Chocolate should procure FRYS' 
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FRY & SONS' Eating Chocolates, in Sticks, Drops, &c. are of su- 
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Sold by Grocers, Confectioners, and Druggists, and Wholesale by th 
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ciqus aroma, grateful smoothness, and invigorating 


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Apply direct to W. ALFORD LLOtfi), 19. Portland Road, Regent ' 
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The Era, Oct. 14th, 1860. 


from One Guinea 
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Octavo, ornamental cloth, 10s. 6d. ; antique morocco, elegant, 21s., a 
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NOTES : Spenceana : Some Account of the Life, Writ- 
ings, and Character of Dr. Swift, 41 - Van Lennep's " Herr 
Van Culemburg," 43 Parochialia : Christ Church, Cork, 
44 Richard Hooker : on the 1 irst Edition of the " Eccle- 
siastical Polity," 45. 

MINOB, NOTES : Singular Restoration of the Ancient Seals 
of Grimsby Registers of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch 
Pluck The Grasshopper on the Royal Exchange Win- 
throp Mackworth Praed, 46. 

QUERIES: Arms Wanted Burying in Linen Calva- 
camp, in Normandy Carthage and the Knights of Malta 

Charlatan Latin Poem on the De Witts Fontenelle 
and the Jansenists Mayors of Grimsby Hutchins's 
" Dorset " A Jack of Paris Charles Lamb Latin 
Graces Crest of the Minchin Family Date of Missals 

Mysterious Knockings, &c. Chapel, Nuneham Regis 

Rev. Win. Thompson Trissino's " Sofonisba " Ultra- 
MontaneYorkshire Words, 47. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Louis Maimbourg The 
Vikings Richard Milbourne, Bishop of Chichester 
Nicholas Gibbon, 49. 

REPLIES : Mary Queen of Scots and Douglas of Lochleven, 
50 Admiral Sir Thomas Dilkes, 52 Satirical Allusion to 
Johnson, Ib. "Collino custure me," 53 Choirs and 
Chancels, 55 The Bordeaux New Testament, 56 Talbot 
Edwards John Huss Anaesthetics Yepsond, or Yep- 
sintle Concolinel Paraphernalia Lord Chesterfield's 
Opinion of Music Burial in an Upright Posture Cen- 
tenarianism Woollett's Monument Clovis : Bidloo 
Henshaw Golden Verses The Beggars' Petition 
Winchester Pencil Writing Midwives Severe 
of 1789, 56. 





(Concluded from p. 23.) 

D r Swift was now arriv'd to the highest cha- 
racter as a writer of politics with all the party, 
and to a near and settled friendship, both with 
the Treasurer and L d Bolingbroke ; and seem'd, 
at that time, to stand the foremost for any pre- 
ferment that might become vacant. But by the 
very means that he obliged those two great men 
so much, he had disobliged many others very 
greatly ; and on the apprehensions of his being 
in the fairest way for a mitre, some of these made 
very strong remonstrances against him. That 
real good man, D r Sharpe, Archbishop of York, 
in particular, waited upon the Queen, by the de- 
sire of his brother of Canterbury, to represent 
to her Majesty of what prejudice it might be, if 
a man of D r Swift's character shou'd be promoted 
to the lawn, whom several people Rad not scrupled 
to accuse of irreligion, and who certainly had 
shown too much levity in some of his actions and 
writings. The Dutchess l of Somerset, who had 

1 " Archbishop Sharpe, and a lady of the highest 
rank." Lives of the Poets, v. 86. This lady was the 
Dutchess of Somerset : M r Trapp, from his father, who 
was Chaplain to L d Bolingbroke. 

the Queen's ear, had also misrepresented him to 
her. L d Nottingham carry'd things so far, as to 
speak against him in the House of Lords * ; and 
Walpole and Aislabie, in the House of Commons. 
All or part of this had made so strong an impres- 
sion on the Queen, that she in a manner put her 
negative upon him ; and his two great friends, 
tho' they had the sincerest desires for his higher 
promotion, found themselves unable to effect it, 
and so were forced to banish him (for in that 
light he always regarded it) to the Deanery of 
S* Patrick. He went thither to be installed ; but 
received so many letters from the ministers (who 
cou'd not well be without him), to hasten him back 
to London, that his stay in Ireland was no longer 
than a fortnight. I doubt not but that he had 
been of use to them by his advice in the Cabinet, 
as well as by his writings with the publick ; and 
he continued to be so in both, as long as they held 

The condition of his two great friends was (in 
a point very fatal to themselves, but very happy 
perhaps, for the nation) like that of Caesar and 
Pompey ; L d Oxford cou'd bear no equal, and 
L d Bolingbroke no superior. In the beginning 
of their differences, D r Swift used all his en- 
deavours, by writing 2 , by advice, and by en- 
treaties, to restore peace and to re-establish a 
friendship between them; and when he found 
that neither was practicable, and forsaw that their 
feuds must be the ruin of them, he retired 3 to a 
friend of his in Berkshire 4 , ten weeks before the 
Queen's death 5 ; and immediately after that fatal 
blow to all the party, returned to reside at his 
Deanery in Dublin. 6 As the generality of the 
people there had entertain'd very strong sus- 
picions of the Queen's late ministry being en- 
gaged in designs which, had they had time to 
ripen, wou'd probably have terminated in the 
destruction both of our church and state ; and as 
the Dean of S* Patrick's had been connected so 
closely with some of the chief and most suspected 
of those ministers, and had been so particularly 
active in the defence of them and their avowed 
measures ; he was also very strongly suspected of 
being concerned in their most private designs. 
No Dean, therefore, was ever worse received than 
he was at his first coming to settle among them. 
The Chapter of S fc Patrick 7 thwarted him 8 in 
every thing he propos'd ; they avoided him as 

1 M r Swift, p. 157. " Having been driven to this 
wretched kingdom by his (ye Lord Treasurer's) want of 
power to keep me in what I ought to call my own coun- 
try ; tho' I happen'd to be dropt here, and was a year old 
before I left it." D r Swift's Letter from Dublin in 1737 to 
the then Ld. Oxford, son of the Treasurer. M r Swift, 343. 

2 Hawksworth, p. 23. 3 M r Swift, p. 342. 

4 Pope's Letters, vol. ix. p. 17. 8vo. 

5 M r Hawksworth says " A few weeks," p. 242. 

6 Lives of the Poets, v. 86. 

7 Lives of the Poets, v. 86. 8 M r Swift, p. 183. 



[2" S. XI. JAK. 19. 6i. 

one would an infected person 1 ; and look'd upon 
him as one who had been contriving the invasion 
and ruin of his country. When he walked thro' 
the streets, he was frequently pointed at, and 
treated with abusive language by the shopkeepers 
and mechanics, and the meanest of the people 
flung dirt and filth at him as he passed. All 
this the Dean got over by degrees. The indig- 
nities he receiv'd from the populace he regarded, 
probably, not without a secret indignation in his 
breast, but outwardly, with a superior contempt ; 
and the prejudice and animosities of his Chapter he 
conquer'd to such a degree, that when presiding 
over them, " he looked," as L d Orrery says in a 
high stile, "like Jupiter in the synod of the gods," 2 
governing them all by his -nod. Tho' the stroke 
which the Dean had received from the quarrel be- 
tween the ministers was a very severe one, and was 
.extreamely aggravated by the death of the Queen 
soon after, yet it did not render him wholy unactive. 
He wrote a sketch of his History of (he Four Last 
Years of her Reign during his stay in Berkshire ; 
just warm from the occasion, and with all the 
heat of party upon him, and gave it a fuller form 
in the first year after his return to Ireland [1715]. 
Immediately 3 after this was finisht, he began his 
Travels of Gulliver [1716], and carried that work 
on, at intervals, for 3 or 4 years. I am apt to 
imagine, too, that in this period [1720] of six 
years after his return to Ireland, he might employ 
himself a good deal in considering the distresses 
of his native country, and in laying in part of 
that fund of knowledge of its wants and interests 
which -he made appear at times, in his writings, 
through a series of almost twenty years after it. 

D r Swift's acquiring so absolute a power over 
his Chapter, when they had been so violently pre- 
judiced against him, is a strong proof of his great 
knowledge and dexterity in the management of 
affairs ; but what is more strange, this so much 
hated and despis'd Dean at his first coming to 
settle in Dublin, in a few years after, became the 
highest favorite and idol of the people in general. 
He saw their poverty, their misery, and sufferings ; 
he consider'd their causes, and how they might 
be alleviated or remedied ; and his compassion for 
them, still the more animated, perhaps, by his 
hatred to the men in power, made him enter on 
that great task of becoming their patron and de- 
fender in his writings. 

In the beginning of the year '21, he published a 
treatise to recommend the use of their own manu- 
factures only to his countrymen, for which the ! 
printer 4 was so ill us'd by Lord Chief Justice ! 
Whitshed, and Whitshed himself so much lasht 
and persecuted in songs and epigrams by the 

1 Lives of the Poets, v. 87. 

2 M* Swift, p. 182. 

5 Waters ; Mr. Swift, p. 184. 
4 Waters, Mr. Swift, p. 18-1. 

Dean. About 3 years after, he defeated the im- 
position of Wood's adulterated coin on the people 
of Ireland 1 by l\isDrapier Letters; which gave 
so much offence to the government, that a reward 
of 300Z. was offered by proclamation for the dis- 
covery of the author of the Fourth Letter ; and 
a new 2 printer that he had employed was on the 
brink of being try'd before Whitshed, but escaped 
by the Grand Jm-y's 3 not finding the bill. 

" These Letters united the whole nation (to use 
Mr. Hawksworth's 4 words) in the praises of the 
Dean, filled every street with his effigies, and 
every voice with acclamations." Swift, on this 
occasion, redoubled his strokes on the Chief Jus- 
tice, who had used the Grand Jury (as he repre- 
sents 5 it) illegally, on their not finding the bill; 
and, in spite of all opposition and persecutions, 
continued his writing for the good of people, as 
long 6 as he was capable of writing anything that 
required thought and pains. 

The D n had been almost twelve years since the 
Queen's death in Ireland, without making a single 
visit to his friends in England, when he gave 
them one in the summer of '26, and repeated it 
in that of '27. The writers on his life and actions 
have not given the reason for these two journeys, 
but I think they may be easily accounted for. 

About 10 years before the first of them, the 
Dean had been privately 7 married to the Stella 
of his poems, M rs Johnson a most agreeable and 
sensible lady. Her constitution began to break 
in '24 8 , and she died in the beginning of '28. 
'Tis probable, therefore, that he might make these 
two journeys in this interval, partly to avoid the 
miseries he must have felt in seeing her in so 
languishing a condition, and partly on a scheme 
which was then set on foot for an exchange of his 
Deanery in Ireland for some preferment in 
England. This continued a good while in his 
thoughts, and was much desired by some of his 
old friends on this side the water, and particu- 
larly by M r Pope. I have good reason to think, 
that the latter had engaged a lady 9 of particular 
influence at Court, about that time, in his favor ; 
and it is confirm'd by several of the letters 10 that 
passed between Swift and Pope in this period. 

It appears, from the same, that this thought was 
kept up (at least by his friends) for several years 
on ; but all their invitations could never prevail 
upon him to cross the water after the year '27. 

He continu'd on in Ireland from that time to 
his death : sometimes writing little pieces of hu- 

1 Mr. Swift, p. 186., and Hawksworth, 42. 

2 Harding. 5 Mr. Swift, p. 139. 

* P. 42. * Mr. Swift. 6 Id., see p. 286. 

7 Married in 1716, Mr. Swift, p. 92.; and Hawks- 
worth, p. 36. 

s Mr. Swift, p. 181. 

9 Mrs. Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk. 

See first papers, A 3., Nos. 14., with Pope's 

x. 19. '61.] 



mour, sometimes even idle things, for his diver- 
sion ; and sometimes more useful ones for the 
service or direction of his countrymen. Among 
these was his share in the paper call'd The Intel- 
ligencer [1728]; his Modest Proposal the year 
after [1729] ; his pieces, relating to the taking 
off the Test Act, in '31 and '32 ; his Advice to the 
Freemen of Dublin, in '33 ; and his Proposal for 

fiving Badges to the Beggars in Dublin, in '37. 
t has been mentioned, toward the beginning of 
this account, that the Dean had been troubled 
with a coldness of stomach, and a giddiness, be- 
fore he was twenty. Some time after, he began 
also to be very subject to deafness. Both these 
latter ailments grew upon him, and affected his 
spirits very much. On the loss of his Stella, this 

floomy cast, of his thoughts was greatly encreas'd : 
ut the cloud did not obtain entirely over his 
mind till after 1 he was '70. From that unhappy 
period, he was lost to the world, to his friends, 
and to himself. He died in a very easy, and 
almost imperceptible manner, toward 2 the close 
of the 78 th year of his age [1745]. 

[Here the MS. breaks off, with the following 
memorandum in pencil : " Not finished : Writings 
and Character wanting. See Hints and Materials 
for these two parts among Papers annexed."] 


I am desirous of calling your attention to a 
circumstance relating to a Dutch work, Neder- 
landsche Legenden, by Van Lennep, who, both as 
a poet and a novelist, enjoys a deserved reputa- 
tion in Holland. 

In the first canto of the legend " Jacoba en 
Bertha," I find a son<* introduced entitled " Heer 
van Culemburg," which resembles so closely the 
celebrated song "Young Lochinvar"in Marmion, 
that one may be considered as the translation of 
the other, with such alterations as are necessary 
to adapt it to another locality. 

I enclose a copy of this Dutch song, so that 
you may place before your readers the whole of 
it^ or such extracts from it as you may deem ad- 
risable : 


Lied van Bertha. 
" ! Culemburgs Heer kwam gereden met spoed, 

Geen paard aan de Lek als het zijne zoo goed ; 

<Geen wapenen droeg hij dan 't heupzwaard alleen: 

En zonder gevolg kwam hij voorwaart gereen ; 

Zoo trouw aan zijn liefste en zoo kloek in 't ge\yeer, 

Was Dimmer een Ridder als Culemburgs Heer. 
"Hem stuitte geen hoogte, geen diepe moeras: 

En vond hij geen brug, hij zwom over den plas ; 

1 He was 70 in the year 1737 ; his will is dated 1740 ; 
and that was his last writing, as well as his last will 

2 Oct. 19, 1745, Mr. Swift, p. 375. 

Maar toch, toen hij afsteeg aan 't Benthemsch kasteel, 
Daar vond hij de Bruid reeds gedoscht in 't fluweel : 
Een laf bek in 't minnen, een knaap zonder eer, 
Verloofd aan de liefste van Culemburgs Heer. 

",Het Benthemsch kasteel kwam hij binnen getreen, ' 
En vond er verwanten en speelnoots bijeen ; 
De Vader der Bruid sloeg de hand aan 't gevest, 
En sprak : (want de Bruigom hield zwijgen het best) 
Zeg ! brengt gij hier krijg en verschijnt ge in 't 

geweer ? 
Of komt gij als speelnoot, o Culemburgs Heer?' 

" 'Lang vrijdde ik uw dochter, 'k heb vrucht'loos gehoopt, 
Zwelt liefde als een duinwel, een duinwel verloopt; 
En nu kom ik hier en mijn hart is weer vrij, 
Ee'n dans will ik leiden, ee'n beker voor mij. 
Uw dochter moog' fraai zijn, ik ken er wel meer 
Die graag zouden huwen aan Culemburgs Heer.' 

" De Bruid schonk den kroes in en kuste den rand, 
Hij leegde de kelk en hij wierp ze uit de hand. 
Zij bloosde en zag neder : zij zuchtte en zag op : 
Een lagchje op de lippen : in d^p oogen een drop : 
Hij nam (spijt de moecler) haan handje zoo teer, 
'Nu ee'ns in de rondte,' sprak Culemburgs Heer. 

" Zoo minzaam een blik, een gestalte zoo stout, 
Was nimmer in feestzaal noch leger anschouwd. ' 
De moeder keek spijtig, de vatter verstoord, 
De Bruigom stond suf maar hij sprak niet een woord. 
De speelnpotjens lispten, Het voegde veel meer 
Dat nichtje de Bruid waar' van Culemburgs Heer.' 

" Een drukje in de hand en een woord in het oor, 
Zij naakten de zaaldeur: de klepper stond voor 
Toen zwaaide hij 't meisje gezwind op het ros, 
Sprong zelf in den zadel en draafde in het bosch ; 
Mij 't Bruidje ! gereden door heide en door meer, 
Wie 't lust, moge ons volgen,' riep Culemburgs Heer. 

" Toen stegen de Benthems en Gemens te paard, 
En volgden het Bruidje met lans en met zwaard. 
Men joeg en men rende door heide en door woud. 
Maar nooit werd de Bruid meer te Benthem aan- 

schouwd ; 

Zoo koen in zijn liefde en zoo kloek in 't geweer, 
Was nimmer een Ridder als Culemburgs Heer." 

Among the notes appended to this legend there 
is one expressly referring to this song, which, 
nevertheless, makes no allusion to Walter Scott, 
or to " Young Lochinvar." 

The note, however, purports to explain the 
origin of the story, and is to the following effect : 

^ "The beautiful Bertha seems to have a spirit of fore- 
sight, since the occurrence with the Lord of Culemburg 
took place certainly ten years later than the time which 
my legend embraces. 

"" The story is this : John, the 4th of that name, the 
llth Lord of Culemberg, had for his first wife the daugh- 
ter of the Lord of Gemen, by whom he had no children. 

" After the death of this' wife he was invited by his 
brother-in-law, the then Lord of Gemen, who was be- 
trothed to Aleide van Gutterswijck, sister of the Count of 
Benthem, to come to his wedding feast. 

" The Lord of Culemberg came and proceeded to salute 
the intended bride by way of courtesy, upon which the 
young lady said, 

" ' Wat wild y van Ian van Gemen kallen, kalt van 

" They understood each other at once, and he set his 
sweetheart behind him on his horse, and carried her to 
his castle at Waert." 



[2 S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

Van Lennep appends as authorities for this 
note, Zueder de Culenburgh; Origines Culen- 
lurgicce in Matth. Anal., torn. iii. p. 628. ; Historic 
ofte Beschrijvinge van V Utrechtsche Bisdom, deel. 
ii. bl. 595. No. 15. 

I cannot believe that Van Lennep intended to 
mystify his Dutch readers by this elaborate note, 
and thus to take credit for the song as his own. 
On the other hand, I find it impossible to doubt 
the originality of " Young Lochinvar," which was 
published long before Van Lennep's legend. 

Perhaps one of your correspondents may be 
able throw light upon this subject, and may point 
out some passage in the preface or notes to the 
legend, which may have escaped my observation, 
indicating the source from which the author ob- 
tained the song. 

It is right that I should add that, in the same 
work, in another legend, " Het huis ter Leede," I 
find twenty lines, or thereabouts, very closely 
imitated from the remarkable passage in Lord 
Byron's Lara, beginning 

"Night wanes, the vapours round the mountains 
curled," &c. 



Of all the public records in this county, none 
have experienced more neglect, and consequent 
decay, than the ancient written memorials of our 
parish churches. As regards parish registers their 
loss may be accounted for in many ways. In the 
first place, it was customary in former times to 
entrust these documents to the care of ignorant 
parish sextons, who, provided they could secure 
their portion of the fee for entry, &c., had little 
regard for the safety of their charge ; secondly, 
for the want of a safer depositary they were often 
kept in the parish clergyman's house, on whose 
removal, by preferment or death, they were in 
many cases forgotten and lost ; and thirdly, they 
have often been borrowed and stolen with a down- 
right, dishonest intent to rob some rightful inheri- 
tor, by destroying the evidence such a document 
could testify to ; other causes could be assigned 
for the paucity of ancient parish registers now 
existing. I am aware of the fate of some valua- 
ble records of this description in this county, but 
as any allusion to them would be attended with a 
mention of the names of those now departed, 
silence shall be observed. Another class of docu- 
ment akin to them, is the old vestry account book : 
these point out the nature of the parish expendi- 
ture, the cost of the church furniture, ornamenta- 
tion, &c. In August, 1857, my attention was 
directed to an old chest in a small apartment 
under the organ gallery in Christ church, Cork ; 
it was fastened with three locks as usual (Canon 
xcvi.)- On mentioning the circumstance to the 

respected rector of the parish, he promptly had 
the chest opened ; when the ancient parish regis- 
\ ter, and parish account book (the oldest in this 
city or county), and other highly interesting docu- 
ments concerning this church were brought to 
light. The register is written on thick vellum, 
and contains forty-eight folios, each folio is 17 
i inches long by 7 inches in breadth. The parish 
1 account book is slightly imperfect. The following 
items will give some insight as to the working of 
a parochial vestry in the seventeenth century : 

s. d. 

" 1665, May 30. From M r Neptune Blood, 
Deane of Kilfanora, being in satisfaction 
of the plate he tooke away (when minister 
of the said parish) belonging to said pa- 
rish and church - - - 14 
May 8. Paid for washing the surplice and 

the Communion table cloath sixe tymes - 090 

Paide for a paper book to enter the 'parish 

accounts in - - - 7 

Paide the Coroner for takeing an inquisition 
upon the body of Michael Fisher, being ac- 
cidentally killed, and his wife so poor as 
not able to pay him - - 13 

Paide for two yards of Green Ribbon for the 
book - - - - 1 

P d a poore man to bear his charges for Eng- 
land - - 3 

1664, May 8. P d William Sexton for repair- 
ing the Charnell house in the Church- 
yard - - - - - 19 

P d do. for levelling the grave stones in the 

Chancell - - - - 4 

P d John Poynts for Lymning the ten Com- 
mandments with the Effigies of Moses and 
Aaron, and cullouring the Rayles and en- 
larging the King's Armes - - 15 

1666, May 2. P d for a bell rope - - 5 
Jan. 26. P d Bridget Pembroke for keeping 

Margaret Weldon two weekes - 050 

Jan. 31. P d for fower yards of cloath and 
halfe (being French cloath) to make a 
shroud - - - - 6 10 

P d for fouer pottles of beare when she was 

buried - - 1 

1667, May 17. P d to Captin Godwine, Book- 
seller, for two Common praier books for 

the minister and clarke - 1 2 

March 25. P d for mending the Surplis 

against Easter - -010 

1668, For repairing church, and covering 
chancell, p d for twentie and seaven thou- 
sand of Cornish tyle, and lauding them - 13 13 

P d for beare that the Tylers had - - 11 6 

1674, May 20. P d for backing the King's 

Arms - - - - 12 

P d the painter for drawing the King's Arms 

and washing the Commandments - 600 

P d for drawing the letters on the table - 130 
For helping up the King's Armes - 
1677, 7 ber 24. P d a shroud for Merry An- 
drew's wife - - 5 2 
1680, Feb. 14. It was agreed upon that all the pa- 
rishioners of said parish should be seated in their 
seats, suitable to their quality in the said parish church, 
notwithstanding the claims of several other persons of 
other parishes to several of the said seats." 
From this book we learn that it was customary 

S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. ] 


it this period to bury in shrouds, for procuring 
which the parish was at considerable expense ; 
jalico appears to have been the usual material : 
3 yards made a shroud for a woman. There was 
always an allowance for drink. On the first page 
of the Parish Register is the following note : 

" This booke was provided for the Registringe of all 
Marriages, Christenings, and Burialls within this pish of 
Christ Church in Corke, An Dni. 1643, Robert Kinge 
and George White beinge then Churchwardens of the 
said pish, &c. And given by John Bayly of Corke, Gent., 
in consideration of the seate which the above said Church- 
wardens have now erected upon there owne proper cost 
and charge. Doe give and appoynt freely unto the said 
John Bayly for to sitt with the said Robert King and 
George White in the foresaid seat. As witness our hands 
this 15 th June, 1643. Robert King and George" White, 
Church Wardens." 

The following are amongst the most remarkable 
entries. The first in the Register is probably 
the father of him who gave the book : 

" John Bayly, the elder, late Clerke of the Citty and the 
parish of Christ Church, Cork, deceased 2G July, 

1645, Sept. 9. Margaret, dr. of Morogh O'Brainn, Lord 
Baron of Insequin, Lord President of Munster, 

1646, Aug. 14. Roger, s. of Roger Boyle, Lorde baron of 
Brohil, and of .... his Lady baptised. 

1646, July 19. Teige Don married Anstase ne Teige. 
1644, Dec. 3. Ser Arter Hide, Knt., buried. 

1644, Mar. 11. Elinor Braine, dr. to my Ld. Inchiquin 

1645, Feb. 7. Nicholas Dallison, s. to Sir Maksennon, 

1645, Feb. 19. M r Will. Conyers, Jentman of my Ld. 
P" hors, buried. 

1646, Ap. 14. Henery Spenser, Precher of God's word, 

1646, Ap. 24. Doret}', dr. to Sir Percy Smith, buried. 
1646, Sep. 4. Rich d Sterton, who was most cruelly 

murdered by the enemy. 
1646, Nov. 6. Sir Andra Barott, Knt., buried. 

1646, Jan. 28. M r Cornelius Gray, Precher of God's 
word, buried. 

1647, Dec. 2. Mager Generale Craig, beeing wounted 
in the Battel at Cnocknonoss, buried. 

1647, Dec. 2. Sir W Bridges, beeing wounted in the 

Battel, was likewise buried. 
1647, Dec. 4. Cornet Nightengale, buried. 

1655, Ap. 23. Will., son of James Feeld, an Irishman 
and Cateren, bap. 

' Joqsaue Blod went to Killfenora out of the Citie of 
Cork with mene wepin tears the sicint day of Aprel, 

[This entry is on the top of a blank page 1 

1656, Feb. 26. Frances Bering, one of Lieut-Coll 
Finches Compy, buried. 

1657, June 2. Esay Thomas, Recorder of this Cittv 

1658, May 1. Henry Pepper, Sword-bearer of the Cittv 
of Cork, buried. 

1659, Sep. 18. Jaene Blundell, buried in the night, 
dy'd in Childbirth. 

1660, Nov. 4. Dame Margaret, wife of Sir Robt. Co- 
pinger, buried. 

Jan. 10. Henrie Bill, being unfortunately slaine with a 
great gun. 

1662, May 17. Richard, son of Sir Rich* Kyrl, buried. 

1664, Mar. 30. John Tucker being 100 and" 10, buried. 

' Charles the Second of that name, King of gret 

brittan, ffrance, and Irland, was proclamed in 

this Citty of Corke the 18 of May, 1660. Whom 

God prosper, Amen, Amen.' " 

This is also written oh the top of a blank page. 
From the irregularity of the dates, it is most pro- 
bable that the items were at first written on small 
pieces of paper and filed, and subsequently en- 
tered in the Register : this would appear to be 
the case from the following item in the parish 
account book : 

" 1666, May 20. P* the Clarke for writting in the Re- 
gister the nameg of the children which were chris- 
tened and buried in the gish of Christ Church in 
M r Bloods dayes. and since the same - 1 " 





Mr. Keble, in his Preface to the writings of 
Hooker, and with reference to the Ecclesiastical 
Polity, says : 

" The Editio Princeps is itself a small folio, very closely, 
but clearly, and in general most accurately printed." 

He adds, in a note : 

" The Editor takes this opportunity of acknowledging 
his^ obligations to the Rev. Dr. Bliss, Registrar of the 
University of Oxford, for the use of a copy of this rare 
volume, including also the fifth book, first edition, in cor- 
recting the press ; and also for the following note regard- 
ing the two : ' The four first books were, according to 
Maunsell, printed in 1592-3. Walton, however, and he 
is probably right, says that they did not appear till the 
year 1594. The fifth was published by itself in 1597, the 
printer being the person who executed the first part in 
1594. It is singular that neither Ames nor Herbert 
(who notice the first part, Typograph. Antiq., vol. ii. 
p. 1230.) knew anything of the fifth boo*k. What they 
say of the first is quoted from Maunsell (Cat, Part i. 
p. 59.), and the Stationers' Register' " 

Happening to possess copies of both the edi- 
tions here mentioned, and knowing the deep in- 
terest which everything connected with Richard 
Hooker awakens in so many minds, I record a few 
particulars of the first of these volumes, reserving a 
notice of the second, rather larger, though contain- 
ing only the fifth book, for a future opportunity. 
The following is the title-page : 


of Ecclesiasticall 


Eyght Bookes. 
By Richard Hooker. 

Printed at London by John Windet, dwelling at the 

Signe of the Crosse Keyes, neere Powle's Wharffe, 

and are there to be soulde." 



. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

There are engraved devices on the top and at 
the middle of the page, but no date appears. 

We must, therefore, look elsewhere for the con- 
firmation of Mr. Keble's statement : " The first 
edition bears date 1594."* 

In Andrew Maunsell's Catalogue, printed by 
John Windet, 1595, is the following entry : 

" Richard Hooker, of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Poll- 
tie, written in defence of the present government esta- 
blished, against the new-desired discipline. 

" Printed by John Windet, 1593, in folio." 

Again I quote from Ames's Typographical An- 
tiquities (vol. iii. p. 1250.), in notice of printers, 
article " John Windet" : 

" 1593. Ric. Hooker's Laws of Ecclesiastical Politic, 
written in defence of the present government, established 

" Maunsell, p. 59. Licensed. Folio/' 

I have extracted these two quotations from 
copies of the respective works in the Bodleian 

Again, Walton, in his Life of Hooker J, says : 

" His first four Books, and large Epistle, have been de- 
clared to be printed at his being at Boscum, anno 1594." 

These are the passages which, so far as I can 
gather, fix the date of this first edition of the first 
four books. And now to the volume itself. 

It begins at once with Hooker's own Preface. 
This occupies 45 pages, addressed " To them that 
seeke (as they tearme it) the reformation of 
Lawes, and orders Ecclesiasticall in the Church of 

The 46th page contains the summary of " things 
handled in the Bookes following," of which eight 
are numbered. It need scarcely be mentioned that 
only four are here printed. This is alluded to at 
the close of the volume in " An Advertisement to 
the Reader," prefixed to the list of errata by 
Hooker himself. I quote the passage more readily, 
from its being omitted in Mr. Keble's edition : 

" I have for some causes (gentle Reader) thought it at 
this time more fit to let goe these first four books by 
themselves, then to stay both them and the rest, till 
the whole might together be published. Such generali- 
ties of the cause in question as here are handled, it will 
be perhaps not amisse to consider apart, as by way of 
introduction unto the bookes that are to followe concern- 
ing particulars. In the meane while thine helping hand 
must be craved for the amendment of such faults com- 
mitted in printing as (omitting others of lesse moment) 
I have set downe." 

I look forward to another opportunity of offer- 
ing, for " N. & Q.," a similar notice of the fifth 
book ; of which, as mentioned above, the first 
edition is before me, printed by the same John 

* Pref., p. vi. 

f In a MS. note on the passage in Ames (Bodleian 
copy), it is stated that " the price of the book was three 
shillings, as appears from a MS. book of expenses in the 
reign of Elizabeth." 

J P. 70., Keble's edit. 

Windet, " dwelling at Ppwle's Wharfe," with the 
date added, viz. 1597.* FRANCIS TRENCH. 

Islip, Oxford. 


or GRIMSBY. More than one of the Lincoln- 
shire admirers of " N. & Q." will be obliged to 
the editor if he will preserve in its columns the 
following account of the discovery of the ancient 
seals of the borough of Grimsby : 

" A meeting of the Council was held on Friday evening 
last: present M. Leppington, Esq. (Mayor), Aldermen 
Harrison and Bennett, and Councillors Skelton, Bennett, 
W. T. Wintringham, Coatsworth, Kennington, Weight- 
man, and Veal. The first business on the notice-paper 
was to receive a communication from the Town Clerk 
relative to the restoration of the ancient common seal and 
and Mayor's seals of the borough. The Town Clerk 
stated that some two years ago, Mr. Tolmin Smith, a bar- 
rister-at-law, who was about to deliver a lecture on 
Havelock, applied to him for examples of the corporation 
seals, as he understood there was some reference in the old 
seal to a remote ancestor of Havelock. He wrote in reply, 
giving the best information he could procure, and inform- 
ing Mr. Tolmin Smith that the seals had been missing 
many years, and were supposed to have been stolen, and 
that he thought it very probable the3 r had found their 
way into the possession of some antiquarian society. Mr. 
Tolmin Smith, in a recent lecture delivered before the Is- 
lington Literary Society, referred to the loss of the 
Grimsby corporate seals, and stated how highly they 
were prized. Mr. Frederick Carritt, solicitor, of Basing- 
hall Street, London, was present at the lecture, and at its 
close communicated to Mr. T. Smith that the long-lost 
seals were in his possession, though he was not aware of 
their value, and that he should be happy to restore them. 
The Town Clerk immediately received communications 
both from Mr. Carritt and Mr. Smith, and Mr. Carritt 
had since forwarded the seals to him to be restored to the 
Corporation. The Town Clerk produced the seals, which 
were inspected, and there is no doubt of their being the 
genuine 'seals, as Councillor Skelton remembered having 
seen them before they were lost. A vote of thanks was 
passed to Mr. Carritt for having immediately and volun- 
tarily, on ascertaining that these long-lost seals were the 
property of and valuable to the Corporation, forwarded 
such seals to the Town Clerk of the Corporation, as also 
to Mr. Smith, for having mentioned in his lecture the 
loss of the seals, which had led to Mr. Carritt's know- 
ledge of their value and their restoration. The seals are 
supposed to have been lost about thirty-six years since. 
It appears to have been the custom, under the old Corpo- 
ration, for these old seals to be handed over to the Cham- 
berlains, and it is probable that instead of passing them 
on to his successor, one of the Chamberlains had retained 

* The Bodleian Library has the first edition of the two 
works. As in the case of my own copy (with which they 
exactly correspond), they are bound in one volume. 
Though one was printed some years after the other, the 
type, paper, general form, and appearance, are very much 
the same both in the Bodleian copy and my own. The 
two distinct publications issued from the press of the 
same printer, and have all the appearance of having been 
not only bound together, but brought out I do not 
mean as editions, but as copies at the same time. 

XI JAN. 19. '61.] 



them, or they had been stolen from him, and had passed 
through various hands until they came into posses- 
sion of a relative of Mr. Carritt, who lived at North 
Coates, and recently into Mr. Carritt's possession as his 
executor. The old seals are supposed to have been in use 
by the Saxons before the period of William the Conqueror, 
and to have been discontinued about the time of the Com- 
monwealth, when the present seal was adopted. The 
seals will be deposited with the ancient charters and mu- 
niments of the corporation." Stamford Mercury, Dec. 
21, 1860. 


These registers contain the burial entries of two 
persons who, I think, were among the original 
actors of Shakspeare's plays, viz. 

" 12 March, 161|. Richard Cowley, player. 
16 March, 16 If. Richard Burbadge, player." 

May we not also trace the influence of Shak- 
speare's dramas in the following names, which 
occur in the same registers ? 

" 1591. Bapt. Troylus Skinner. 
Coriolanus Hawke. 

1608. Burd. Juliet Burbege. 

1609. Desdemonye Bishop." 

C. J. R. 

PLUCK. M. Esquiros, in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes, defines this word ("derive de 1'ancien 
Saxon ") thus, " le courage uni a la fermete, a 
1'obstination, au sang-froid, a une resolution crois- 
sante et qui ne cede jamais." C. J. R. 

No doubt some of your readers may remember 
that during a thunderstorm last summer the grass- 
hopper of the Royal Exchange was surrounded 
by the electric fluid to such a degree as to pro- 
duce a very remarkable effect. This circumstance 
was deemed worthy of a paragraph in The Times 
of Aug. 11, 1860, which I cut out and have now 
before me. After observing that this insect was 
the crest of Sir Thomas Gresham, it runs thus : 

" By many it is believed that the present grasshopper 
is the same which adorned the spire of the original struc- 
ture ; but if not, it is at all events the identical emblem 
which has surmounted the three subsequent towers, viz. 
that erected after the fire of London ; that built by Mr. 
Smith in 1813; and after the last fire it was preserved 
and used again by Mr. Tite, &c." 

Now in juxta-position to this I wish to place 
the following, and to found a Query upon it. 
Having occasion to refer to a recent No. of The 
Builder, I observed a notice of auction in the fol- 
lowing terms : 

" The original Grasshopper and Stone Statues from the 
late Royal Exchange, &c. &c. Mr. Frederick Indermans 
will sell by Auction, on the premises, Kent Place, Old 
Kent Road, &c." 

From which it would appear that the present 
golden insect is not the real Simon Pure. Can 
any light be thrown upon what must appear to be 
rather a questionable mode of dealing with that 

which ought to be a highly-prized relic? The 
stone statues, I presume, were damaged by the 
fire. H. W. 

(which I am unable to answer) in reference to 
this charming poet prompts me to ask why there 
is no English edition of his works ? I have an 
American edition in two volumes, published by 
Redfield of New York ; but it is full of errors, 
and a great part of the second volume is occupied 
with ridiculous replies in verse to Praed's famous 
charade. Some years ago it was stated that 
Praed's poems were to be edited by his fellow - 
Etonians, the Rev. Derwent Coleridge and Moul- 
trie, and published by J. W. Parker & Son. It 
is a disgrace to England that we are obliged to 
send across the Atlantic for the works of so 
original and felicitous and thoroughly English a 

ARMS WANTED. In the Harl, MSS. 2151. r 
Randle Holme gives the following arms from a 
stained-glass window in Bunbury church, Che- 
shire : S., two bars A., on a canton G. (?)/a fleur- 
de-lis O. To what family do they belong ? 

G. W. M 

BURYING IN LINEN. When, and for what pur- 
pose, was the law first enacted which prohibited 
the use of linen in burying the dead ? An anony- 
mous writer (William Taylor, of Norwich), in 
the Monthly Magazine for February, 1800, p. 53., 
remarking on this law says : 

" Another beneficial consequence flows from it which 
is of great importance, especially at the present time, 
when the price of paper and of books is become so enor- 
mously high. For it appears that bv the prohibition to 
clothe the bodies of the dead in linen, at least 200,000 Ibs. 
of rags are annually saved from untimely corruption in 
the grave, and in due time pass to the hands of the manu- 
facturers of paper." 

It may well be doubted whether the observance 
of such a law, if it really exists, or ever did exist, 
could be enforced, although the profits derived 
from the rag bag, which was formerly kept, more 
commonly I suspect than at the present day, by 
careful housewives and domestic servants, would 
naturally hold out a strong inducement. If 
200,000 Ibs. was a fair estimate sixty years ago, 
what would the annual saving be now ? Q. 

CALVACAMP, IN NORMANDY. At p. 147. vol. iv. 
of Mr. Forester's translation of Ordericus Vitalis 
(Bohn's edition), the Toeni family are said, in a 
foot-note, to have sprung from a Frank named 
" Hugh de Calvacamp." Will any learned cor- 
respondent versed in early Norman antiquities 
kindly say who this personage was, and where 



[2 S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

" Calvacamp " is situated. Sir F. Palgrave could, 
were be to see" this Query. SENEX. 

With reference to the late important discoveries 
made at Carthage and Tunis, can anyone inform 
me if any modern inscriptions, rudely cut as if 
with a knife, have been deciphered ? I am told 
such to be the case, but should be glad of the par- 
ticulars. These inscriptions, or scratchings, are 
attributed to the Knights of Malta, when they 
were on detachment duty on the coast of Africa, 
and that when time hung heavy on their hands 
they amused themselves by recording their names 
on the ruins. I have been an interested reader 
of Carthage and her Remains, by Dr. Davis, 
F.R.G.S., but he makes no allusion to the sub- 
ject. I should feel much obliged if any corre- 
spondent of " N. & Q." could afford me information 
as might serve to elucidate the military history of 
the Knights of S. John of Jerusalem. 


CHARLATAN. Can any of your readers point 
out an early instance of the use of the word 
" Charlatan " as applied to a quack doctor ; or a 
satisfactory derivation of the word used in that 
or any other sense ? X. O. 


" Ad Manes violates Jani Wittii, Libertatis Batavise 
Vindicis, quondam, ac victimae." 

Gent. Mag., March, 1757, p. 134. 
" Wittiadum cineres, et Barneveldia busta, 

Urnaque ab impurS, non teraeranda manii ; 
Quicquid et heroum fatalis a csede supersit, 

Ossaque vix terris jam tumulata suis; 
Ecquid, honorati Manes, sentitis in umbris, 

Curaque vos dirse tangit inulta necis ? 
Ecquid in Elysiis, nondum secura, viretia 

Otia, defunctis liberiora, patent? 
Invidia et vulgi nondum satiata veneno 

Cessat, in insontes semper acerba viros ? 
Quicquid et adrosit mentita calumnia yivis, 

Post obitum duplici fcenore livor agit. 
Vestraque deteritur conducto fama libello, 
Nomina qui foeda labe gravanda notet. 
Nomina quae Batavis horrorem annalibus addunt, 
Et pia queis Batavo sanguine vena calet," &c. 

The above lines are the commencement of a 
poem in vindication of the De Witts, too long to 
be transcribed whole for insertion in " K. & Q." 
They appear to me to be elegant and classical. 
The metre throughout the poem is correct, with 
the exception of some niceties in versification not 
understood, or not attended to, in those days. 
The editor of the Gent. Mag. says they were sent 
to him by a correspondent from Amsterdam, where 
a controversy on the merits or demerits of the two 
brothers was then raging. Can anyone acquainted 
with Dutch literature give me information as to 
the authorship of the verses ? W. D. 


" Fontenelle had long been suspected of a leaning to 

the Jansenists, which became apparent after his dispute 
with Bossuet, and his banishment from the Court. His 
intentions were good, and had his courage allowed him 
to go on, he would have become a Protestant." p. 21. A 
Letter concerning Enthusiasm, addressed to the Rev. John 
Wesley, by a Layman, London, 1769, pp. 64. 

If there is any authority for this I shall be 
obliged by a reference to it. F. B. 

MAYOKS OF GRIMSBY. Where is there to be 
seen a list of the Mayors of Grimsby, co. Lincoln? 


HDTCHINS'S "DORSET." The gentry of this 
country are making great exertions to have a cor- 
rect new edition of Hutchins's Dorset, and Messrs. 
Ship and Hodson have kindly undertaken the work 
at our request. I wish to forward to them a few 
correct genealogical trees, and you will much assist 
me, and indeed the work itself, by printing the 
Queries I send you in your next publication. 

Were the Peverels of Bradford Peverel, co. 
Dorset, descended from the Peverels of the Peak, 
Nottingham, Whittington, Dover, Brunne, Lon- 
don, Sampford Peverel, co. Devon, or Ermington, 
co. Devon ? 

Was Drogo De Bardelf, temp. Edward TIL (re- 
ferred to in Hutchins's Dorset, first edition, 1774, 
vol. i. pp. 475. 488.) descended from Donn Bar- 
dolf by Beatrice de Warren, his wife ? 

Was John Coplestone of Exeter, temp. Henry 
VIII. (mentioned in Hutchins's Dorset, first edi- 
tion, 1774, vol. i. p. 444.), descended from the 
Coplestones of Coplestone, co. Devon ? 

Were the Warhams of Okeley, co. Hants, temp. 
Henry VIII., descended through any maternal 
channels from noble houses ? To what period 
could they trace their descent paternally ? 

Was Archbishop Warham, temp. Henry VII., 
of the kin of William of Wykeham ? 


Leigh House, Wimborne. 

A JACK OF PARIS. Sir Thomas More in his 
Works, vol. i. p. 675., speaks of " A Jak of Parys, 
an evil pye twyse baken." Can any of your rea- 
ders explain this ? E. H. 

CHARLES LAMB. I remember once seeing in a 
collection of miscellaneous poems some exquisite 
verses on the " South Wind," attributed to 
Charles Lamb. Are they his ? They do not (so 
far as I am aware) appear in any edition of his 
works his " Plays," as he used to call them. 


LATIN GRACES. Will any of your obliging cor- 
respondents favour me with a reference to some 
published work containing the Latin "graces," 
chaunted, or said before and after meat at our 
Universities and Public Schools ; or give me the 
benefit of any private collection of the same 
through the medium of your columns ? 



2* S. XI. JAN. 19. '61.] 



nected with some members of this family, I am 
anxious to obtain correct information with regard 
to their crest. In a late publication on crests, I 
find the following entry : " Minchin, Eng. a lion's 
tail, erased." Now I have reason to believe that 
all the branches of this family in Ireland have for 
their crest a naked arm rising out of a ducal coro- 
net, the hand holding a truncheon. The name is 
mentioned but once in the catalogue of the work 
to which I have alluded. Some one of your cor- 
respondents may possibly be able to satisfy my 
curiosity, and to inform me which of these crests 
is the correct one. CLERICUS (D.) 

DATE OF MISSALS. Is there any general rule 
for ascertaining the age of ancient missals? Would 
the last-named canonized Pope in the Litany 
afford any clue ? U. O. N. 


curious volume, printed 'in 1841, under the title of 
Settlings Bells : An Account of the Mysterious Ring- 
ing of Bells at Great Beatings, Suffolk, in 1 834, &c., 
by Major Edward Moor, F.R.S., there is a letter 
from the Rev. John Stewart, of Syderstone par- 
sonage, near Fakenham, Norfolk, to the author, 
stating that there had been unaccountable distur- 
bances in that house for nine years. The reverend 
gentleman adds : 

"In 1834, I had prepared my diary for publication. 
My work was purchased by Mr. Kodd, the eminent book- 
seller of Newport Street, London; but as the end had 
not arrived, I postponed my intention from day to day, 
and year to year, in hopes of such consummation. My 
diary has now assumed rather a formidable appearance." 

Can anyone give, through " N. & Q.," informa- 
tion regarding this diary ; whether it was ever 
published, where, if not published, it could now 
be heard of, or generally any information about 
the alleged mysterious noises at Syderstone par- 
sonage ? JUDIARIUS. 

Scott's estate of Nuneham Regis, in Warwick- 
shire, there was an ancient chapel, which was 
pulled down and destroyed about fifty years since. 
The walls were covered with fresco paintings, and 
the people who were on the spot, at the time of 
the destruction of the chapel, say that the paint- 
ings were bought by Ireland the antiquary, who 
also purchased other things, such as old carvings, 
&c. belonging to it. If any one can give any in- 
formation as to these relics, in whose possession 
they now are, and how they may be recovered 
(re-purchased), I shall be sincerely grateful to 
him. L. M. M. R. 

REV. WM. THOMPSON. This gentleman was 
the author of " Sickness " and other poems, and 
was a warm lover of our elder bards. After having 

held the livings of Weston and Hampton-Poyle 
in Oxfordshire, Alex. Chalmers (Poets, ed. 1810) 
states that he became Dean of Raphoe in Ireland; 
but Archdeacon Cotton (Fasti Eccles. Hibern., iii. 
363.) informs us that "Antony Thompson suc- 
ceeded Dr. Arthur Smyth as Dean of Raphoe by 
patent dated Sept. 14, 1744." Which is correct? 
Can any one furnish the date of the death of Wm. 
Thompson the poet ? J. Y. 

TRISSINO'S " SOFONISBA." Below a print, placed 
as a frontispiece to a copy of Trissino's Sofonisba, 
Vicenza, 1629 [1529?], is the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" Lungi dal patrio nido : da te scaccio me lassa, 
Soggetta a' duri colpi : del fato reo : 
Ed i nuziali talami miei lasciai 
Per Paltre turpi nozzi." 

The subject is a warrior leaning on his sword, and 
a woman with one hand on his shoulder, and the 
other on her breast ; a helmet, and something like 
a tambour-frame are on the ground. The engrav- 
ing looks more recent than the date of the book, 
and the inscription is not in the play. Perhaps it 
belongs to another, and some contributor to " N". 
& Q." can tell me what it is. A. A. R. 

ULTRA-MONTANE. When did this expression 
come into use in its present sense ? J. E. T. 

YORKSHIRE WORDS. What are the meanings 
and derivation of gar -e, smeuse, and forthput, three 
words which I have occasionally heard used in 
Yorkshire, but have not been able to find in any 
dictionary ? J. S. 

Louis MAIMBOURG. I have 

" An Historical Treatise of the Foundation and Prero- 
gatives of the Church of Rome, and of her Bishops, written 
originally in French by Monsieur Mairabourg, and trans- 
lated into English by A. Lovel, A.M. London, Printed 
for Jos. Headmarsh, Bookseller to His Royal Highness, at 
the Slack Bull in Cornhill. 1685." 

The above-named work is frequently quoted in 
controversy, but in looking over the life of M. 
Maimbourg in the Biographic Universelle, Paris, 
1820, I perceive it is not included in the list of his 
works ! I wonder why ? I beg also to ask a few 
questions on the following : 

" Le Roi le gratifia d'une pension, et lui accorda une 
retraite a 1'abbaye de Saint Victor de Paris, oil il mourut 
d'apoplexie le 13 Aout, 1686, dans les temps quil travail- 

lait a VHistoire du Schisme d'Angleterre" 

" Le recueil en a 6te public' a Paris, 1686-7, 14 vols. in 
4, ou 26 vols. in 12, dans 1'ordre suivant." 

Qy. Was the Histoire du Schisme d'Angleterre 
completed by a subsequent hand; if so, by whom, 
and when ? Were all M. Maimbourg's works 
translated into English ? Up to this time I can 
only trace Histoire des Croisades, translated by 



g. xi. JAM. 19. '61. 

John Nalson, LL.D., London, 1685 ; and Histoire 
de la Ligue, by Mr. Dry den, London, 1684; and 
the above-named Historical Treatise. 

Who is the translator of the last, A. Lovel, 
A.M? The Lovel family are frequently named 
in " 3ST. &. Q-j" but not this individual. 


[We presume that the first Historical Treatise to which 
our correspondent refers, is excluded from the list in 
question of Maimbourg's>umerous publications, because 
it was directed against the pretensions of the Church of 
Rome, and written in support of the liberties of the Gal- 
lican Church, and for which the author was, by command 
of Pope Innocent XL, expelled from the body of the 
Jesuits. Of the translator (Archibald Lovell, M.A.) of that 
treatise, we know nothing, further than a passing allusion 
to him in Wood's Athen. Oxon. iii. 828., edit. 1817, where 
he is described as a member of the University of Cam- 
bridge, and as one " who lives by scribbling." We are 
not aware that Maimbourg composed any work specially 
relating to the Reformation in this country ; but in the 
year 1679 (according to Ebert) he published, in two vols. 
12mo., Histoire du Grand Schisme d f Occident, of which no 
English translation, we believe, has been made. Besides 
the works enumerated by our correspondent, the following 
have been also translated into the English, viz.: La 
Methode pacifique pour ramener sans dispute les protestans a 
la vraiefoy, sur le point del'eucharistie, by T. W., 8vo. Par. 
1671, and 4to., Lond. 1686.; and Histoire de fArianisme, 
with two introductory discourses, by Will. Webster, 4to., 
Lond. 1728. Ebert states that the series of Maimbourg's 
historical writings, in 14 vols. 4to., or 28 vols. in 12mo., is 
no longer sought after.] 

THE VIKINGS. What is the derivation and 
meaning of the word Vikings, the name of the 
famous sea-rovers of Norway ? S. K. P. 

[The following note, from Laing's Introduction to his 
translation of The Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Sea 
Kings of Norway, will furnish a satisfactory reply to our 
correspondent : 

" Viking and Sea King are noUynonymous, although, 
from the common termination in king, the words are 
used, even by our historian, indiscriminately. The Sea 
King was a man connected with a royal race, either of 
the small kings of the countrj', or of the Haarfager 
family, and who by right received the title of King as 
soon as he took the command of men, although only of a 
single ship's crew, and without having any land or king- 
dom. The Viking is a word not connected with the word 
kongr or king. Vikings were merely pirates, alternately 
peasants and pirates, deriving the "name of viking from 
the viks, wicks, or inlets on the coast in which they har- 
boured with their long ships or rowing galleys. Every 
Sea King was a Viking, but every Viking was not a Sea 
King." Laing, i. p. 45., note.] 

I should be very glad to receive information 
about this prelate, who was Rector of Sevenoaks 
in 1597, and successively Dean of Rochester, 1611 ; 
Bishop of St. David's, 1615, of Chichester [Car- 
lisle], 1621. He died about 1624. 


[Richard Milbourne was born at Hellerbeck, co. Cum- 
berland, and was admitted a scholar of Queen's College, 
Oxford, 7th March, 1758. He was chaplain to Prince 
Henry, " who affected and respected him above all the 

rest of his chaplains for his learning, good carriage, and 
profitable preaching." According to Hasted he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Sevenoaks in 1607. On the 4th. 
Dec. 1611, he was instituted Dean of Rochester; and be- 
came Vicar of Goudhurst, Kent, 29th April, 1612; but 
resigned the following year. On the 9th July, 1615, he 
was consecrated Bishop of St. David's ; and translated to 
Carlisle, llth Sept. 1621. He died in 1624, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Carlisle cathedral." Wood's 
Fasti, i. 2G8. ; Willis's Cathedrals, i. 299. ; and Le Neve's 
Fasti, by Hardy.] 

NICHOLAS GIBBON, D.D. Where can I obtain 
particulars of this divine? He was some time 
Rector of Sevenoaks, and suffered greatly for his 
loyal attachment to Charles I. C. J. ROBINSON, 


[Nicholas Gibbon was born at Poole, co. Dorset, in 
1605 ; entered at Queen's College, Oxford, 1622 ; and re- 
moved to Edmund Hall, 1632 ; where he proceeded D.Di 
1639, having been Rector of Sevenoaks seven years. H 
was sequestered 1645. His attachment to Charles I., who 
sent for him to the Isle of Wight, 1647, and had a great 
esteem for him, occasioned his being turned out of Seven- 
oaks, with eleven children, and obliged to rent a piece of 
land of 4?. per annum, and drive the plough himself; his 
second son, Dr. Nicholas Gibbon, afterwards a noted phy- 
sician at Lyme and Weymouth, holding it. He subse- 
quently lived with a farmer as his servant ; when, being 
seized," and brought before the committee in Kent, they 
asked him how he spent his time. He answered, that by 
day he wrought for his master, and a great part of the 
night he spent in study; and showed them his hands', 
callous and hard by labour. Some pitied, others de- 
rided him; to whom he made this spirited and nobl 
return, Mallem callum in manu quam in conscientid. After 
this, they tendered him the covenant, and his living, 
which he nobly rejected. At the Restoration he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Corfe Castle, co. Dorset, where he 
died, and was buried in 1697, set. ninety- two. For a list 
of his works, see Wood's Athena (Bliss), iv. 788. Consult 
also Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, part ii. 251, 252:, 
and Hutchins's Dorsetshire, i. 295. 297.] 

(2 nd S. x. 409.) 

Under the name of "SENEX" I sent an article 
to the Glasgow Herald^ of which I enclose a slip 
as published Dec. 13, 1860. It is an answer to 
an inquiry made in your paper regarding Mary 
Queen of Scotland. ROBERT REID. 

Strahoun Lodge, 

Isle of Cumbrae, Buteshire. 

In your paper of the 5th December current you have 
given us an extract from the London Notes and Queries, 
as follows : 

" Robert Douglas, a celebrated Covenanting divine, is 
said in many of the books of the time to have been a 
natural son of Queen Mary and Douglas of Lochlevem 
Has this been investigated by any writer, or is there the 
slightest evidence in support of it? The divine left, I 
believe, an only son, who left one or more daughters." 

I happen to possess a very scarce small work, there 

2 - 1 S. XL JAN. 19. '61.] 



Laving been only sixty copies of it printed, from a MS. 
for private circulation, 8vo. 1833. This work contains 
the Diary of Robert Douglas, when he was with the 
Scottish army in England in 1G44, and also gives us the 
following account of the said Robert Douglas himself: 

" The diary of Mr. Robert Douglas has been printed 
from a transcript made for Wodrow of the original MS." 
(Faculty Library, B. III., 611.), which, it is to be re- 
gretted," cannot now be found, as innumerable mistakes, 
especially in proper names, occur in it. Many of the 
errors have been corrected, but some passages, the editor 
regrets, he has been compelled to leave as they were, 
perfectly unintelligible. Some additional interest may 
attach to this historical fragment, from the belief once 
prevalent of the royal descent of the author, who, it has 
been asserted, was the grandson of Queen Mary. 

The legend seems to be, that Sir George Douglas (the 
younger brother of Sir William Douglas, afterwards Earl 
of Morton), by whose assistance the Queen was enabled 
to escape from Lochleven, had been the paramour of 
Mar}', and that the produce of the alleged intercourse 
between them was a son, the father of Mr. Robert Dou- 

However improbable this story may be, there can be 
little doubt that it was generally believed among the 
Covenanters. Accordingly, Wodrow states, on the au- 
thority of" Old Mr. Patrick Simson," that "Douglas was 
begotten by his father, one Mr. Douglas, in adultery, and 
that his father, Mr. Douglas, was a bastard of Queen 
Mary, begotten upon her when she was a prisoner in 
Lochleven ; yet (said he) God made him a great man, 
for both great wit and grace, and more than ordinary bold- 
ness and authority, and awful Majesty, appearing in his 
very countenance" and carriage " (Analecta MS., vol. iv. 
p. 226.). 

In the original MS. of Burnet's History of his Own 
Time, the following passage occurs, which, it is remark- 
able enough, was suppressed in all the early editions, and 
has only been restored in the recent Oxford one : 

" The two eminentest of them (the Covenanting clergy) 
were Mr. Douglas and Mr. Hutchesone. The former was 
a bastard of a bastard ; but it is believed his father was 
Mary Queen of Scotland's son, for he was born soon after 
she was conveyed out of the Castle of Lochleven, and was 
educated with great care by a gentleman that helped her 
away ; so it was believed there were more than ordinary 
endearments between them, and that this son was the 
fruit of these. It is certain Mr. Douglas was not ill 
pleased to have this story passe. He had something very 
great in his countenance ; his looks showed both much 
wisdome and great thoughtfulness, but withal a vast 
pride. He was generally very silent. I confess I never 
admired anything he said. I wondered to see him ex- 
press such mean compleyances with some silly women of 
their partj', as I have seen him do to my own mother and 
sister. He went over when he was a young man chaplain 
to a regiment in Germany," &c. (Bishop Burnet's MS. 
History in British Museum). 

It is certainly within the range of possibility that the 
Queen may have had a natural son to young Douglas, 
as she was a sufficient time in Lochleven ; but that she 
should have been brought to bed after her escape from 
that place is almost incredible, as eleven days only inter- 
vened between her departure and the Battle of Langside, 
which completely extinguished her hopes. In this in- 
terval almost evety day can be accounted for, and her 
flight after the defeat to England was immediate. The 
only thing which gives countenance to the story is the 
circumstance of George Douglas becoming an apostate to 
the political principles of his friends, and enabling her 
Majesty to effect an escape, which, had her party been 

successful, would have ruined the noble family to which 
he belonged. Be this, however, as it may, the readers 
have the authorities for this antiquated piece of scandal, 
and are thus enabled to regulate their own opinion on 
the subject. That Robert Douglas was descended from 
the George Douglas before mentioned seems to be un- 
questionable. Robert Mylne, a genealogist of some emi- 
nence in the last century, and whose collections are in 
the library of the Faculty of Advocates (Jac., v. 7-4 2d 
Alphabet, p. 24.), expressly states that " Sir George Dou- 
glas, third brother of William, Earl of Morton, married 
(the) relict of the Laird of Abbothall, by whom he had a 
daughter, married to Lord Ramsay. This Sir George had 
a base son, George, that was governor to Laurence Lord 
Oliphant, which base son had another viz., Mr. Robert 
Douglas, the famous Prysbiterian preacher." Mylne was 
a keen Jacobite, and his omission to notice the rumour is 
singular enough, as his practice generally was to note 
down any defamatory reports against his party, and cha- 
racterise them as " base Whig lies." That he could be 
ignorant of it is impossible to suppose, from his extensive 
literary acquaintance, and from his industry in accumu- 
lating historical materials. 

Douglas was for some time chaplain in the army of 
Gustavus Adolphus. The indefatigable Wodrow has pre- 
served in his Analecta the following facts, chiefly relative 
to him while in Swedish service : 

" He (this refers to a communication from a person 
whose name, being in short-hand, the editor has been 
unable to decypher,) tells me -he had the following ac- 
counts of Mr. R. Douglas from Old Muir, that was 
acquaint with him. He was a considerable time in Gus- 
tavus Adolphus' army, and was in great reputation with 
him. He was very unwilling to part with Mr. Douglasse, 
and quhen he would needs leave the army, Gustavus said 
to him that he scarce ever knew a person of his qualifica.- 
tions for wisdom, (and) said he (Mr. D.) might be a 
counsellor to any Prince in Europe; for prudence and 
knowledge, he might be Moderator to a General Council ; 
and even for military skill, said he, I could very far trust 
my army to his conduct. And they say that, in one of 
Gustava's engagements, he was standing at some distance 
upon a rising ground ; and, quhen both wings were en- 
gaged, he observed some mismanagement in the left wing 
that was likely to prove fatal, and he either went or sent, 
and acquainted the commanding officer, and it was pre- 
vented and the day gained. 

" When Mr. Sharp was beginning to appear in his own 
colours, and his villany beginning to appear a little, for 
he went up to court, and was consecrate, he happened to 
be with Mr. Douglasse, and in conversation he termed 
Mr. Douglasse 'Brother.' He checked him, and said, 
' Brother ! noe more brother, James ; if my conscience 
had been the make of yours, I could have been Bishop of 
Sanct Andrews sooner than you.' He tells me that, for 
all the different sentiments of Mr. James Guthrie as to 
the resolutions, Mr. Douglasse, a little before his death, 
said, ' Mr. Guthrie, I love him as my soul.' " (Analecta, 
vol. iii. p. 130.) 

Upon the coronation of King Charles II. at Scone, in 
the year 1651, Mr. Douglas, then Moderator of the Com- 
mission of the General Assembly, preached a sermon upon 
the occasion, which was published at Aberdeen by James 
Brown, 1651, and has been frequently reprinted. It does 
not afford a very favourable specimen of the author's 
abilities. It is said that Douglas was a great favourite 
of the King, and would have been preferred by him but 
for the interference of Archbishop Sharpe. The following 
additional extract from Wodrow may not be unaccept- 
able : 

"Aug. 1717. Mr. Alexander Douglas, minister at 



XL JAN. 19. '61. 

Logic, son to Mr. Robert Douglas, now towards 80, tells 
me his father was very much trusted by King Charles 
the Second, and was very much engaged in the King's 
interest, and had many private conferences with Monk 
when in Scotland, and encouraged him very much to ap- 
pear for his restoration, and pressed him to go to Eng- 
land. When Lambert appeared, and came down with so 
strong an army, Monk lagged, and retired a little ; that j 
a meeting of noblemen and others sent Mr. Douglas from I 
Edinburgh to meet Monk when returning back from the j 
Border ; that Mr. Douglas prevailed with him to go back 
again towards Lambert ; that he did goe, and Lambert's ' 
army melted before him like snow. When Monk was at ! 
London, Mr. Douglas thought him very slow in his ap- j 
pearances for the King, and wrote a letter to him, which 
my informer told me he has a copy (but he could not fall ! 
in with it, being now very aged), wherein he urged his, I 
Gen. Monk's, acting more effectually for the King's re- 
turn, and told him in plain terms that Scotland and Ire- 
land were heartily for the King ; and if he would not act j 
effectually, they were resolved to bring home the King 
without him. That the King signified to Mr. Douglas, 
after he came to London, that he would call up Mr. D. to 
converse with him ; but Sharpe prevented that. All this, 
he tells me, he has frequently heard from his father." 
The period of his demise has not been precisely ascer- 
tained. From Wodrow's history, it would appear that 
the event occurred either in the year 1672 or 1673. " In 
March," says the historian, "the outed ministers, who 
were lurking at Edinburgh, were put to new hardships, 
many of them obliged to leave the town and flee, they 
knew not well where. Several of them, through age and 
long trouble, were now dropping off. I find by an ori- 
ginal letter of Mr. George Hutcheson's, that Mr. Walter 
Greg and Mr. David Ferret about this time got to their 
rest; and he adds that, towards the end of February, Mr. 
Robert Douglas was turned so very weak that he was 
laid by from preaching, and I suppose he got into the joy 
of his Lord this year or the next." (Law's Memorials, 
p. 58" Mr. R. Douglas dies in the end of January, 1674, 
being about 80 years of age.") 

" He married, and had at least one son, the minister of 
Logic. Besides the coronation sermon, he wrote an ac- 
count of the Assembly, 1638-9, a copy of which is pre- 
served in the same MS. volume from which the diary has 
been taken. 

" With a view of preserving these curious memorials, a 
few copies have been printed for distribution amongst 
those individuals who take an interest in such reliques " 
(in the original). 


(2 n S. x. 449.) 

MB. TAYLOR asks whether there be any known 
circumstances that may "identify" the Admiral 
with Thomas, the son of Wm. Dilke, by Honor, 
the daughter of Lord Ward ? I think not ; and 
I think that the Thomas referred to must have 
been a younger man, as he was not born till 1667. 
I have read in some contemporary journal that 
the admiral was the son of a clergyman, and in 
that character presided at or attended some meet- 
ing of the Clergy Orphan Society. It was re- 
ported, at the time of his death, that he was poi- 
soned. He had been directed to proceed, with 
the ships under his command, to Leghorn, and j 
thence to carry troops and provisions to Catalonia. 

He had some dispute with the governor; and 
Campbell, in his Lives of the Admirals, thus hints 
at the consequence. " On the 1st of Dec., this 
dispute being adjusted, he was invited on shore, 
and died a few days afterwards of a fever, caused, 
as most people ^ imagine, by an Italian dinner." 
Where the admiral lived, I know not ; probably 
at Ripley, in Surrey, where, as appears from 
Brayley, there is a monument to " the lit. Hon. 
the Lady Mary, late wife to Sir Thomas Dilkes, 
who died the 25th April, 1727." 

Your correspondent says that Sir Thomas was 
connected with his family, and that they possess 
" a silver signet with his arms, a lion rampant ; 
crest, a dove close." I submit that this evidence 
proves only that MB. TAYLOR'S family possess a 
signet which belonged heretofore to some one or 
other of the Dilke family, not that it belonged to 
the admiral ; and I think I can show that it did 
not, by evidence as to whom, in all probability it 
did belong. 

There lived, contemporary with the admiral, a 
Charles Dilke, described 4 in his will, as of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields, who died in 1731 or 1732, 
and had married, I believe, a widow of the name 
of Carrol, buried at Chatteris, in Cambridgeshire, 
to which parish she bequeathed property for the 
benefit of the poor. This Charles had two sons 
and two daughters Charles, William, Ann, and 
Mary. Charles was appointed cornet in the first 
troop of Life Guards, in 1692 ; was exempt, equi- 
volent, I believe, to captain, in 1712, and remained 
in' the regiment until Jan. 1722, when he was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant- Governor of Mountserrat; and 
he died, s. p. in 1723. William was a captain in 
the navy. Ann married the Rev. T. Taylor. This 
I believe to be the connexion to which your cor- 
respondent refers. Capt. William died, also s. p. 
in 1756, and his widow in her will, dated 1765, 
mentions Anne Taylor, widow of the Rev. Samuel 
Taylor, and bequeaths property to Martha Tay- 
lor, described as niece to her late husband, Capt. 
Wm. Dilke. 

If your correspondent can give any information 
showing a connexion between Charles, the father, 
and Sir Thomas, or any connexion of either with 
the Maxstoke family, I shall be obliged by it. 

A. S. T. 


(2 nd S. xi. 30.) 

One of the excellencies of "N. & Q." is, that if 
anything is stated as of authority, that authority 
is given that it may be consulted and verified : if 
as of conjecture, we are also fairly warned it is 
only so. In this instance you go farther, and say 
that it is a conjecture, " without having been able 
to get a sight of the original," a candid state- 
ment, which disarms all criticism. The fact is, 

2* S. XI. JAN. 19. '61.] 



neither Savage nor Burke are alluded to, however 
acute the conjecture may be ; nor is the wood the 

gallows, but the pillory. S e is the notorious 

Dr. Shebbeare, who was pilloried for a political 

libel, and was " pampered by B e ;" that is, 

pensioned through Bute, a little before that noble- 
man recommended Dr. Johnson for a similar 
emolument. It was then it was said the King had 
pensioned, first the SAe-bear, and then the He- 
bear. Savage, in fact, died before Burke was 
fourteen years old. Crispin the First was, no 
doubt, the Crispinus of Horace (Satire I., i, 120., 
&c.), a writer of turgid bombast, like " Latin in 
English, and English in Latin." The same cha- 
racter figures also in Ben Jonson's "Poetaster" : 
where he is compelled to swallow an emetic and 
bring up his hard words, just as Dr. Johnson is 
served in the noted Lexiphanes. The latter, as 
soon as he got his pension, was an especial mark 
for the onslaughts of the Wilkes party. Among 
others, of M and C (Murphy and Chur- 
chill) : the first of whom attacked him in his 
"Epistle," and the latter in " The Ghost," but, 
as your satirist says, with but little success. I 

should also fancy Dr. H is not Dr. Hall, but 

Hill, the quack doctor, who sold balsam of honey, 
and a lot of other trash, and wrote a quantity of 
sad doggrel ; and against whom the " Junto ' of 
the Literary Club, with Garrick at their head, 
fired off the epigram : 

" Thou essence of Dock, and Valerian, and Sage, 
At once the disgrace and the pest of your age, 
The worst that we wish thee, for all thy sad crimes, 
la to take thy own physic and read thy own rhymes." 

Probably these are the very lines alluded to 

" He had seen but not taken such physic before." 

The best account of Mrs. Cornelys is in a pam- 
phlet by Mr. Mackinlay, which is excessively 
scarce ; being, I think, privately printed. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

_[We agree with our correspondent, that it is very 
difficult indeed to pronounce on any quotation with- 
out seeing the context. However, conjectures are very 
much like the trial shots of the artillery. They do not 
expect the first to hit ; but it shows them how to lay the 
gun for a truer shot] 


(2 nd S. x. 506. ; xi. 35.) 

An article appears, from ME. WILLIAM DOWE, 
of IJTew York, under the head of " Collino custure 
me," of which " collino" g-c., he confidently gives 
the interpretation to the would-be-annihilation of 
every critic who has gone before him, myself in- 
cluded : over whom, indeed, he seems especially 
inclined to triumph, as my name is twice intro- 
duced and pointedly alluded to for that purpose. 

MR. DOWE assumes the " Cambyses' vein " : he 
"understands at a glance;" he " sets aside," but 
" with compunction" (tender-hearted gentleman) ; 
he " cannot help smiling" how he rides over every- 
body, and gives "the Open Sesame of the mystery." 
Yet, notwithstanding all this fee faw fum, I am 
not afraid to grapple with the Hiberno-American 

Before entering on my argument, I must com- 

B^ain of the very uncandid manner in which MR. 
OWE has misrepresented the note in my Lyrics 
of Ireland*, which, in his hurry or confusion, he 
calls Songs of Ireland (under which title the book 
could not be found). MR. DOWE says I came to 
my conclusion " on the authority of an Irish 
teacher in London named Finnegan." Such is not 
the fact ; on the contrary, I say in my note, that 
what Mr. Finnegan declared to be the meaning, 
is not the meaning ; moreover, Mr. Finnegan did 
not give the Celtic text ; and whether my Celtic 
text be the true one or not, at least I am the first 
person who ever moulded the gibberish in Shak- 
speare's Henry V. into the form of a known lan- 
guage. MR. DOWE says that I suppose " collino " 
to mean " colleen-oge" and "custure me," " as- 
torer I suppose no such thing. I did not de- 
cipher the gibberish bit by bit, but as a whole. I 
considered the collin, in " collino," to mean colleen ; 
then gave the final o of " collino" to the first sylla- 
ble of " custure" thus forming o-cus, very sug- 
gestive of oge as ; the remainder of the passage 
offers no difficulty. And now for my argument : 
in which I hope to prove that MR. DOWE, not- 
withstanding his large measure of confidence in 
his critical acumen, is quite at fault. 

In the first place MR. DOWE, to make out his 
case, is driven to the necessity of cutting his Irish 
refrain in two, and assuming the latter half was 
used. My interpretation needs no such literary 
legerdemain. Let us put the lines side by side : 

Henry V. " Collino custure me." 

Mr. Lover. " Colleen oge astore me." 

Mr. Dowe. " Thaim sh' am chulla na dhusture me." 

Both to the eye and ear mine, complete in it- 
self, is more like the original than MR. DOWE'S 
half line, suppose it be granted that the half might 
have been used ; but it must be remarked at the 
same time, that when a line is shortened "per ora 
volitans" as MR. DOWE says, it is the beginning 
that is generally quoted, not the end. 

Secondly, what is the meaning of the two Celtic 
phrases ? MR. DOWE'S means, " I am asleep, let 
me not be awakened." My phrase means, "Young 
girl, my treasure." Now, Collino (or Calen o) cus- 
ture me seems to have been often used as a burden to 
songs in England, in Shakspeare's time, as Colleen 

* The matter in question may be seen by anyone curi- 
ous in such things under the head of " The Woods of 
Caillino" (Lyrics of Ireland, p. 161.), and furthermore in 
the Appendix. 



S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

oge astore was then, and is now, used in Ireland 
for the same purpose ; and seeing how calen o was 
used by English writers, it appears to me that the 
meaning of the phrase must have been known to 
them, though they could not give its correct or- 
thography. For example, in the Hand/nil of 
Plesent Delites, we read as follows : 

" A Sonet of a Lover in Praise of his Lady. 
(To custure me, sung at every line's end.) 

When as I view your comely grace, 

Calen o, fyc. 

Your golden hairs, your angel's face, 

Calen, fyc." 

And so on for several verses. Now, let it be ob - 
served, that the sonnet is that of a lover in praise 
of his lady ; and for such a purpose the meaning 
of the Irish burden, as given by me, is quite suit- 
able : 

" When as I view your comely grace, 

Young girl, my treasure" 

Whereas the English of the burden, insisted 
upon by MR. DOWE, would be quite zmmeaning : 

" When as I view your comely grace, 

Let me not be awakened." 
Very drowsy, indeed ! 

Thirdly, we have the written music to refer to 
of different settings of Caleno. and of Thaim sh'am 
chulla, or Thamama hulla, as vulgarly written, 
and this evidence is conclusive against MR. DOWE. 
I understand that music is never given in the co- 
lumns of " N. & Q.," or I would at once supply 
printed evidence of my musical facts, but I give 
references to where the evidence may be found 
by those who think it worth their while to look 
for it. 

Thamama hulla may be found in Bunting (I 
think), but certainly, and more easily, in Moore's 
Irish Melodies, under the title of "Erin, Erin ! " 
the first line being, 

" Like the bright lamp that lay on Kildare's holy shrine," 
and this song MR. DOWE relies on to prove his 
case, or, in his own modest mode of expression, 
enables him " to bring sense out of the nonsense 
of forty Shaksperean critics." He tells us that to 
this "long-drawn plaintive air" a tailor "fashioned 
his first breeches." If the tailor kept time to the 
tune, and the stitches were as long-drawn as the 
melody, MASTER DOWE must have waited a long 
while ; but 

" Worse remains behind." 

Not only may the aforesaid melody have retarded 
the completion of his nether integuments, and 
thus delayed the indulgence of the first puerile 
ambition, but it was destined to mar the ambition 
of riper years, by overthrowing MR. DOWE'S cri- 
ticism. For, in Plavford's Musical Companion, ed. 
1762, p. 222., may be found " An Irish Tune: 
words, Cali-no." And that air is not " Thamama 

Again, in Win. Ballett's Lute Booh, D. 1. 21 
Trin. Coll. Dub., there is another setting of " Col- 
lino." And that air is not " Thamama hulla.'' 1 

But worst of all, in Queen Elizabeth's own book, 
" Oh that mine'enemy would quote a book" the 
very book of " the Tudor Lioness," as MR. DOWE 
grandiloquently calls her, the evidence is dead 
against him. MR. DOWE exclaims, " I can fancy 
that British Queen herself strumming my old 
tailor's tune on the Virginals before Scotch Mel' 
vil, giving the Collino custure me the long lugubri- 
ous shake natural to it, just to let him see," &c. 
&c. Alas ! MR. DOWE, fancy played you but a 
scurvy trick, for the air to which Queen Eliza- 
beth sang " Collino " was not " Thamama hulla," 
not lugubrious, but a cheerful tripping tune and 
not the ghost of a shake to it. 

That air may be seen in Mr. Chappell's Popular 
Music of the Olden Time, p. 793. ; and, if MR. DOWE 
be not immortal, I think he must be open to com- 
punction at what I feel bound to call attention to, 
in the common cause of Letters, MR. DOWE says, 
" I thus give you the Irish ' Open Sesame ' of the 
mystery. I don't suppose any of your critics will 
allow it (the behaviour of Tom Sayers being fresh 
in my memory)," insinuating thus that he will not 
receive fair play in the literary arena of England. 
So far from this unhandsome suspicion being jus- 
tified, the very first person who could come to his 
aid the editor of "N. & Q." did so ; writing 
in reference to MR. DOWE'S allusion to Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginals, thus : 

" There is little doubt that our correspondent is correct 
in this supposition. On referring to Mr. Chappell's Popu- 
lar Music of the Olden Time, p. 793., it will be seen that 
among three Irish Airs found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal 
Book, which, having never been quoted or printed, Mr. 
Chappell submits to his readers, is Call'mo Casturame, 
which he describes as alluded to by Shakspeare, and 
being ' as rhythmical as could be desired.' " 

Nothing could be fairer than this ; and truly 
" fair play is a jewel," as the proverb saith ; 
and a precious jewel the reference in question 
proves to be, though the jewel is not destined to 
adorn MR. DOWE'S cap, as that which the editor 
intended for his help, completes his discomfiture ; 
for the melody is relied on by MR. DOWE, and on 
referring to Queen Elizabeth's book (the highest 
possible authority in the question at issue), the air 
is found to be quite different from that on which 
MR. DOWE builds his critical fabric. 

MR. DOWE says, " MR. LOVER no doubt wil\ be 
glad to see the critical virtue that may be lurking 
in an Irish melody," and in this instance only 
MR. DOWE is right. I am glad, and have reason 
to be glad in such critical virtue, as it has baffled 
a very ungenerous and arrogant attempt to inflict 
on me a literary humiliation. SAMUEL LOVER. 

AN. 19. '61.] 



(2 nd S. x. 357. 393. 430.) 

Recent contributions have added considerably 
to our stock of information respecting the deflec- 
tion of chancels. 

The two instances of the church, dedicated to 
St. Michael at Coventry, and of that dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist at Meopham, are strong in 
confirmation of the views of your correspondent, 
H. A., "respecting what has been (not very cor- 
rectly perhaps) termed the orientation theory. 

From the information that MB. HOOPER has 
kindly supplied, we learn that in the church at 
Meopham there was, till about fifty years ago, a 
substantial rood-loft. As long as this rood-loft 
was in existence, the two tables of the decalogue, 
instead of being nailed up against the wall, one on 
each side of the east window, were in all proba- 
bility affixed to the screen, where they could be 
read from all parts of the church. At all events, 
I think there can be no doubt that at that time 
the internal arrangement was such, that the view 
from the nave eastward was broken, so as to veil 
any obliquity of line. 

We have no information on this point as re- 
gards the church of St. Michael, at Coventry. I 
would, therefore, beg to inquire : 

1. .Whether anything is known of any screen 
that may formerly have existed there ? 

2. Whether there are discoverable in the ma- 
sonry any traces of a staircase leading to a rood- 
loft ? 

3. From some notices incidentally given by 
another correspondent, we learn (2 nd S. x. 433.) 
that in the church of Runton, near Cromer, in 
Norfolk, the rood-loft has been restored ; and that 
in the church of North Repps, the old oak screen, 
though miserably defaced and vulgarised, is still 
allowed to stand. Probably in these churches no 
deflection has been perceived in the chancel. I 
should be glad to be informed, whether any such 
deflection exists. With respect to the church at 
Barfreston, I would beg to inquire, whether the 
slant in the jambs of the chancel arch appears to 
have been part of the original design, or to have 
been introduced subsequently ? 

In considering the question of deflection, it is 
hardly possible to estimate too highly the import- 
ance of the instance adduced by MR. GARDNER of 
the church of St. Ouen a church which is justly 
described by Fergusson as being "beyond com- 
parison the most beautiful and perfect of the 
abbey edifices of France " (Handbook of Architec- 
ture, vol. ii. p. 691.). With reference to this 
church, the following observations may, I think, 
be fairly made : 

1. If our attention was confined* to parish 
churches, the supposition that the obliquity might 
be accounted for by the nave and chancel having 

been repaired or rebuilt independently of one 
another, would have a certain air, if not of proba- 
bility, at least of plausibility. But when this 
hypothesis is put to the test, by applying it to 
such an edifice as St. Ouen's, it immediately be- 
comes evident that some other solution of the 
problem must be looked for. 

2. All who are acquainted with the church of 
St. Ouen, must be aware that there is nothing in 
the local circumstances to account for the deflec- 
tion. " 

3. I am persuaded, that in this instance, no one 
will imagine that the question is to be disposed of 
by saying that they did not know how to build 

Are we then to be driven back upon the sup- 
position of a symbolism ? Here again a difficulty 
presents itself. It will be borne in mind, that 
most frequently the deflection is towards the 
south. In the present instance, it is towards the 
north. Now, is it conceivable, that the thing to 
be symbolised should be capable of so general an 
expression as to account for the chancel of one 
church slanting in one direction, and the chancel 
of another church slanting in the opposite di- 
rection ? 

For my own part, I am perfectly satisfied that 
the architect of St. Ouen's knew what he was 
about. And I cannot believe that he would have 
introduced a slant, either to the right or to the 
left, unless he considered that such a mode of con- 
struction was (to say the least of it) consistent 
with architectural effect. I may add, drawings of 
the original design are still preserved at Rouen, 
and might be consulted with advantage : the more 
so as, if I am not mistaken, there is among them 
a sketch of the jube, or screen, as designed by the 

In considering under what conditions an ap- 
parent irregularity may form part of a well- 
considered design, it may not be out of place to 
examine into the circumstance noticed by A. A., 
of one of the windows of the chancel being fre- 
quently more highly decorated than the others. 
The observation appears-to have reference to parish 
churches only. I would beg to ask, whether any- 
thing of the same sort is to be found in the choirs 
of cathedral or collegiate edifices ? And also, 
whether it is invariably the north-west window 
that is the most decorated. 

Should any of your readers be induced to ex- 
amine any churches in which such a peculiarity 
exists, I would beg to suggest to them to take 
note of the general plan and construction of the 
building, particularly with regard to the following 
points : 

1. Whether there is any deflection in the chan- 
cel ? And if so, whether the deflection is to the 
south or to the north ? 

2. Whether the principal entrance is at the 



S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

west end, or through a porch ? And if the latter, 
whether the porch stands on the south side of the 
nave or on the north side ? 

3. Whether there is any doorway opening into 
the chancel ? And if so, in what part of the 
chancel is it situated ? 

In answer to an inquiry of ME. HOOPER'S, I 
may observe, that we have in the church of St. 
Germain des Pres an instance of deflection much 
older than the reign of Edward III. The re- 
building of the choir, as it now stands, was com- 
pleted in 1163. I should be glad to know whether 
any instance of deflection is to be found in Eng- 
land, in buildings of what is commonly called the 
Norman style. I need hardly observe, that the 
specimens best worth examining are those in which 
the original plan has been most faithfully retained, 
such, for instance, as the cathedrals of Chi- 
chester and Norwich, the abbey churches of Glas- 
tonbury, Lindisfairn, St. Alban's, Romsey, and 
the Hospital of St. Cross. P. S. CARET. 

(2 nd S. x. 331. 372. 416. 445. 

There was a copy of this extremely rare book 
in the library of the Duke of Sussex. It was 
bought (as stated in the Catalogue) " at the sale 
of part of the library of the Duke of Norfolk, 
1821." In the year 1827, I was permitted by his 
Royal Highness to examine the volume, and take 
extracts. The object of the translators was to 
make the New Testament speak the language of 
the Roman Catholic faith. The title is : 

" Le Nouveau Testament de Notre Seigneur Jesus- 
Christ. Traduit de Latin en Francois par les Theologiens 
de Louvain. A Bordeaux, Chez Jacques Mongiron- 
Millanges, Imprimeur du Roy et du College. 1686. Avec 
Approbation et Permission." 

The following appear on the next leaf : 

" Nous soubs-signe's Docteurs en Theologie de 1'Uni- 
versite de Bordeaux, attestons que la presente version 
Fra^oise du Nouveau Testament Latin, reveu et ap- 
prouve' de PEglise Catholique, Apostolique et Romaine, 
faite par les Docteurs Theologiens de 1'Universite de 
LOUVAIN, et depuis par 1'Ordonnance de sa Majeste Tres- 
Chretienne, reveue et approvee par plusieurs Docteurs 
en Theologie de 1'Universite de Paris, et par la permis- 
sion des Superieurs, et Magistrats, plusieurs fois im- 
prime'e, et tres-utile a tous ceux qui avec permission des 
Superieurs, seront capables de la lire. En foy dequoy 
avons signe la present attestation, a Bordeaux, ce 11 
Fevrier, 1661. 

" LOPES, Chanoine Theologal, 

" De rEglise Metropolitaine. 
"GERMAIN, Carme." 

" Permission. Louis D'Anglure de Bourlement, par la 
grace de Dieu, et du Saint Siege Apostolique Archeveque 
de Bordeaux, Primat d'Aquitaine. Nous permettons a la 
Veuve de G. de la Court, Jacques Mongiron-Millanges, 
Elie Routier, Simon Boe, et a N. de la Court, Marchands 
Libraires de la presente Ville, de faire Imprimer k Nou- 

veau Testament de Notre Seigneur Jesus-Christ, traduit de 
Latin en Fran9ois, revu exactemente corrige'. Donne &, 
Bordeaux dans Notre Palais Archiepiscopal, le 17 Juillet, 

" Louis, Arch, de Bordeaux, 

" Par Commdement de Monseigneur. 

COSSON, Secretaire." 

Then follows the Catalogue of the Books of the 
New Testament. There are short Prefaces or 
" Arguments " to all the Books. 

I would offer some observations, but the lan- 
guage of theological controversy is unsuited to 
your columns. The Catalogue of the Library of 
the Duke of Sussex contained the following note : 

" This is a book of extreme rarity, and constitutes a 

remarkable incident in theological history The 

indignation excited against this abominable corruption 
of the sacred text induced the candid Theologians of 
Louvain to suppress and destroy the copies." 

J. M. C. 

Acadia College, Nova Scotia. 

TALBOT EDWARDS (2 nd S. x. 510.) The 
" ejected memorial," to which OLD MEM. alludes, 
is in the Tower chapel, and bears this brief in- 
scription : 

" Here lieth y e body of Talbot Edwards, Gent., late 
Keeper of His Ma ts Regalia, who died y e 30 September, 
1674, aged 80 years." 

The tablet is of stone, cemented, in an un- 
tradesmanlike fashion, to the wall of the chapel. 
From its having frequently received the sweeps of 
a rude brush in whitewashing the edifice, the 
simple memorial would pass unnoticed by an or- 
dinary observer. Of mutilation it bears evident 
marks ; the bottom, which may have spoken of 
some other member of the family, has been broken 
off, and the portion that remains has a jagged 

When the chapel-yard was being converted 
into a military parade-ground, many of the tombs 
and stones were removed, so I was informed, to 
the Fleet. Some alterations, at the same time, 
were made to the chapel, and the carting away of 
some apparently unimportant ( ! ) tablets was the 
consequence. Talbot Edwards' s memorial may 
have been shot away as rubbish when this spolia- 
tion took place. Be this as it may, not many 
years ago the tablet was found (so the clerk of 
the chapel told me) in the Fleet ditch ; and on 
the discovery being communicated to the Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, he caused it to be refixed in 
the chapel. 

The present gallery of the chapel, a recent ad- 
dition, seems to have been put up without regard 
to the memorials on the walls. In this barbarous 
way, two or three fine tablets are entirely ob- 

Looking at all the incidents of the Blood con- 
spiracy, one is tempted to believe that the merry 

19. '61.] 



monarch himself instigated the infamous Colonel 
to steal the crown and other regal trinkets. How 
else can we account for his strange conduct in 
rewarding the conspirator with a pension of 500Z. 
a year, and leaving his wounded servant to die 
without receiving, in full, the mean reward a 
Treasury-minute had granted him ? M. S. E. 

JOHN Huss (2 nd S. xi. 11.) The writer of this 
is familiar with the "Dominican monastery at 
Constance," and the circumstances under which 
the great " (Ecumenic Council " assembled there 
in 1415. And if VERITAS will refer to a small 
volume entitled John Huss, or the Council of 
Constance, published many years ago by Messrs. 
Bivingtons, he will probably find in the notes 
the information he desires. W. B. 

ANAESTHETICS (2 nd S. xi. 10.) In Le Vieux- 
Neuf-Histoire Ancienne des Inventions ct Decou- 
vertes Modernes, par Edouard Fournier, 1859 
(torn. i. p. 90.), there is an account of Anaesthetics. 
In the Middle Age, the anassthetic use of aether 
was unknown ; but they had the wine of Mandra- 
gora, and by it the same effects of complete in- 
sensibility were obtained without the convulsions 
a great advantage over etherisation. All the 
empirical writers of that period have mentioned 
this property of that mysterious plant. P. Cor- 
bichon mentions it in his Proprietaire des Choses, 
and says plainly, that if its bark, or its root, be 
given to a person in pain, the pain will be imme- 
diately appeased, and the patient will sleep so 
soundly, that his arm or his leg may be amputated 
without his knowledge. He also refers to the 
Proprietates Herum of Bartholomseus* : 

" The bark of the Mandragora, infused in wine, is given 
to patients about to be submitted to operation; so that, 
plunged in sleep, they do not feel any pain." 

This property of Mandragora is referred by 
Raspail to Dioscorides. 

About the year 220 of our era, a Chinese sur- 
geon, named Hao-Tho, used in his operations a 
substance called mayo : a preparation of something 
like the Cannabis Indica, or Indian hemp f : 

" He gave to the patient a preparation of hemp (ma-yd). 
and in a few moments he became as insensible as if he 
had been plunged into intoxication, or deprived of life. 
Then, according to his case, Hao-Tho made openings 
(incisions), amputations, and removed the disease; he 
then applied sutures and liniments. After a certain num- 
ber of days the patient was restored, without having ex- 
perienced during the operation the slightest pain." 

In 1681, when at Marbourg, Papin wrote a 
treatise on operations without pain. Unfortu- 
nately, whether he was too poor, or whether he was 

* Edition 1548. 

t This passage was read at the Academy of Sciences, 
at Paris, by M. Stanislas Julien, Feb. 12, 1849, from the 
Kou-kin-i-tong, a collection of medicine, ancient and mo- 
dern, in five volumes, in the Imperial Library. 

discouraged by his colleagues, he did not publish 
it ; and when he quitted Germany, he gave it to 
one of his friends, Dr. Bgerner, from whose de- 
scendants it was purchased by the librarian of the 
Elector of Hesse, in whose library it now is. 

The above is derived from Fournier's book, and 
perhaps may afford the information required by 
your correspondent. HENRY JACKSON. 


YEPSOND, ORYEPSINTLE (2 nd S. x.210.) Hal- 
liwell (as your correspondent says), mentions the 
latter of the above words ; but gives only the 
meaning, no derivation. After some inquiry into 
the matter, I find that it occurs twice in the cele- 
brated dialogue of "Tummus and Meary," in the 
1763 edition of Tim Bobbin's Works. It also occurs 
in a "Dialogue between Turn and Yed," in the Lan- 
cashire Dialect, published in 1811 ; but the choice- 
ness of the language precludes my giving it, except 
to a curious private correspondent. Samuel Barn- 
ford re-edited the work in 1850 ; and in his glos- 
sary states, that Yepsintle means " two handfulls." 
So far for the occurrence of the word in various 
works. As to its derivation : " Yep," in Lanca- 
shire, means "heap"; and "yeps" may, and cer- 
tainly does, mean " heaps." " Hontle " means 
" handful" ; " honful" is still more common. The 
corruption from "hontle" to "intle," is surely 
possible. Accepting this, the meaning of the word 
becomes " heaps of handfulls," or " handfulls 
heaped up " ; and this meaning agrees with the 
context in the passages quoted above. I had a 
theory, but no longer hold it, that Yepsond was 
corrupted from " yepson't," or " heaps on't," or 
" heaps of it," whatever was the subject in hand. 
It may possibly be so ; I simply give it for what 
it is worth as a suggestion. M. (1.) 

CONCOLINEL (2 nd S. xi. 36.) This surely can- 
not be con colonello, " with a colonel." Is it not 
rather literally as spelt con Colinello, that is, " with 
little Colin," or " young Colin " ? The shepherd 
Corin of Shakspeare's time ; and Colin, the hero of 
many hundred ballads, from his down to the days 
of Vauxhall, and of which many will be found in 
Mr. Chappell's pages. In this case, the song may 
have probably begun : 

" As with young Colin I chanced to stray." 

It seems a trifling matter, but every line of 
Shakspeare deserves all the light that can be 
thrown on it. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

PARAPHERNALIA (2 nd S. x. 523.) In answer 
to P. HUTCHINSON, I may state that whatever be 
the general rule as to the bed being included 
amongst a woman's paraphernalia, there is no 
doubt but that in some places, by custom (as for 
instance, the custom of York), it has been so in- 
cluded. In my article (p. 482.) there should be 


2^ S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

a full-stop after the word " degree" ; and the fol- 
lowing word, " It," should be taken as beginning a 
new sentence. The word "for" may be omitted. 
I fear that ray bad handwriting has more than 
once been the cause of printer's errors. W. C. 

S. x. 427.) Pretty much corresponding with the 
following : 

" The art of Mustek is so unable to refund for the Time 
and Cost required to be perfect therein, as I cannot think 
it worth any serious endeavour. The Owner of that 
Quality being still obliged to the trouble of calculating 
the difference between the morose humour of a rigid Re- 
fuser, and the cheap and prostituted levity and forward- 
ness of a mercenary Fidler. Deniall being as often taken 
for pride, as a too ready complyance falls under the notion 
of Ostentation : Those so qualified seldom knowing when 
it is time to begin, or give over: especially Women, 
who do not rarely decline in modesty, proportionably to 
the progress they make in Musick : such (if handsome) 
being Traps baited at both ends, and catch strangers as 
often as their Husbands, no less tired with the one than 
the other." (Advice to a Son, p. 13.; Works of Francis 
Osborne, Esq. 7th edit. London, 1673. 8vo.) 


&c.) The late Mr. Surtees, in his History of the 
Co. Palatine of Durham, mentions an instance of 
upright burial. After quoting the following pas- 
sage from the parish of Easington, 

" Sir Christopher Conyers, Baronet, buried October 12, 

he adds, 

"Fir some unknown reason Sir Christopher is set up- 
right on his feet in the vault ; he was the last of his 
family who was buried here." vol. i. p. 14. 

K. P. D. E. 

CENTENARIANISM (2 nd S. x. 15.; xi. 19.) I 
can help to remove the doubts of your corre- 
spondent J. R. M. D. as to whether " there is an 
instance of any human being having completed 
their hundredth year in modern times, or that 
the nobility and gentry do not afford a single in- 

My great-grandmother, the late Mrs. Williams, 
relict of the late Robert Williams, Esq., of Moor 
Park, Herts, and Bridehead, Dorset, died at the 
latter seat on the 8th of October, 1841, at the age 
of 102 years. She was, according to the inscrip- 
tion on her monument in the parish church, 
written by her son-in-law, the present venerable 
vicar of Harrow, " the youngest daughter of 
Francis Chassereau, Esq., formerly of Nint in 
France (an exile at the age of 14 to this country 
in consequence of the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes.)" I have often heard her eldest son, the 
late Mr. Robert Williams, say that he had dined 
with his mother on Christmas day for seventy 
consecutive years, without a break, probably an 
instance per se of such a remarkable occurrence i 
in our festive-loving country at that season. It 

may be interesting to some of your readers for 
me to state that, when in her eighty-first year, 
suffering from cataract in both eyes, she was suc- 
cessfully couched by the late eminent oculist, 
Mr. Alexander, and perfectly restored to sight on 
the 22nd November, 1820. As an instance of 
the remarkable clearness of her intellect at an 
advanced age, I may add that on her 100th birth- 
day, when the assembled tenantry and others 
offered her their congratulations and drank her 
health, she stood up, and herself thanked them in 
not a very short speech. MONTAGUE WILLIAMS. 
Woolland House, Blandford. 

WOOLLETT'S MONUMENT (2 nd S. x. 450. 513.) 
I feel very much obliged, and most truly thank- 
ful to your correspondent MR. EDWIN ROFFE, for 
his kind attention to my inquiry respecting Wool- 
lett's monument. In the " Charles Museum," at 
Maidstone, there is the first drawing-book of Wool- 
lett when a boy of twelve years of age. The 
drawings are made with the pen in Indian ink ; 
and Barlow appears to have been his model, as 
the ^Fables by that artist (a folio edition) accom- 
panies Woollett's Drawing-book. The youth's 
drawings are extremely well done, evincing a 
firmness of touch, which afterwards gave such life 
and energy to his engravings. There is also in the 
same collection, Woollett's last drawing thatheever 
made ; it is a view of his patron Mr. Athawes' re- 
sidence. These interesting relics of the genius of 
our townsman were kindly presented to the Mu- 
seum by the Rev. J. Athawes, the nephew of his 
patron, of Loughton, in Buckinghamshire, a ma- 
gistrate for that county. There is also an article 
in the Museum, stated to be an engraving-tool 
used by Woollett, when a pot-boy at the Turk's 
Head, in the Rose Yard, with which he engraved a 
design on one of the pewter pots. This story I 
consider very doubtful, as a youth possessing such 
talent, and possessing a work like Barlow's at that 
age, would induce us to consider him placed above 
such a menial situation. In " the good old times" 
of coaching, it is related of our artist, that when 
travelling by " Green's Original Coach," on ob- 
serving a very fine dock by the roadside, he re- 
quested the coachman to pull up, to allow him to 
get out and sketch it. The coachman, I suppose 
feeling the shilling in his " itching palm," con- 
sented ; and the passengers very obligingly waited 
until he had finished his sketch, pleased to have 
an opportunity of gratifying the artist, of whom 
they were so justly proud, and, as a native, con- 
ferring honour on their town. P. 

CLOVIS : BIDLOO (2 nJ S. x. 228.) The charge 
of plagiarism, when not supported by references, 
should always be received with caution. Otway's 
Don Carlos is accessible, and though there are 
necessary coincidences, I see no sign of Schiller 
having even read it. I have looked in catalogues 

AN. 19. '61.] 



and bibliographies for Bidloo, and cannot find 
any dramatic writer of that name. It is not 
likely that one so good as to be plundered by 
Schiller, would not be good enough for a niche in 
biography. Clovis is an epic poem by Desmarets, 
Paris, 1694, 4to. It is solemn and pompous, much 
ridiculed by Boileau, and so different from Wie- 
land's Oberon that, if any passages are transferred, 
their identity is completely disguised. W. H. P. 

HENSHAW (2 nd S. xi. 37.) On the hypothesis 
of G. W. M., how do we account for the s in 
Henshaw ? " Hairon " (French) has been Angli- 
cised into Erne, Hernshaw, Hernsue, &c. If G. 
W. M. be right, in supposing that Hernshaw means 
Black Heron, the word ought to have been Hern- 

Possibly, more probably than that it means 
" black heron," Hernshaw may signify the heron 
of the thicket (Ardea cinerea) in opposition to the 
heron of the marsh (Ardeola minuta, or Egretta 

Undoubtedly " black heron " is a good designa- 
tion for the Hernshaw, as distinguishing it from 
the " purple heron," " buff heron," " white 
heron," &c. But though a good designation for 
the bird, it is not the equivalent for the bird's 

Elisha Cole's authority is not of much value. 
All he says about the word Haw is just this : 

" Haw (f. hay), a hedge, also a disease in the eye; also 
black, o, also to have." 

Arms are adopted in allusion to names, not 
names in allusion to arms. Des armes parlantes 
abound in heraldry. W. C. 

G-OLDEN VERSES (2 nd S. x. 369.) In 1742 
there appeared in London an edition of Hierocles 
by R. W. S. T. P. I understand that these ini- 
tials stand for Richard Warren, D.D. Who was 
this Rev. Dr. Warren ? Was he father of Dr. 
John Warren, Bishop of Bangor ? Was ho son of 
Dr. John Warren, Prebendary of Exeter, who 
died in 1736 ? MELETES. 

(2 nd S. xi. 39.) The city of Winchester had sur- 
rendered its charter before the 27th September, 
1684, that being the date of the entry in the city 
accounts of the payments made to the mayor for 
his expenses on the occasion of the surrender. 

Under dates 15th and 16th November, 1688, 
are entered payments for expenses involved in 
" disbursement towards renewing the charter," 
and " in defence of the old, and procuring the 
new Charter." 

The Charter was restored to the city on the 
2nd November, 1688; and by the terms of the 
restoration, all officers and members of the city, 
appointed " by virtue of any Charter, Patent, or 
Grant since the year 1679 " were displaced. For 

many years there had been great dissensions in 
the city of Winchester (to that point that in the 
year 1664 the mayor and some of the aldermen 
were imprisoned until released by a special order 
in Council), and the interposition of the Royal 
authority, as well as that of the House of Lords, 
had continually been required. W. C. 

PENCIL WRITING (2 nd S. x. passim.} My re- 
collection of village schools eight- and- forty years 
ago confirms the account of the plummet being in 
common use, and it was doubtless the earliest 
writing pencil. Those who were luxurious in 
their preparation poured the melted lead into the 
dried hollow stems of a plant (I believe the hem- 
lock), then called Jtexes, which prevented the lead 
from soiling the fingers. The marks made with a 
plummet are, of course, particles of metallic lead. 
Natural graphite cut into slips and inserted in 
wood was next in use ; and as this substance is 
commonly combined with iron and the pencil lead 
of modern date largely adulterated with anti- 
mony, would not chemical experiment enable the 
formation of an approximately correct opinion as 
to the age of any^ pencil writing, by testing for 
lead, iron, and antimony ? U. O. N. 

MIDWIVES (2 nd S. x. 524.) The following items 
are taken from a copy of the Register of St. Finn 
Barrs Cathedral, Cork, in my possession. W T hat 
the previous professional training of a midwife at 
this period was, I cannot learn ; but they must 
have exhibited some qualification to obtain the 
license. They appear to have been attached to each 
parish and country town. 

" 9 Nov. 1685. Joana Toogood uxor Jooloffe Twoo- 
good, de Civit. Corck, licentiata fuit obstetrix infra Civit. 
et Dioces. Corcag. 

" 15 April, 1686. M f}. Randolph jurata obstetrix et 
licentiata circa Kinsale. 

" 19. Nov. 1686. Anna Sarman de parochia Sancfse 
Trinitatis admissa fuit et jurata obstetrix infra Corck." 

R. C. 


SEVERE FROST OF 1789 (2 nd S. x. 511.) Con- 
sulting some Scotch memorials of the weather, I 
do not find anything relating to the year above- 
mentioned ; but it may be worth a Note to state 

" The end of the preceding and beginning of the year 
1785, were remarkable for a long continued frost; it 
lasted four months, till the ice upon Clyde broke, 14th 
March. Upon the 21st December the cold was so intense, 
that the thermometer showed twenty degrees below the 
freezing point. At London the continuance of the frost 
was still longer, being no less than five months and 
twenty -four days, in all one hundred and seventy-six 
days, the longest continuance of frost upon record. " The 
great frost in 1739 and 1740 lasted only one hundred and 
three da vs." The History of the City of Glasgow, by 
James Denholm. Glasgow, 1804, 3rd edit. 8vo., p. 91. 

G. N. 



S. XI. JAN. 19. '61. 

PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPES (2 nd S. x. 265. 417.) 
In addition two works may be noted, rather cu- 
rious and scarce : 

" Wonderful Prodigies of Judgment and Mercy Dis- 
covered in above Three Hundred Memorable Histories, 
&c. Faithfully Collected from Ancient and Modern Au- 
thors of undoubted Authority and Credit. By R. Burton, 
Author of the < History of the Wars of England, and the 
Surprizing Miracles of Nature and Art.' 12mo., pp. 253." 

" The Surprizing Miracles," pp. 298. 

Both works, Edinburgh, printed by David Pa- 
terson, Lawn-market, respectively 1762 1763. 

CONSCIENCE MONET (2 nd S. x. 511.) I cannot 
reply satisfactorily to the Query of ERICA, but I 
have it in my conscience to compare his figures 
with the " conscience money " at the credit of the 
public balance-sheet for the year ending 5th 
March, 1860. 

Hone quotes the " effect of conscience " as a 
rara avis in his Table Book, but after all, it was 
only worth 360Z., whereas " the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer acknowledges," as a matter of busi- 
ness, no less than 16,488^. 4s. Sd. ! ! Is conscience 
tenderer now than then ? or was human nature 
less alive to it eighty years ago than now ? 


THE PRICES or LLANFFWYST (2 nd S. x. 99.) 
Will T. W. farther oblige by giving some ad- 
ditional information from 'his private collection, or 
inform " Glwysig, Glan-Nant-y-Llan, Llanffwyst, 
Abergavenny," who will render any return in his 
power to T. W. ? GLWYSIG. 

365. 479.)" Thomas Rowney, Esq., and his son 
Tom (the Sir Clement Cotterell on the occasion)." 
Sir Clement Cottrell was Master of the Cere- 
monies at the Court of the Georges, and there- 
fore Mr. Thomas Kowney may be supposed to 
have acted in that capacity. E. 



Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

BOOK. Condition immaterial, if perfect. 

Wanted by Mr. Joseph Simpson, " Chronicle " Office, Edgware, 
London, N.W. 

A CATALOGUE of the Names of the Dukes, Marquisses, Earles, and 
Lords that have absented themselves from the Parliament .... The 
Names of the Lords that subscr bed to levie Horse to assist His Ma- 
jestic, with a copy of all the Cavaliers in his Majesties Marching 
Army .... A List of the Army of his Excellency Robert, Earl of 
Essex .... A List of the Navy Royall and Merchant Ships, the 
Names of the Captaines and Lievtenants .... The Names of the 
Orthodox Divines presented by the Knights and Burgesses as fit Per- 
sons to be consulted with .... touching the Reformation of Church 
Government and Liturgie. Lastly, the Field Officers chosen for the 
Irish Expedition for the Regiments of 5000 Foot and 500 Horse. 
Printed 1612. No place or printer. Wanted if possible to borrow the 
above for a few days. 


THE ATHENAEUM from the beginning to Dec. 1835; Oct. 28, 1837: Index, 
1838; Nov. -28, 1840; July 30, 1812; Jan. 6, 1841; Aug. 1852. 

Wanted by Edward Peacock, Esq., the Manor, Bottesford, Brigg. 

We are this week compelled to omit our usual Notes on Books. 


PROFESSOR LEO of Berlin has our best thanks. 

S. No. A well known book, Camden's Remaines. 

DOG LATIN. J. E. T. will find this treated of in the 1st, 8th, and 9th 
vols. of our First Series. 

GEORGE LEE. We are requested by the writer of the article on Barna- 
bee's Journal to thank our correspondent for his kind offer of a sight of 
the edition of 1774. Mr. Braithwait, however, had already informed 
him of that edition at p. 519. of our last volume. 

X. Y. Z. We fear that the three old Scottish ballads are only to be 
found in very scarce chap-books. " The Belfast Shoemaker," and " The 
Middlesex Flora," are in the British Museum. " The Curragh of Kil- 
dare has not yet been found. 

A. B. Fauvelet de Bourrienne, Secretary to Napoleon I., died of apo- 
plexy on Feb. 7, 1834. 

ERRATA. 2nd S.x. p. 511. col. ii. 1. 1., for "Pasham" read "Par- 
ham; xi. p. 35. col. 11. 1. 17. from bottom, for " g " read" y." 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES far 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the. Half- 
yearly INDEX) is lls. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour O/MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, B.C.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. 



" Martin was more original than Raffaelle or Michael Angelo; _ they 
perfected the style of others, Martin borrowed from none." Sir E. L. 

" The Illustrations of Milton add to his reputation ; upon these, we 
think, and upon the engravings from his paintings, his fame rests." 
Art Journal, " Biography of Martin." 

THE LARGE PAPER EDITION, published originally at twenty guineas, 
imperial 4to., half-bound morocco or half-bound russia, now offered for 
21. 10s. on direct 
the amount), to 

21. 10s. on direct application (inclosing Post Office Order or cheque for 
ROBERT BEALE, 186. Fleet Street, London, E.G. 

Dinneford's Pure Fluid Magnesia 

Has been, during twenty-five years, emphatically sanctioned by the 
Medical Profession, and universally accepted by the Public, as the 
Best Remedy for Acidity of the Stomach, Heartburn, Headache, Gout, 
and Indigestion, and as a Mild A] ' 
more especially for Ladies and Chilt 

and Indigestion, and as a Mild Aperient for delicate constitutions, 

more especially for Ladies and Children. ~ 

lated Lemon Syrup, it forms _an AGREEAHLE EFFERVESCING DRAUGHT, 

Combined with the Acidu- 

in which its Aperient qualities are much increased. During Hot 
Seasons and in Hot Climates, the r, gular use of this simple and elegant 
remedy has been found highly beneficial. Manufactured (with the 
utmost attention to strength and purity) by D1NNEFORD & CO., 
172. New Bond Street, London; and sold by all respectable Chemists 
throughout the Empire. 




Catalogues of Rare, Ancient, and Modern Music on application. 

" NICOLI/S LACERNA." In old Rome, the " Toga" was for a time in 
danger, through an innovating garment, called " Lacerna," a species of 
sur-coat thrown over the rest of the dress; at one period it usurped the 
place of the "Toga" to so great a degree that one of the Emperors 
issued special orders restricting the use of the " Lacerna" in either the 
Forum or Circus. For the use of Rifle Corps, or in private dress, Messrs. 
Nicoll have, from coins in the British Museum, produced an adaptation 
from the classic model, and protected it by Royal letters patent. The 
original gracefulness being retained, the old name is, therefore, re- 
newed, and the trade mark" Nicoll's Lacerna "may, like " NicolPs 
Paletot," be as familiar in our mouths as " household words." Who, 
amongst the higher and middle classes, has not proved the value of 
" Nicoll's " two-guinea Paletot ? and who will say that the many mil- 
lions of these garments sold by Messrs. Nicoll, at their well-known 
London premises 114. 116. 118. and 120. Regent-street, and 22. Cornhill: 
also in 10. St. Ann's-square, Manchester have not greatly influenced 
the downfall of the padded, tight -fitting, high-priced, discomforts by 
which the lieges were encased in the reigns of George the 4th, William, 
and even far into the present reign ? A Beautiful Cloth, made from 
Picked portions of the Fleece of the Australian and European Merino, 
has been expressly manufactured, and is called " LACERNA CLOTH," the 
neutral colours of which are produced by undyed wools being carefully 
mixed, and a process, whereby this garment may be rendered Shower- 
wot Air proof, may also be seen in operation in Regent-street. 

S. XI. JAN. 19. '61.] 




The Hon. FRANCIS SCOTT, Chairman. 
CHARLES BERWICK CURTIS, Esq., Deputy Chairman. 


SPECIAL NOTICE.-Parties desirous of participating .in the fourth 
division of profits to be declared on all pohaes effected prior to the 31st 
December. 18B1, should, in order to enjoy the same,, make imme- 
diate application. There have already been three divisions oi pronts, 
and the bonuses divided have averaged nearly 2 per cent, per annum on 
the sums assured, or from 30 to 100 per cent, on the prerniums.paid, 

the sums assure, or rom o , ., 

without imparting to the recipients the risk of copartnership, as is the 
case in mutual societies. 

To show more clearly what these bonuses amount to, the three follow- 
ing cases are put forth as examples : 

Sum Insured. Bonuses added. Amount payable up to Dec. 1854. 
JE5.000 JE1.987 10s. *6,987 10s. 

1,000 397 10s. 1,397 10s. 

100 39 15s. 139 15s. 

Notwithstanding these large additions, the premiums are on the 
lowest scale compatible with security for the payment of the policy when 
death arises; in addition to which advantages, one half of the premiums 
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The Assets of the Company at the 31st December, 1859, amounted 
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Other approved securities. 

No charge for Volunteer Military Corps whilst serving in the United 

Policy Stamps paid by the Office. 

Immediate application should be made to the Resident Director, 8. 


Founded A.D. 1843. 


H. . Bicknell. Esq. 

T. 8. Cocks, Esq. 

O. H.Drew, Esq. M.A. 

W. Freeman, Esq. 

T. Fuller, Esq. 

J. H. Qoodhart.Esq. 

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Physician W. R. Basham.M.D. 

Bankers Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph . and Co. 

Actuary. Arthur Scratchley, M.A. 


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through tem- 
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LOANS from IWl. to 6001. granted on real or nrst-rate Personal. 

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Example : lOOi. cash paid down purchases An annuity of - 
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The Lancet States, 

First of the kind Manufactured and Patented in the United Kingdom 
and France, as explained with Engravings in The, Illustrated London 
News of May 26th, I860. Supplied by BROWN & POLSON, to Her Majesty 
the Queen, by order from Buckingham Palace. It is in great favour 
wherever it has been made known, for Puddings, Blancmange, &c., 
preferred to the best Arrow Hoot, and especially suited to the delicacy 
of Children and Invalids. 


Manufacturers and Purveyors to Her Majesty : 


INSTRUCTIONS for Tank Management, with Descriptive and 
riced LIST, 162 Pages and 101 Engravings, Post Free for 21 Stamps. 
pply direct to W. ALFORD LLOYD, 19. Portland Road, Regent's 
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Many manuals have been published upon Aquaria, but we confess 
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The Era, Oct. 14th, 1860. 




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A GENERAL CATALOGUE may be had on application. 

TTEDGES & BUTLER are now selling St. Julien 

JQ Claret and Medoc, at 24s., 30s., 36s. per dozen ; capital Dinner 
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Confutation of two injurious Pamphlets, by Cuthbert Cunny- 
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copies, all printed on thick paper. J. E. Adlard, 1859. 

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5. A Narration of the Bloudy Murders commytted 

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8. The Metrical History of Tom Thumb the Little. 

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13. The Merry Conceited Humours of Bottom the 

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14. Three Old Ballads on the Overthrow of the 

Spanish Armada, by Thomas Deloney, A.D. 1588. Square 12mo. 
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copies. Thomas Richards, 1860. 

Facsimiles of the Plats of Three Old English 

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Fortune Playhouse, temp. Elizabeth. Large folio. The im- 
pression limited to twenty-six copies. 

Ashbce and Dangerfield, 1860. 

17. A Short Relation of a Long Journey made round 

or ovall by Encompassing the Principalitie of Wales, from Lon- 
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Berks, Oxouia, Warwick, Stafford, Chester, Flint, Denbigh, 
Anglesey, Carnarvon. Merioneth, Cardigan, Pembroke, Caer- 
marden, Glamorgan, Monmouth, Glocester, &c., 1652. In prose 
and verse, by John Taylor, the Water- Poet. 4to . The impres- 
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Thomas Richards, 1859. 

18. The Doctors of Dull-head College, a Droll formed 

out of the Lost Play of the Father's Own Son, written before 
1639. Square 12mo. The impression limited to thirty copies. 
The Chiswick Press, 1860. 

19. Decker (Thomas) his Dreame, in which the 

great Volumes of Heaven and Hell to him were opened, in 
which he read many Wonderfull Things. With a woodcut of 
Decker in bed. 4to. 1620. The impression limited to twenty- 
six copies, all on tinted paper. Thomas Richards, 1860. 

20. A lytell Treatyse, called the Wyse Chylde of 

thre yere olde, demanded by Adrian Emperoure, the whiche 
hym answered unto every thynge he asked. Square 12mo. The 
impression limited to thirty copies. The Chiswick Press, 1860. 

21. Breton (Nicholas) Will of Wit, Wit's Will, or 

Will's Wit, choose you whether, being five tracts. 1599.. 4to. 
The impression, limited to twenty-six copies, all on tinted 
paper. Thomas Richards, 1860. 

22. A pretie new Enterlude both pithie and pleasaunt 

of the story of Kyng Daryus. 1&6S. 4to. The impression limited 
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Thomas Richards, 1860. 

23. A Treatyse of a Galaunt, with the Maryage of 

the fayre Pusell the Bosse of Byllyngesgate unto London Stone ; 
two poems. Square 12mo. The impression limited to thirty 
copies. The Chiswick Press, 1860. 

24. Greene's Ghost- Haunting Conycatchers, wherein 

is set downe the Art of Humouring, with the merry Conceits of 
Doctor Pinch-backe, a notable makeshift ; ten times more 
pleasant than anything yet published of this matter. Svo. The 
impression limited to twenty- six copies, all on thick paper. 

J. E. Adlard, 1S60. 

! 25. A Brief Relation of the Isle of Anglesea, a curi- 
ous account of the state of that island in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Svo. The impression limited to twenty-six copies, all ca 
thick paper. J. E. Adlard, 1860. 

' 26. Conceits, Clinches, Flashes and Whimzies, 1639. 

An old jest-book believed to be unique. 4to. The impression 
limited to twenty-six copies, all on tinted paper. 

Thomas Richards, 1860. 

27. Crouch (Humphry) Welch Traveller, or the Un- 

fortunate Welchman, in verse, 1671. Square 12mo. The im- 
pression limited to thirty copies. The Chiswick Press, 1860. 

28. Humour Out of Breath, a Comedy by John Day, 

acted by the Children of the Revels, 1608. Post Svo. Uniform with 
the publications of the Percy Society, the reserved impression 
consisting of fifty copies. 

Printed for the Percy Library, by T. Richards, 1860. 


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Square, in the said Parish, and published by G 

London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street, aforesaid. Saturday, January 19,1861. 





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NOTES : Spenceana : Pope's Letters, 61 Emendations of 
Greek Dramatists, 62 East Anglian Words, 63 Early 
Contests for Precedence: the Archiepiscopal Prelates of 
Canterbury and York, 64 Dictionary of Anonymous 
Writers, 65 Baronies by Tenure, 66. 

MINOR NOTES : Heraldic Book Plates Story of the 
Younger Pugin Indistancy : Ubiety Curious Names 
Sir M. A. Shee, P.H.A. Historical Portraits Barm 
Cloth, 66. 

QUERIES: The Walkinshaws of Barrowfield, near Glas- 
gow, 67 Song of the Cuckoo, 68 Heraldic : Arthur 
C. Broughton Pronunciation of Coleridge Family of 
Fiennes Trotman of Shelswell, Oxfordshire Flight of 
Pope Pius IX. French Book on Norway Hensley Re- 
gisterOde to Col. Luttreli: Miss H , about 1770 

Rector of Newmarket Olivers' Hymn of Praise Papal 
Bulls, &c. Pelayo's Visits to North of Spain " The Pre- 
tender " Quezal Alex. Ross Scutch Visible Air, 69. 

QUI-EIES WITH AWSWEBS : Bibliographic Query Ni- 
cholas Ridley Bibliotheca Cooperiana King's Evil 
Fortunatus' Purse, 71. 

REPLIES : " Saltfoot Controversy," 72 Curious Remains 
in Norwich, Ib. Pomona in the Orkney Islands, 73 
Bomb, 74 Richard, Seventh Earl of Anglesey Na- 
thaniel Hooke Sir Henry Killigrew Severe Weather 
Orientation Brazil Midwives Richard Milbourne, 
Bishop of Carlisle Mr. S. Gray Sir Richard Pole 
Centenarianism Date of Missals Dr. B and Lu- 
ther's Story Portrait of Ligonier Gleaners' Bell 
Arms Wanted English Verse Stationers of the Middle 
Ages Paper and Poison, &c., 74. 

Notes on Books. 



[The following account of the circumstances attending 
the first publication of Pope's Letters is in a handwriting 
so closely resembling Pope's, that one is almost inclined 
to believe it was given by him to Spence, among whose 
MSS. in our possession it is now preserved. Its appear- 
ance at the present moment, when all are looking anx- 
iously for the first volume of Mr. Murray's long promised 
edition of Pope's Works, will probably be admitted to be 
well timed.] 

1727 Burl's printing the Letters of 'M r 

Pope & M r Cromwell (which M rs Thomas, 
long before, had got from M r Cromwell ; &, in 
her necessity, sold 'em to Curl :)* M r Popef re- 
cal'd as many of his Letters as he cou'd from his 
friends; & as there was a great many things in 
them he was unwilling to lose, he had several of 
them copied over in two books : part at his own 
House in the Country, & part at L d Oxfords in 
Town. Some of the Original Letters too were 
preserv'd in the same Books, f 

On J the publishing M r Wycherley's Posthumous 
Works, wherein some things were misrepresented : 
M r Pope printed some Letters from his Collection, 
in justice to that Gentleman's memory. These 
Curl look'd on immediately as his own : & so ad- 

* Narrative, p. 1-8. f Ib. p. 9. J Ib. p. 10. 

vertisd A New Edition of the Letters he had be- 
fore got from M rs Thomas; with Additions: Sf 
with a promise of Encouragement to any body that 
s d send him more in* 

Beside this, Curl talk'd of publishing M r Pope's 

Oct. n, Life :f & in 33, Receiv'd a Letter from 

1733 - a person who subscrib'd himself P. T. ; pro- 

mising him some lights as to the Life of M r Pope; 

& soon after another from the same, offer- 

' ing him a large Collection of M r Pope's 

Letters, previous to 27 ; with the copy of an Ad- 

vertisement of 'em, to be publisht in the News 

Papers, if he pleasd.f 

Mar. 22, Above a Year after, J Curl wrote to M l 

1735. ' Pope, under a pretence of Civility, to let 

him know that several of his Letters &c were 

offer' d to him to be publisht; & to propose a 

Daily Post friendly enterview. M r Pope answer'd 

B y- it in an Advertisement, in which he de- 

clar'd he would have nothing to do with the said 

Curl: and Curl imediately declar'd in another 

ib Advertisement, that he wou'd instantly print 

the Collection. J 

P. T. upon finding by M r Pope's Advertisement, 

that Curl had been dealing with him, seems to have 

put his Collection into other hands ; & writes an 

A r 4 angry Letter to Curl for having enter'd 

upon a Treaty with Master Pope. By 

some means or other Curl soften'd him again ; for 

on, or before in another letter, not long after, P. T. 

Apr. 22. 

already printed, at such a price ; & talks of MSS 

Letters enough still by him, to make another 5 s 

volume. They seem to quarrel a good deal 

Apr 21 about the Articles of Agreement. || P. T. 

had put off a Meeting that was appointed 

between them, for fear of being surpriz'd by M r 

Apr 29 PP e ' Curl, after scolding a good deal in 

' his answer, still offers a meeting, if they 

will be upon fair open Dealing: & this at 

last actually produc'd a meeting between him, & 

P. T s Agent, R. Smith the Clergyman : for soon 

after there is a Letter of Curl's to the Rev d M r 

May 3. * * * on this affair ; & another to T. P. in 

which he speaks of having seen his friend 

Apr. so. t h e Clergyman, the Wednesday before. In 

this Letter he mentions his having receiv'd some 

Letters from another Correspondent, E. P., which 

he shall print too as vouchers in M r Pope's life. || 

Upon this If Curl thought all safe ; & so pub- 

Daily p. Boy. blish'd an Advertisement of M r Pope's 

May 12. Literary Correspondence for Thirty 

Years, from 1704 to 1734. In this he mentioned 

several Lords, as wrote to by M r Pope ; at the 

same time that he promises the Respective Answers 

* Narrative, p. 10. f P- 1619. J P. 1114. 
P. 20, 21. This Letter the first P. T. wrote to Curl 
for above a Year, from p. 22. & 25. 
|| Cooper's Narrative, p. 2225. 
f Ib. p. 2632. 



S. XI. JAN. 26. '61. 

of each Correspondent. That very day L d Islay 
took notice of it in the House of Lords, as a Breach 
of Privilege. Curl was orderd to attend the House. 
On his doing it, & the Book being produc'd, it 
appear'd that there were not any Letters 

y14 ' from the Lords mention'd in his Advertise- 
ment ; & so he was dismis'd.* 

Whilst this was transacting, f Curl (who was 
very busy with sev 1 of the Lords on this occasion) 
shew'd some of them a Letter he had receiv'd 
from P. T. instructing him how to behave. P. T. 
says in it, that he is not a Man of Quality, (as he 
imagines;) but. one J conversant with such: & 
that, in particular, he was concern'd with a Noble 
Friend of M r Pope's, in preparing Wycherly's 
Letters for the Press. He speaks of the Collec- 
tion by him, yet unprinted, as much more consider- 
able than all the rest : & promises Curl that he shall 
have them too, if he conceals him every way in 
this affair.f 

Curl's shewing this Letter soon came to P. T s 
knowledge ; & it seems that he, or his Agent 
Smith, had wrote or talk'd very severely to Curl 
upon it. Curl, in his Answer, is in an 
l6 ' open quarrel with them : he even threatens 
'em to discover all their Correspondence upon 
Oath to the Lord Chancellor : & subscribes him- 
self, their abus'd H. Servant. Soon after, he 
really went so far as to publish a New Advertise- 
D. Advertr. men * OI> M r Pope's Literary Corre- 

May2i. spondence, with a Supplement of the 
Initial Correspondence of P. T. E. P. R. S. Sfc. 
This was answer'd two days after by another 
Advertisement shewing how E. Curl had 
May23 ' cheated P. P. & R. S. in this affair: De- 
claring, that Curl had no right in the Copy : & 
that since Curl threaten'd to publish their Letters 
to him, they wou'd print his Letters to them ; 
which wou'd expose his Character to all the world. 
Accordingly they sent in the several Letters to 
Cooper, from which this Narrative of his is chiefly 

N. B. M r Pope printed an Advertisement, on 
their iirst publishing his Literary Correspondence ; 
with an offer of 20 G s , to P. T. or, R. Smith, if 
either of them will come in & discover the whole 
affair to him : & double that Sum, if they did it 
by the direction of any body, and wou'd discover 
who it was directed them. In this Advertisement, 
M r Pope says some of these Letters must have 
been procur'd from his own Library, or that of a 
Noble Lord. That they have publish'd some for 
his, that are not so ; & have interpolated those 
which are. In a P.S. to the Narrative 'tis added, 
That the Original Letters are still in the Books 
from whence they were copy'd ; & That there are 
so many Omissions & Interpolations in the printed 

Letters, that 'tis impossible for M r P. to own 
them in the condition they appear. 

Eubulus, ap. Athen., xiii. p. 559. B. : 

" Ketfeb? 

KaKtos aTToAoifl' Sorts yvvaiKa Sevrepov 
"Eyi]ij.e, rov yap irp<arov OVK epw KaKtas. 
*O fiei/^yap ^i/ an-eipos, ol/aat, TOV KO.KOV, 
'O S' oioc %v -yvi/Tj KO.KOI> 7re7rei<r/xeVos." 

In 1. 1., KO.KOS should be omitted with one MS., 
and the Editio Princeps. v. 5. Porson reads TTC- 
Truo-jueVoy, and the conjecture has been received by 
Dindorf in his edition ofAthenceus, and by Meineke, 
Fragm. Com. Gr., vol. iii. p. 260. The reading 
of the MSS. is however correct, and ought to be 
retained. Eubulus means to say, that the man 
who has been married has been convinced by ex- 
perience (not that he has simply heard) what an 
evil a wife is. 

Alexis, ib. p. 561. A., after enumerating the 
contradictions of love, concludes thus : 

" Kal TOUT' eyto, /aa rrjv 'A.0r)vai> Kal 0eov?, 
OVK olS' on eoTiv, aAA" o/xoj? e'^ei ye rt 
ToiovToy, eyyvs T' etju TOW oi/o/iaTOS." 

For TOV ov6/j.aTos, the reading of the MSS., Din- 
dorf corrects Tovv6/jLaTos. What the sense requires, 
however, is not " the word," but " the idea," 
Read, therefore, rov VO-IWO.TQS, which completes the 
verse. The conjecture of Dobree, dpi -n-ov TOV 
irpa.yfj.aTos, recedes farther from the manuscript 

In p. 587. D., a verse of Menander is cited, 
containin the names of four hetaera3 : 

* Cooper's Narrative, p. 2632. f P. 29, 30. 

t See p. 19. insign r . P. 3236. 

" Xpvo"iSa, KopaJfTjv, 'Aim^vpa 

According to an explanation previously given, 
p. 586. F., Anticyra was a nickname derived from 
hellebore. One of the towns, Anticyra, was there- 
fore the origin of the name. In later times the 
penult was short : see Horat. Sat. ii. 3. 83. 166., 
Art. Poet. 300. ; but the earlier forms were 
'AvTiKvpoa. or 'AvTiKippa, as the name should be 
written in Menander. 

In the words of Syrianus quoted by Meineke, 
Frag. Com. Gr. vol. iv. p. 617. read us '/coAJs 7' 6 
Trapflej'cci',' i. e. wy, as, veluti. 

Eurip. Antiop. Frag. 20. is cited in Aristot. 
Problem, xviii. 6., where the verses are confounded 
with the text, and rvyx^i the reading of the 

i manuscripts, is incorrectly altered by Bekker. 

| See Ehet. 1. 11. p. 1371, Bekker. 

The following are remarks upon the collection 

: of fragments of Sophocles, in the new edition of 

j that poet by Prof. Dindorf, lately published at 
Oxford University Press (ed. 3, I860) : 

VTJ TW A.awep<ra, VTJ rov 'Evpiarav rpirov. Frag. 339. 

Strabo derives the name AaWpo-o from the La- 
conian town A5y; but if this derivation was cor- 

XL JAN. 26. '61.] 



rect, the first syllable would be long. Lycophron, 
v. 511., calls the Dioscuri Aonrc/xruu ; in v. 1369, 
he speaks of a Zei>s Aairepcrios, on which passage 
Tzetzes says that hairfpcrai is a Demus of Attica, 
where there is a temple of Jupiter Agamemnon. 
Stephanus of Byzantium states ^ that AaWpcra, in 
the feminine gender, is a mountain of Laconia, so 
named from the Dioscuri. The explanations of 
this word, as an epithet of the Dioscuri, seem to be 
merely conjectural. 

Fragm. 548. T?? iravro^op^xf "eriSi, Dindorf re- 
fers to ^Esch. Prom. 210.; but Themis is men- 
tioned in this passage, not Thetis. The metamor- 
phoses of Thetis are explained by Find. Nem. iv. 
62.; Apollod. Hi. 13. 5. ; Paus. v. 18. 5. 

Fragm. 599. 'A/ceo-raws is restored by Dindorf 
for 'Aiteffffcuos. Compare Steph. Byz. 'A/ceVn?, W- 
AJS 2tK6\as, Kal "Ayeffra, Trapa T}>V 'AweerrTji/, where, 
for v A7(TTa, read Afyea-ra, with Meineke, or "Eyea-ra 
with Holsdein and Berkeley. Concerning Acestes, 
as the eponymous king of Egesta or Segesta, see 
Heyne, Exc. i. ad JE,n. v. 

Fragm. 655. boipov re vaXaibv K^TTOV. Dindorf 
now expunges re ; but his own note in Poetce 
Scenici, Praef. p. xxix. ed. 1830, showing that it 
ought to be retained, appears to be right. 

Fragm. 731. Read Ko^-waffra XoiSopfoara. The 
word Ko^iraffrbs does not indeed occur ; but the 
forms K^Troff^o, KOfj-irafffjilis, KOJUTTCKTTTJS, and 
ffTtKbs are used. 

Fragm. 896. The form KCKOVO. is from 

The anecdote concerning the Ajax of Augustus 
in p. 208., shows that in the Augustan age writ- 
ing was obliterated with a spunge. G. C. LEWIS. 


Will any of your readers give me a probable 
derivation of "Dutfin, the bridle in cart-har- 
ness,"' as explained by Moor and Forby, but 
without any etym., by either. Gast or Ghast-cow, 
a cow not in calf when she should be, as also in- 
terpreted by them ; Forby only proposing "A.-S. 
Gast, Spiritus :" and Moor, quoting "Gast- ware," 
and " Gast-beast and Heifer," from two Suffolk 
inventories of the seventeenth century. 

And, lastly, a word that Moor only notes, spells, 
and explains : " Futnon, now and then ; * every 
Futnon.' Ray calls it a Sussex word, * Fefn anon' 
It may be derived from future and anon, after and 
soon ; 'Every foot anonj every now and then. 
Cullum's Hawsteadr So far Moor. I never 
heard the word " from the fountain," but only as 
reported by a clergyman, whom a poor sick woman 
had been telling of her "getting a little sleep every 
fntinon." So he pronounced it. 

Having asked for information about these words, 
will you take it about two others which have "suf- 
fer'd a sea-change " along these coasts, and are 

not recorded in our local Glossaries ? (I think, in- 
deed, most provincial glossarists have kept mainly 
z/iland, neglecting the sea-board, where some " an- 
cient and fish-like " phraseology still subsists.) 

Spoon-drift, spray. A sailor, telling me of the 
gale on last 3rd October, said, that though it was 
a cloudless mid-day, the spoon- drift flew so thick 
over the vessel as to " cut the sun right into little 
stars." I was wondering at the word (which I 
have since found is pretty generally used), till I 
remembered old Dryden's " barbarous " line (he 
owes much of his vigour to the vigorous slang he 
caught up) : 

" When Virtue spooms before a prosperous gale, 
My heaving wishes help to fill the sail." 

The word in this its first stage of alteration I 
find quoted in Richardson from Brooke and Beau- 
mont and Fletcher. It then naturally got to spoon 
among the sailors, I suppose; and Halliwell quotes 
from a Sea Dictionary of 1708, " To spoon or 
spooning is putting a ship right before the wind 
and the sea," without any sail, it says, unless fore- 
sail, as being generally done in a storm, when 
Dryden's good wishes would scarce have helped 
the good ship Virtue. 

Surely this " barbarous " spoom is a word we 
may be glad to recover under Dryden's sanction : 
how spoilt if properly spelt ! 

I cannot say so much for my second word, 
which, however, I consider the " prize enigma " 
of lucky discovery, and worth recording to show 
what changes a word may go through and come 
to. A young sailor was telling me how, one blow- 
ing night at sea, they had Composites on the mast- 
heads. I was beginning to wonder at " Price's 
Patent " in such a place at such a time, when an 
older hand corrected us. " Composite he mean, 
Sir ; " the meteors that are well known to light 
on vessels at such seasons. But, then, why com- 
posants f I then remembered Dampier's telling 
of a "corpus sant" appearing on his masthead, 
" a Spanish or Portuguese corruption of corpus 
sanctum" he says, and considered by them, as also 
by those then with him, as a good sign (when 
seen aloft, at least), so much so that " I have 
been told that when they see them they presently 
go to prayer, and bless themselves for the happy 
sight." When seen on deck the Englishmen 
thought it a bad omen. "I have heard some 
ignorant seamen discoursing how they have seen 
them creep or (as they say) travel about in the 
scuppers, telling many dismal stories that bap- 
pen'd at such times," &c. 

Query, Why will no one reprint the whole, or a 
good abstract, of Dampier's fine Voyages ? and 
(now one is about it) all Dryden's Prefaces, which 
Johnson notices as things sui generis' quite? 




[2 n <* S. XI. JAN. 26. '61. 


. YORK. 

Questions of precedence, at first view, appear to 
many an idle subject for discussion, and a matter 
of indifference. From the earliest periods, how- 
ever, of English history, few subjects have at 
times excited more angry feeling, and engendered 
more discontent amongst persons of all ranks, both 
of the clergy and laity, between dignitaries spiri- 
tual and temporal. 

Selden * says that the ancientest question he 
remembered concerning precedence judicially 
raised between temporal dignities since the time 
of the Roman Empire (between ecclesiastical the 
questions are as ancient as between Rome and 
any other of the old patriarchats) is, that in a 
Parliament at Nantes, held in 1087, under Alan, 
Duke of Bretagne, where the priority of place 
was questioned between the Seigneur d'Ancenis 
and the Seigneur du Pont. 

Selden then refers to a case in a provincial 
synod, held at London, in the reign of William I., 
Lanfranc f being then Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and president of it, touching the place and prece- 
dence of the Archbishops and Bishops of England, 
and observes 

" that in truth of the decisions that concern precedence, 
the most are upon questions which have arisen between 
ecclesiastical persons; but there is scarce any of these 
decisions but give good light by way of authority or 
reason to some questions that arise also between tempo- 
ral dignities ; especially cases wherein some of our sub- 
ordinate temporal titles have part in the controversie. 

" In the disputation of such questions the Canon Law 
was much used, but rarely without intermixture of the 
Imperial Civil Laws." 

The case here referred to by Selden was the 
dispute for precedence between the two archie- 
piscopal prelates, Canterbury and York (but which 
does not appear to have concerned the bishops), 
respecting which the following account" is given by 
Fuller in his Church History : J 

In the 22nd year of the reign of King Henry 
L, 1176, the Archbishop of York , claimed pre- 
cedence over the Archbishop of Canterbury |j, and 
at a synod held at Westminster in that year, the 
Pope's legate being present, Richard, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, sitting on his right hand, as in his 
proper place, when in springs Roger of York ^[, 

* Title of Honour, ed. 1692, p. 754. 

t Lanfranc was archbishop, anno 1070 to 1089. 

j Church History of Britain, fol., Book in. pp. 38, 39. 
Lond. 1655. 

Roger of Bishopsbridge, consecrated 1154, died 1181. 

|| Richard, Prior of Dover, elected 1173, died 1184. 

^f Th'is indecent scene is described in Fasti Ecclesice 
Anglicance, 8vo. 1854, vol. iii. p. 100., edit. Hard}', who 
places the account, on the authority of a MS. referred to, 
in the year 1172, when the king came to London with the 
Pope's legate Hugh "cum domino Hugone Papse le- 
gato." Roger, it appears, was severely used : " a clericis 

and finding Canterbury seated, sits down upon 
Canterbury's lap; and hence began the contro- 
versy for precedency between the two sees. 

For the Archbishop of York's pretensions it was 

1st. When Gregory the Great * made York and 
Canterbury Archiepiscopal Sees, he affixed prece- 
dency to neither, but that the archbishops should 
take place according to the seniority of their con- 

At length Lanfranc usurped the senioritv over 
the See of York. 

2nd. The Archbishop of York contended that 
before the time of Gregory, York was the See of 
an archbishop, whilst Pagan Canterbury was never 
dreamt of for that purpose. Lucius f, the first 
Christian King of Britain, founding a cathedral 
therein, and placing Samson in the same, who was 
succeeded by others in the same. 

3rd. If the extent of jurisdiction be measured, 
York, though the lesser in England, is the larger 
in Britain, and which at the time had the entire 
Kingdom of Scotland subject thereto; besides 
which, if the three bishoprics (viz. Worcester, 
Lichfield, Lincoln), formerly injuriously taken 
from York were restored to it, it would vie Eng- 
lish latitude with Canterbury itself. 

For Canterbury it was argued 

1st. No Catholic would deny that the Pope is 
the fountain of spiritual honour, to place and dis- 
place at pleasure. He first gave the primacy to 
Canterbury. The proper place for Canterbury in 
a General Council was next the Bishop of St. 
Ruffinus. J Anselm and his successors were ad- 
vanced by Pope Urban to sit at the Pope's right 
foot, as " Alterius Orbis Papa." 

2nd. The English kings have allowed the prio- 

et laicis turpiter dejectus et cum baculis et pugnis ad 
terram "...." tandem resurgens cum capa sua turpiter 
discissa, regis prostratus vestigiis, in Cantuariensejn Ar- 
chiepiscopum calumpniam intulit mendosam." 

* Gregory the Great, born circa 544, Pope 590. His 
contest for ecclesiastical superiority with John, Patriarch 
of Constantinople, laid the foundation of the schism be- 
tween the Greek and Latin Churches, which has lasted to 
the present time. 

f Lucius, a supposed King in some part of Britain 
somewhat later than the middle of the second century, is 
said to be the first of any King in Europe that received 
the Christian Faith. By many historical writers this 
" Great Luminary," as the Welsh termed him, is mysti- 
fied by the confused and contradictory accounts given of 
him. That he was a King and a Christian, however, is 
established by the preponderating evidence of ancient 
writers. At what time, and in what part of Britain, did 
this Lucius flourish ? asks Mr. Thackeray ; and whereto 
may be added, where was the cathedral founded? That 
writer has discussed this point, and the various contend- 
ing authorities, in his Researches into the Ecclesiastical 
and Political State of Great Britain under the Roman 
Emperors, vol. i. pp. 131148. 

I Anselm, Abbot of Bee, in Normandy, appointed 
1093, died 1109. 

2-* S. XL JAN. 26. '61.] 


rity to Canterbury : for a duarchie in the church, 
viz. (two archbishops in equal power) being in- 
consistent with a monarchy in the State, they 
have ever countenanced the superiority of Can- 
terbury, that the Church government might be 
uniform -with the Commonwealth. 

3rd. Custom hath been accounted a king in all 
places, which, time out of mind, hath decided the 
superiority to Canterbury. 

The controversy lasted many years, which was 
first visibly begun between Lanfranc of Canter- 
bury and Thomas * of York, in the reign of the 
Conqueror, continued betwixt William j of Can- 
terbury and Thurston J of York in the reign of 
King Henry I., increased between Theobald of 
Canterbury and William |[ of York, at the corona- 
tion of King Henry II., and now revived between 
Richard ^[ of Canterbury and Roger** of York, 
with more than ordinary animosity. 

Here the Pope interposed, and to end old divi- 
sions, made a new distinction Primate of all Eng- 
land, and Primate of England, giving the former 
to Canterbury, and 'the latter to York.ff 

" The last flash of the flame," says Fuller, " was 
in the reign of King Edward L, when William 
WickhamjJ, Archbishop of York, at a council at 
Lambeth for Reformation, would needs have his 

* Thomas, a Canon of Bayeux, appointed 4 Will. I., 
23 May, 1070 ; died in 1100 at Eipon. 

f William de Curbellio, Prior and Canon of St. Osytb, 
elected 1123, died 1136. 

I Thurston, a Canon of St. Paul's, elected 1114, re- 
signed 21 Jan. 1139 ; died, 5 Feb. llf. 

Theobald, Abbot of Bee, in Normandy, elected 1138, 
consecrated 1139 ; ob. 1161. 

|| William of York. This should be Roger of York. 

If Richard of Canterbury, a Prior of Dover, elected 19 
Hen. II. 1173; ob. 1184. 

"* Roger of Bishopsbridge, Archdeacon of Canterbury 
above mentioned. 

ft Bishop Godwin (De Prcesulibus Ang. 665) remarks 
that Uefore the Conquest, by a Constitution of Pope Gre- 
gory, the two archbishops were equal in dignity, and in 
the" number of bishops subject to their authority: that 
William the Conqueror gave precedence and superiority 
to Canterbury; but Thomas, Archbishop of York, was 
unwilling to acknowledge his inferiority to Lanfranc, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and appealed to the Pope, who 
referred the matter to the king and the barons ; and at a 
council held at Windsor Castle, they decided in favour of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

This decision, however, did not satisfy the Archbishops 
of York, for the contest was renewed at subsequent periods 
with considerable pertinacity. 

Vaughan in his Revolutions of English History, vol. i. 
p. 356., says' King John, in the 6th year of his reign, 
with the advice of the assembled prelates and barons, 
put an end to the controversy which had grown up be- 
tween the Archbishops of York and Canterbury for pre- 
cedence. The decision was in favour of Canterbury. 
r II William Wickwane (not Wickham), Chancellor of 
York, elected 22 June, 1279, consecrated 17 Sept., resigned 
shortly before his death, and retired into France, where 
he died, 27 Aug. 1285, at Poutiniac. 

cross carried before him, which John Peckham *, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, would in no case per- 
mit to be done in his province." f G. 

The importance of such an addition to our 
literature, as a "Dictionary of English Anony- 
mous and Pseudonymous Works," has been urged 
by several writers in the pages of " N. & Q." By 
no one, however, has the subject been brought 
forward with so much earnestness, or affording 
stronger hopes for its being undertaken and car- 
ried out, than by Mr. Halkett, Librarian to the 
Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh. That gentle- 
man has stated his views so ably and explicitly, 
that I cannot do better than quote a portion of 
his own words from his communication to " N". & 
Q." (2 nd S.i. 130.): 

" In these circumstances, should no one better quali- 
fied than myself undertake the task, I feel strongly dis- 
posed to continue the researches in which I have been 
engaged, and to arrange the results with a view to pub- 
lication. But though willing, I am by no means anxious 
that the duty should devolve upon myself. My object in 
making the present announcement is simply to hasten, if 
I can, the completion of a work which is confessedly a 
great desideratum. On the one hand I shall be glad to 
afford to anyone better prepared than I am, all the as- 
sistance in my power; and on the other, should the 
undertaking be left in my hands, I shall look with con- 
fidence for the advice and co-operation of all who take an 
interest in it." 

I would now ask, is MR. HALKETT still willing 
to undertake the task of superintending such a 
work, should he find his claims for assistance gene- 
rally responded to, which it cannot be doubted, 
would be the case ? All who have the pleasure of 
knowing MB. HALKETT will admit, that with his 
extensive acquirements and experience, the work 
could not be committed to better hands. As an 
instalment, and for the encouragement of others, 
I am prepared to place at his disposal a list of 
titles already tolerably extensive, which I would 
willingly endeavour to augment. The French 
have long had their Barbier ; the Italians have 
now their Dizionario di opere Anonime e Pseudo- 
nime di Scrittori Italiani, etc., di G. M. (Milano, 
1858-59, 3 vols. 8vo.) ; and it is full time that 
English literature should be similarly represented. 

J. D. HAIG. 

King's Inns Library, Dublin. 

* John Peckham, elected 7 Edw. I., 1279 ; ob. 8 Dec. 

f Fuller, deprecating these contests between such high 
authorities, and the miseries resulting therefrom, refers 
to the contest just before the Saviour's death (Luke, ch. 
xxii. ver. 24.), " Quis esset major? " which of them shall 
be the greater? when the question should have been 
" Quis esset moastior ? " not who should be the highest, 
but who should be the heaviest for their departing Mas- 



[2a S. XL JAN. 26. '61. 


A few words on the much-agitated question of 
baronies by tenure, offered, with all diffidence, by 
one who is no lawyer, but a lover of truth and 
justice, will not, it is hoped, be deemed presumptu- 
ous or ill-timed, now that the period is rapidly 
approaching when the case which has been argued 
before the House of Lords in more than one Ses- 
sion of Parliament will be again opened. 

The learned pleadings hitherto advanced have 
been occupied chiefly (as far as we can gather 
from newspaper reports) not with the question, 
" Do baronies by tenure still exist ? " but, in 
proving that they did formerly exist, and that the 
case before the Court is one of them, and in ex- 
amining the arguments and evidence used in 
similar cases on which the House have formerly 
adjudicated. Thus the Court has been insensibly 
diverted from discussing the only question really 
at issue, " Do such baronies now exist ? " 

Surely this question lies in a nutshell and, 
with the Act of 12 Car. II. c. 24. before us, may be 
readjly disposed of. That Act declares, inter alia, 
that " all fines for alienation, tenures by homage, 
knight-service, &c. and all tenures of the king 
in capite be likewise taken away." 

Tenures " per Baroniam," to all intents and 
purposes, were strict feuds, and essentially tenures 
in capite by knight-service of the highest kind, 
and proportionably burthened ; as such, they were 
for ever swept away by this Act, whose sole object 
was to relieve the subject from the burthens of 
feudal tenure, and, with the tenure, " the dignity" 
itself must necessarily have gone, but for the 
saving clause of the Act, that nothing therein 
" shall infringe or hurt any title of honour, feudal 
or other, by which any person had, or might have, 
a right to sit in the Lords House of Parliament, 
as to his or their title of honour, or sitting in Par- 
liament, and the privilege belonging to them as 

The dignity, then, was preserved, but the 
tenure by which it was held was for ever abolished. 
It was put exactly on a par with manors and 
lands held, like it, by knight- service. In the 
words of the Act, " all sorts of tenures held of 
the king, or others, shall be turned into free 
and common socage." Thus, the manors and 
lands remained with their owners, but were no 
longer held by the tenure of knight-service. In 
like manner, the dignity of the barony remained, 
but the tenure by which it was held was changed ; 
and, if the term may be so applied to a personal 
dignity, it was, thereafter, to be held in free and 
common socage, to be, in fact, like other digni- 
ties of the peerage, descendible therefore to the 
legitimate heir, without interference or claim of 
the crown. 

If this view be correct, all arguments founded 
on precedent, prior to 12 Car. II. are irrelevant. 

Tenures " per Baroniam " were either swept 
away by that Act, as tenures by knight-service,, 
or they remain a feudal tenure untouched by it. 
If they do so remain, does it not follow as a 
necessary consequence, that their incidents also 
remain ? If so, the " caput Baronire," the castle 
and manors by which the dignity was held, and 
all the ^domains, must descend, as well as the 
dignity itself, to the legitimate heir, unless alien- 
ated by license, under the Great Seal; for 
" License of Alienation" was one of the most 
indispensable incidents of tenure by knight-ser- 
vice in capite, and this condition, by the way, at 
once disposes of the apparent anomaly that a 
tenure " per Baroniam" enabled a subject to 
create a peer by alienation of his estate. He 
could not alienate without license from the Crown 
under the Great Seal. These arguments are of- 
fered with sincere diffidence by AMICUS CURO?. 

Minor flutes. 

LEE, of Fountain Hall, Aberdeen, being a collec- 
tor of armorial book-plates, would be glad to ex- 
change duplicates with any other collector. 

fore this talented man exhibited marks of his 
derangement, he received a letter from a Roman 
Catholic prelate, requesting designs for a new 
church. It was to be very large the neighbour- 
hood was very populous ; it must be very hand- 
some a fine new church had been built close by ; 
it must be very cheap they were very poor, in 

fact, had only : when could they expect 

the designs ? Pugin wrote : 

" My dear Lord, Say thirty shillings more, and have 
a tower and spire at once. Yours, 

" A. W. P." 

Not a bad answer for those who expect bricks 
"made without straw. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

INDISTANCY : UBIETY. Bishop Pearson, allud- 
ing to a difficult question of the place or ubiety of 
a spirit (that is, how a spirit which is immaterial 
can have any place a relation which seems ne- 
cessarily to imply extension and circumscription, 
qualities which again necessarily imply a material 
subject), says that the soul, " existing after death,, 
and separated from the body, though of a nature 
spiritual, is really and truly in some place ; if not 
by way of circumscription as proper bodies are, yet 
by way of determination and indistancij ; so that 
it is true to say this is really and truly present 
here, and not elsewhere " (Exposition of the Creed, 
Art. V., tit. " He descended into Hell," p. 334., 
21st edit.). What does the word indistancy mean ? 

I am not going to raise any discussion upon the 


S. XI. JAN. 26. '61.] 


very difficult question of the ubiety of a spirit : I 
merely wish to remark, that after all that can be 
said about it, we can get no farther than our own 
consciousness carries us, namely, that we are con- i 
scious that our own spirits, though immaterial, 
have a place as truly and really as if they were | 
material substances ; but how such a relation can | 
exist between the immaterial and -the material is | 
one of those mysteries which we are utterly unable j 
to explain. DAVID GAM. 

CURIOUS NAMES. Many of your correspondents 
have contributed instances of curious names given j 
by the Puritans and others to their children. ^ I , 
subjoin a few from the registers of St. Leonard's, j 
Shoreditch, and a Note on the subject from Bp. j 
Kurd's Common-place Book, as quoted by Mr. j 
Kilvert in his Biography of that prelate, p. 276. 

In the burial register occur, 
" 1563. Evangelist Hamerton. 

William By-the-Grace-of-God. 

1610. Philemon Milton. 

1658. Pretteaser (?) Baxter." 

" Bp. Hurd says, ' The custom that prevailed in the ! 
fanatical times, of giving Godly names to children, such 
as God-be-praised Barebones, &c., was not peculiar to < 
that age. We find the same usage in the fifth century, i 
which makes mention of a holy Quod-vult-Deus, Bishop I 
of Carthage, and another holy Bishop, Deo Gratias.' " 


SIR M. A. SHEE, P.R.A. -In the Life of Sir 
Martin Archer Shee, P.R.A., London, 1860, 2 
vols. 8vo., mention is made of two portraits, by 
means of which, Sir Martin used to say, he rode 
into the Academy. It may interest some readers 
of " N. & Q." to learn that one of these portraits, 
Luke O'Shea, Esq., is in the possession of his de- 
scendant, Luke O'Shea, Esq., Solicitor, Upper 
Sherrard Street, Dublin. It is life-size, intro- 
ducing his horse, and is spiritedly and carefully 
painted. It is not, however, as stated, in a foreign 
uniform, but in that of the Yeomanry Cavalry of 
the period ; the scarlet, that " difficulty " of the 
portrait painter, most skilfully treated. 

I may add that the picture is in good preserva- 
tion, and much prized by its owner. F. R. S. 


HISTORICAL PORTRAITS. In the diocesan li- 
brary of Clogher (now removed to Monaghan) a 
number of portraits of the bishops of that see are 
preserved. I believe they originally were kept at 
the palace in Clogher. The fact of their existence 
may be useful to some inquirer. A IRVINE. 

Fivemiletown. . 

BARM CLOTH. An apron is so called in many 
parts of England. A late writer supposes it to 
be barn, or properly bairn cloth a cloth for 
children to sit on. Is is not rather from the 
A.-S. Beapm, the lap (Lat. Gremium), the cloth 
to cover the lap with ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 


I am desirous to obtain some information re- 
garding this old Lanarkshire family. John Wal- 
kinshaw, Avho died circa 1734, was the last of the 
name who owned the Barrowfield estate. He es- 
poused, in 1703, Katherine Pate rson, whose father 
was Sir Hugh Paterson of Bannockburn, and whose 
mother was a daughter of Sir William Ruthven 
of Douglas. John Walkinshaw was a keen Ja- 
cobite, and was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir, during the insurrection of 1715, but 
escaped from Stirling Castle through the address 
of his lady, who changed clothes with him, and 
remained in his stead. The subsequent amnesty 
enabled Mr. Walkinshaw to return to Barrow - 
field, where he died, about the year 1734, as 
already mentioned, the estate having been pre- 
viously sold. 

He left no sons, but ten daughters. Now, what 
I wish to know is, 1st. What became of all these 
ladies ? 2nd. If married, to whom ? and 3rd. 
Who now represent them respectively ? 

Their names were Barbara, Margaret, Anna, 
Elizabeth, Mary, Jean, Helen, Lyonella, Clemen- 
tina, and Eleonora. They all reached majority 
at the least; and I have seen the signatures of the 
whole to deeds, dated 130 years ago.* 

The following is the extent of my present in- 
formation respecting seven of these Misses Wal- 
kinshaw; but I shall be happy to have it corrected, 
confirmed, or enlarged, by any of your correspon- 

It has been said that 

1st. Lyonella married her cousin William, son 
of James Walkinshaw of Walkinshaw, in Ren- 

2nd. Margaret espoused her cousin James, son 
of John Hynd of Glasgow, whose wife was a 
daughter of the said James Walkinshaw. 

3rd. Mary married James, the son and heir of 
Colin Campbell of Bly thswood, and died childless 
on 24 September, 1771. 

4th. Eleonora married Alexander Grant of 
Arndilly, now, or lately, represented by William 
Macdowal Grant, younger,' of Arndilly, who mar- 
ried the Hon. Eleonora Frazer, daughter of Alex- 
ander, fifteenth Lord Saltoun. 

5th. Helen married William Murray of Ja- 
maica, whose descendant Sarah Murray espoused 
the Hon. Charles Ashburton, third son of the Earl 
of Ashburnam. Another descendant of Helen 
Walkinshaw, named Mary, was married to Major- 
General Sir Henry Floyd, Baronet. 

* In 1730 the law agent for John Walkinshaw, his wife 
and daughters, was Mr. Archibald Campbell, Writer to 
the Signet, Edinburgh, in the preparation of certain 
family papers. 



S. XI. JAX. 26. 'Gl. 

6th. Clementina was mistress to Prince Charles, 
by whom she had one child, the Duchess of Al- 
bany, who died without issue. 

7th. Another Miss Walkinshaw, whose Christian 
name I do not know, was maid of honour to the 
Princess of Wales, mother of George III. 

This leaves unaccounted for Barbara, Elizabeth, 
Anna, and Jean ; but one of these was the maid 
of honour, which reduces the list to three only. 
What was the Christian name of the member of 
the royal household above referred to ? 

I may mention the following particulars re- 
garding Mrs. Walkinshaw, the mother of these 
ten ladies, and some of her connections. 

She outlived her husband about forty-six years, 
and died in 1780, at the great age of ninety-seven, 
much respected. She seems, at one time (1730), 
to have lived at Carrubers, near Edinburgh. She 
had two brothers and one sister, viz. : 

1st. Sir Hugh Paterson of Bannockburn (named 
after his father), who married Lady Jane Erskine, 
daughter of Charles, tenth Earl of Mar, now re- 
presented by Mr. Hollo of Edinburgh. 

2nd. James Paterson, who entered the service 
of the King of Sardinia circa 1738. He married 
an English lady, and died without issue. He held 
the rank of Lieut. -Colonel in the Sardinian army. 

3rd. Elizabeth Paterson married Hugh Smith, 
merchant, Boulogne. They had, 1st, a son, Hugh, 
who espoused "Betty Seton," the heiress of .Touch, 
from whom are descended the present Setons of 
Touch; and, 2nd, a daughter, Margaret Agnes, 
who married Sir John Stuart of Allanbank, grand- 
father of the present baronet. 

In the curious Autobiography of the Rev. Dr. 
Alex. Carlyle of Inveresh, lately published, allu- 
sion is made (pp. 153. -and 518.) to these Smiths, 
and to the Patersons, with the latter of whom the 
Doctor appears to have been connected. From 
the extensive range of acquaintances, and of in- 
formation respecting Scotch families, which this 
indefatigable old divine possessed, it is highly 
probable that he knew Mrs. Walkinshaw, and the 
history of her daughters, living as' they did, after 
quitting Barrowfield, in or near Edinburgh, and 
being contemporaries of his. Probably some no- 
tice of these Walkinshaws may be found among 
his unpublished papers ; and, failing information 
otherwise, I point to that quarter, lest the present 
inquiry may meet the eye of those in charge of his 
MSS. J. B. 


What is the meaning of the words 

" Bulluc sterteth, Bucke verteth, 

in the song of the Cuckoo, given in vol. ii. p. 93. 

of Hawkins's History of Music, and in vol. i. 

p. 11. of Ritson's Ancient Songs and Ballads f 

Sterteth is explained by them as leaps about, gam- 

bols, and verteth as goeth to harbour in the fern. 
But is there any authority for either the one or 
the other of these interpretations ? Bullocks are 
not much in the habit of gambolling at any time, 
and it is plain that the meaning attached to ver- 
teth is incorrect, for at the season which the poet 
describes, there is no fern in which they could 
harbour. The only plant of the tribe which 
grows on forest glades, parks, and heaths, is the 
common brake, Pteris aquilina, and this dies down 
at the approach of winter, and does not appear 
again till about midsummer. Now, although the 
poet says that " Summer is come in," i-cumen in, 
yet the song of the cuckoo, the growing of seed, 
and the bleating of lambs, show that he uses 
summer in its more extended sense, as the season 
of warm weather, and means really that universal 
theme of song in the middle ages, the merry 
month of May, when there is no fern. 

Before we attempt to explain the verbs, let us 
be sure that we understand the nouns. May not 
Bulluc and Bucke have been written in mistake 
for the Birch and the Beech? The Birch was 
more especially the tree of May, agreeably to its 
German name, Mayen-baum {Vide Adelung in v.), 
and may not this English song have been imitated 
from a French one, and the word Bouleau been, 
mistaken for bullock f Such confusion from re- 
placing foreign words with English ones is not 
without a parallel. For instance, Dandelion, to 
judge by its Italian name, coda di Hone, was once 
called touffe de lion, the tuft of the lion's tail, which, 
as represented in gold in heraldic devices it very 
much resembles. Touffe was confounded with 
tooth, was translated dens, and thence came dan- 
delion, . lowenzahn, &c. to replace the much more 
popular, but rather indelicate names, by which it 
is better known to the peasantry of England and 
the Continent to this day. Cowslip, again, which 
is just as evidently cow-salep, just as we have 
dog's-mercury, lamb's-lettuce, horse-radish, &c., 
has been Anglicized into cow's lip, cow's leek, and 
cow's anything but salep, an Oriental name for a 
restorative made from the tubers of orchises, and 
much used by our ancestors ; as it is by the 
Spaniards at the present time, and under the 
same name. 

Bulluc, then, I would submit, is the birch-tree, 
and Bucke may mean a beech-tree, A.-S. boc, 
beoce, bocce, Buck-ingham, just as well as Buck. 

If it is allowed that the above may be the real 
sense of the nouns, how shall we interpret the 
verbs, stefteth and verteth ? Will stert mean shoot, 
spring as a young branch, or rather run to tail, 
form catkins ? Verteth will have its literal mean- 
ing, grows green. With the hope that some one, 
who is more competent to form an opinion on the 
subject than myself, will enlighten me, I propose, 
as the interpretation of the line in question, 

The birch is forming catkins, the beech grows green. 

R. C. A. P. 

2 ad S. XI. JAN. 26. '61.] 


HERALDIC : ARTHUR. On the tombstone in 
Benacre Church, Suffolk, of Edward North, Esq., 
who died 5 June, 1701, is a shield of North im- 
paling parti per bend sinister a lion ^rampant, 
apparently the arms of his second wife, Ann, 
daughter of John Arthur, Esq., who survived 
him. I infer from other evidence that she was 
the same lady who, in 1656, as Ann Arthur, 
spinster, daughter and heiress of John Arthur of 
Wiggenhall, in Norfolk, Esq., deceased, was first 
married to John Colby, Esq., of Banham, Nor- 
folk. As one of the quarterings of Colby, en- 
graven on a silver cup in the possession of my 
family, I find the same coat, parti per bend 
sinister gules and azure, a lion rampant argent. 

John Arthur, the father, is supposed to have 
been of a family resident in the sixteenth century 
at Wisbeach, a branch of the Arthurs of Somer- 
setshire ; but the Somersetshire Arthurs bore a 
chevron between three clarions. Can anyone in- 
form me whether any and what family of Arthur 
did bear the coat in question ? If I mistake not, 
I once observed the same as a quartering in a 
hatchment to the late Sir Edward Kerrison, Bt. 

G. A. C. 

C. BROUGHTON. Can any of your readers tell 
who a gentleman of the name of C. Broughton 
was, living about 1805 ? The point is this : it is 
known that during the war. Sir Joseph Banks, as 
President of the Royal Society, sent the Nautical 
Almanac to La Place, and the Institut National ; 
and it is most likely that they made returns. 
But the scientific intercourse was very restrained ; 
the science of England was of native growth, and 
very inferior. From Nelson's funeral, in 1803, 
to the Peace fewer Continental books were used 
in England than in any other ten years since the 
time of Shakspeare. I have bought some of the 
books of Mr. C. Broughton, and I guess that he 
brought them from Paris himself during the short 
peace of Amiens. Was he friend of Dr. Priestley, 
or Lord Lansdowne, or Mr. Henry Cavendish ? 


St. John's Wood. 

correct pronunciation of the name Coleridge f In 
an unfriendly article on S. T. C., which appeared 
in one of the earliest numbers of Blackwood, the 
writer, by way of proving that the poet was a 
man of no great note, said that even the sound of 
his name was correctly known to few. . (I am re- 
calling a, recollection of more than forty years.) 
I supposed I had discovered a solution in one of 
his own marginalia, where both rhyme and pro- 
sody require a different pronunciation from the 
one current among us provincials. Writing on 
the fly-leaf of a volume, which had been the pro- 

C'ty of one Hannah Scollock, he addresses the 
y : 

" But now this book, once yours, belongs to me, 
The Morning Post's and Courier's S. T. C. ; 
Elsewhere in College, knowledge, wit and scholarage, 
To friends and public known, as S. T. Coleridge." 

Notes on Divines, i. 35. 
Here we have the highest of authorities for a 

trisyllabic pronunciation. But again it seems 

(although less clearly) to be dissyllabic in a verse 

of Wordsworth's : 

" Nor has the rolling year twice measured, 

From sign to sign, its annual course, 
Since every mortal power of Coleridge 
Was frozen at its marvellous source." 

J. H. 

OXFORDSHIRE. Can any of the readers of " N. 
& Q." oblige me by giving any information con- 
cerning Mrs. Trotman, whose letter to her daughter 
on the subject of her education, dated Shelswell, 
1735, is published in a work called the Voice of 
the Church ? Who was this lady ? Did she write 
anything else which has been published ? M. T. 

FLIGHT OF POPE Pius IX. The author of 
Mademoiselle Mori, whilst giving an account of 
the flight of Pope Pius IX. in 1848, says that 
some years before, while bishop, he had fled from 
his see. When did this happen ? and why ? F. L. 

FRENCH BOOK ON NORWAY. Can any of the 

readers of " N. & Q." tell me the title of a book 

Eublished some years ago, and written by a French 
idy, giving an account of her travels to and in 
Norway, as far as the North Cape ? I am told 
that it states that the lady, having a great dread 
of sea-sickness, travelled the greater part of the 
way by land ; always choosing a land route in 
preference to a sea route. EDWIN ARMISTEAD. 

HENSLEY REGISTER. In the very old register 
of the parish church of Hensley, in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire, there are no entries for the 
year 1563. At the bottom of the page which con- 
tains the entries for the preceding and subsequent 
years there is the following note : - 

" The reason, as some think, that nothing is written in 
the year of our Lord God 1563, because in that year the 
visitation or plague was most hot and fearful, so that 
many fled, and y e town of Hensley, by reason of the 
sickness, was unfrequented for a long season, as I find by 
an old writing dated 1569. "Jo. NAYLOR." 

There is no date given to show when this note 
was made ; but it was evidently inserted, judging 
from the colour of the ink and the character of 
the penmanship, not more than one hundred years 
after the circumstance of sickness to which it 

Query, Was this likely to have been the real 
plague? and, if so, is there any record of its 
having, in the said year, visited any other part of 



S. XI. JAN. 26. '61. 

England? It is exactly one hundred years be- 
fore the breaking out of the great plague. 

There is also in the vault of the noble family 
(Bolton), the patrons of the living of Hensley, 
and which vault is in the inside of the church, a 
leaden coffin of some former female member, on 
the top of which, encased also in lead, is, or rather 
was, her heart. It is said the body and heart, cof- 
fined and cased as they are, were brought from 

With regard to the enclosing separately the heart, 
was this likely to have been a private whim of the 
deceased party, or was it at any period a common 
custom, and had it any religious or superstitious 
significance ? I am not speaking of the case of 
the body's being buried in a foreign soil, and the 
heart sent to its native one, but where body and 
heart are both alike interred " at home." R. S. 



" O slender youth, so neat and trim, 
As smooth in feature as in limb, 

With wreaths of roses crown'd, 
What easy maid, with sandy locks, 

Receives thy love, thy vows, thy , 

Or is Miss H sound ? 
N. F. H. for Wit, vol. iv. p. 30. ed. 1770. 

The female intended is Miss Harman. She was 
a gardener's daughter at Woodstock, and was 
seduced by Luttrell while " pursuing his studies" 
at Oxford. 

In the Brit. Museum is an unfinished pamphlet, 

E'ving some account of the transaction. In it 
uttrell is grossly abused, and the case repre- 
sented as one of heartless seduction and desertion. 
More probably it was an ordinary affair. A per- 
son residing at Oxford could have but few oppor- 
tunities of seducing a Woodstock girl, unless they 
were afforded him by herself. 

The author of the ode, whoever he was, had 
probably seen the girl, whom he describes as of 
fair complexion. He and Luttrell might be con- 
temporaries at Oxford. 

I believe the latter was ultimately prevailed 
upon to make some provision for " his victim." 
Has any record been preserved of the young lady's 
subsequent career ? 

The initial H. of her name is not given in the 
copy of the ode at the Brit. Museum. W. D. 

RECTOR OF NEWMARKET. Can any correspon- 
dent inform me of a rector of Newmarket, about 
the end of the seventeenth century, whose initials 
were J. D. ?* He wrote some theological works, 
among others An Exposition of the Church Cate- 
chism. Query, Was this ever printed ? J. C. J. 

OLIVERS' HYMN OF PRAISE. Have any of the 

[* John Daken was Rector of St. Marv's, Newmarket, 
from 1647 to 1676. ED.] 

readers of " N. & Q." a copy of the following small 
tract ? 

" A Hymn of Praise to Christ, set to Music by a Gen- 
tleman in Ireland, and performed before the late Bishop 
of VYaterford, in his Cathedral, on Christmas-day. To 
which is added, A Hymn on Matt. v. 29, 30." Third 
Edition (12mo. 177.) 

Should this tract be in the possession of any 
person, the inquirer would esteem it a great favour 
by their communicating to DANIEL SEDGWICK, 

81. Sun Street, City. 

PAPAL BULLS, ETC. In a Catalogue of a sale of 
books, which took place in London about four 
years since, a volume is described as containing 
"a Collection x>f Papal Bulls, Edicts, and Notifi- 
cations, promulgated at Rome from the Year 1798 
to 1814 by Ferdinand IV., Pope Pius VII., and 
Napoleon"!.; Roma, 17981814." Are these 
Bulls, &c., published in a collected form ? And 
if so, what is the exact title of the publication ? 
I am disposed to think that the volume above 
alluded to was merely a collection of pieces issued 
during the years cited. 

It forms Lot 2999. in the second portion of the 
Catalogue of the late Bindon Blood's books, sold 
by Sotheby & Wilkinson on the llth of August, 
1856, and following days. AIKEN IRVINE. 

Pelayo discourses with much sound learning on 
the origin of the title " Don," and its present in- 
discriminate use, which seems to have brought it 
nearly as low as our Esquire. He says, that on 
arriving at the inn, the waiter called him Don 
without any knowledge of his quality ; and that 
on sending for a barber, the boy of the shop 
replied that " his excellency had gone out, but 
would be sure to come as soon as possible." p. 90. 
(A Visit to the North of Spain, London, 1801, 8vo. 
pp. 246.) 

I shall be obliged by the title of Pelayo's book, 
and that of any other which treats of Italian or 
Spanish titles of honour. F. B. 

" THE PRETENDER." In the Life of John Dun- 
ton, 8vo. 1818 (p. 750.), there is in the list of 
Dunton's political tracts, one (No. 33.) entitled 
The Pretender, or Sham King, Sfc., a tragi- comedy. 
Is this a dramatic piece, and was it written by 
Dunton ? ZETA. 

QUEZAL. In Stephen's Central America, frc., 
1st ed. vol. ii., p. 189., is the following passage : 

" On a shelf over his bed were two stuffed quezales, the 
royal bird of Quichfc, the most beautiful that flies ; so 
proud of its tail that it builds its nest with two openings, 
to pass in and out without turning ; whose plumes were 
not permitted to be used except by the royal family." 

What bird is a quezal ? C. DE D. 

ALEX, Ross. Among the works attributed to 
Alex. Ross, chaplain to King Charles I., is one 

2a S. XL JAN. 26. '61. ] 



entitled Colloquia Plautina, no date. Wanted 
some notices of the contents of this very rare 
book. ZETA. 

SCUTCH. This word is explained in a dic- 
tionary now before me, "to break and separate 
the woody part of flax ; to dress JJax" 

Will any of your correspondents inform me 
whether it is ever applied to any, and what other 
process ? Or to a similar process on any, and 
what other substance than flax ? REGEDONUM. 


" Amissa solus palrna superabat Acestes ; 
Qui tamen aerias telum contendit in auras, 
Ostentans artemque pariter, arcunaque sonanteua, 
Hie oculis subituui objicitur magnoque futurum 
Augurio monstrum : docuit post exitus ingens : 
Seraque terrifici cecinerunt omnia vates. 
Namque volans liquidis in nubibus arsit arundo, 
Signavitque viara flammis, tenuesque recessit 
Consumpta in ventos : ccelo seu scepe refixa 
Transcurrunt crinemque volantia sidera ducunt." 

Virg. JEn. v. 518. 

" One of the hawk-tribe, peculiar to this country, the 
<3er- Falcon Falco Islandlcus is a most remarkable bird. 
They catch their prey alive and on the wing; and so 
terrible and unerring is their flight, that nothing can es- 
cape them. Except his near relative, the peregrine falcon, 
there is probably not a bird in the world that can equal 
Tiis speed on the wing. Grey, like his native cliffs, he 
will sit on a projecting crag, quiet for hours, until a flock 
of rock-doves or some ducks are seen flying by. He leaps 
into the air, vaulting upwards till he has ' got the sky ' 
of his prey to a sufficient height for gaining the necessary 
impetus, his wings shiver for a moment as he works him- 
.self into a perfect command and poise, and to the full 
extent of his energy. Then he dashes downwards with 
such velocity, that the impression of his path remains on the 
sky like that of the shooting meteor or the flashing lightning, 
^nd you fancy there is a torrent of falcons rushing through 
the air." Northufari, or Rambles in Iceland, (p. 173.,) 
by Pliny Miles, London, 1854. 

The fact and the fiction resemble each other. I 
shall be glad if any scientific reader of " N. & 
Q." will state whether bird or projectile, without 
giving off exuviae, can affect the air so as to mark 
its course ? FITZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 


BIBLIOGRAPHIC QUERY. Is there any Cata- 
logue published of the various controversial pam- 
phlets, which issued from the English press during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ? I have 
The Catalogue of all the Discourses published 
against Popery during the Reign of James II., 4to., 
London, 1689 ; attributed to the pen of Dr. Gee, 
tut it is not sufficiently full for the purpose I 
require. A. IRVINE. 

[John Gee published his Catalogue at the end of his 
work, The Foot out of the Snare, 4to., 1624, which passed 
through four editions in that year. It is reprinted in 
Somers's Collection of Tracts, by Scott, ed. 1810, iii. 86., 

and in Morgan's Phoenix Britannicus, 1732, p. 432. The 
Catalogue possessed by our correspondent, and published 
in 1689, is usually attributed to Edward Gee, but it differs 
very materially from the one published by John Gee in 
1624. In 1688, Archbishop Wake published A Continua- 
tion of the Present State of the Controversy between the 
Church of England and the Church of Rome ; being a full 
Account of the Books that have been of late written on both 
sides, 4to. But the most extensive is the Complete Cata- 
logue of all the Discourses written both for and against 
Popery in the time of King James II. *c., by Francis Peck, 
M.A., 1735, which is incorporated in the very valuable 
Catalogue of the Collection of Tracts for and against Popery 
in the Manchester Library founded by Henry Chetham, of 
which the first Part was published in 1.859 by the Chetham 
Societj', the work edited by the learned Librarian of the 
Chetham Library.] 

NICHOLAS RIDLEY. Can you furnish any par- 
ticulars of Nicholas, the cousin of Bishop Ridley ? 

S. J. 

[The will of this Nicholas Ridley is printed in the 
Wills and Inventories, published by the Surtees Society. 
This is the identical person whom Bishop Ridley ad- 
dressed in his memorable farewell letter to his friends 
before his martyrdom at Oxford in 1555, as " my wel- 
beloved and worshipfull Cosin Master Nich. Ridley of 
Willimotswicke." Mr. Surtees was in possession of a full 
pedigree of the family of Ridley of Willimotswick, down 
to Musgrave Ridley, whose estate was sequestered by 
parliament for his adherence to King Charles I., beneath 
which he has left, suo more, the following stanzas referring 
to the great Rebellion, and its consequences : 

" When fell the Ridley's martial line, 

Lord William's ancient towers, 
Fair Ridley on the silver Tyne, 
And sweet Thorngrafton's bowers ; 

" All felt the plunderer's cruel hand, 
When legal rapine through the land 

Stalk'd forth with giant stride ; 
When loyalty successless bled, 
And truth and honour vainly sped 

Against misfortune's tide." 
The Castle of Willimotswick is now in ruins.] 

BIBLIOTHECA CoopERiANA. What are the 
dates of the several portions of the Catalogue of 
Mr. C. P. Cooper's books ? I am only acquainted 
with the catalogue of that further portion, sold by 
Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson in July, 1857. I 
have long sought for the previous portions, but 
without success. AIKEN IRVINE. 


[The Catalogue of the previous portions is dated June, 
1852, and the sale was announced to take place in the 
spring of 1853. These portions were sold by Messrs. 
Sotheby and Wilkinson on April 18, 1853, and seven fol- 
lowing days. ] 

KING'S EVIL. When was the last authenti- 
cated case of touching for the King' Evil ? 

J. H. S. 

[The first English monarch who refused to touch for 
the King's Evil was William III. ; but the practice was 
resumed by Queen Anne, who officially announced in the 
London Gazette, 12th March, 1712, her royal intention to 
receive patients afflicted with the malady in question. 
It was about that time, doubtless, Johnson was touched 



[2 nd S. XI. JAN. 2G. '61. 

by her majesty, upon the recommendation of the cele- 
brated physician, Sir John Floyer, of Lichfield (see the 
Doctor's Life by Boswell, Croker's edit. 1848, p. 7.). 
King George I. put *an end to this practice, which is 
said to have originated with Edward the Confessor in 

FORTUNATUS' PURSE. Every one has heard of 
Fortunatus with his inexhaustible purse : but 
can any one tell me where his history is to be 
found, and who wrote it ? I had thought that 
Mr. Planehe's two volumes contained all the cele- 
brated fairy tales, but the History of Fortunatus 
is not among them. " Prince Fortune," which is 
in the collection, is quite a different story. 


[Fortunatus is not, we believe, included in any collec- 
tion of Fairy Tales. It is a well-known story, popular 
in nearly every European language. Quadrio is of 
opinion that it is of Spanish origin, while others, with 
great probability, consider it as originally English. It 
was formerly very commonly printed as a Chap-book in 
this country, as it is to this day, we believe, in France, 
Holland, and Germany. Our readers may remember that 
in an article on the Literary Intercourse between England 
and the Continent, which appeared in " N. & Q." 2 nd S. 
vii. p. 21., it was shown that some woodcuts in a Chap- 
book edition of Fortunatus were copied from, if not iden- 
tical with, the blocks which had been used in a Frankfort 
edition of Das Heldenbuch.'] 

(2 nd S. ix. 365.) 

In answer to a Query by a correspondent, re- 
specting this Controversy, after giving an account 
of its origin, it is stated, at p. 366., that the " dis- 
putants in this solemn farce eventually came to 
blows " ; and then, in apparent confirmation, is 
described an occurrence which ensued between 
Messrs. Douglas & Blackwood in May, 1818 ; 
although the above Controversy had nothing to do 
with the matter. The demele alluded to was oc- 
casioned by a Glasgow writer (Anglice, attorney,) 
of the name of Douglas, very naturally taking 
offence at being termed " the Glasgow gander " in 
certain articles in Blachwootfs Magazine. It is 
inconceivable how the writer of the answer in 
"N". & Q." could confound such an event with 
The Saltfoot Controversy ; and had he even looked 
into the publication, he might have seen that the 
last letter appearing in the Magazine was pub- 
lished in September, 1818 : and that, consequently, 
it was some time after that date that the reply, 
which settled or terminated the question, appeared 
for the first time appended to a reprint, with ad- 
ditions, of the original articles ; and accompanied 
by remarks on the state of the Lyon Office in a 
separate form, published by Blackwood at the 
close of 1818 with the above title. 

Those who are acquainted with the merits of 

the Controversy > can best say whether it deserved 
the epithet of " a solemn farce." It is not surely 
applicable to a discussion in relation to an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to graft on the distinguished stem 
of the royal house of Steuart a family of the 
name, which, however latterly eminent and ta- 
lented in its branches, was in truth originally ob- 
scure. The " disputants " here were, on the one 
part " Candidus," understood to be the late Sir 
Henry Steuart, of Allanton, Bart. ; and a gentle- 
man, who was in communication with him, Mr. 
George Robertson, the editor of an edition of 
Crawford's History of Renfrewshire*, published 
in 1818 : and on the other part, John Riddell, 
Esq., of the Scottish Bar, a known legal antiqua- 
rian authority, whose final " Reply," it is believed, 
can leave no doubt in the mind of any acute in- 
vestigator of such points of the futility of the 
Allanton claim. 

Neither was this the first occasion of the sub- 
ject being brought before the public ; as, in 1798, 
a pamphlet by Sir Henry, then Mr. Steuart, 
stating the Allanton pretensions, called forth an 
unanswered refutation^ from the pen of the cele- 
brated Andrew Stuart, whom he had accused of 
having ignored his family in the able Genealogical 
History of the Stewarts. R. R. 


(2 nd S. x. 446. 523., xi. 38.) 
The unconsciousness (which is the fact), nor the 
fact itself, that the subject of the " Curious Re- 
mains in Norwich " had ever occupied your pages, 
cannot be a bar to a revival of the discussion 

under any circumstances; but when additional 
discoveries are made, the subject may be re-opened 
with advantage to the progress of further inquiry. 
Everything in connexion with these troughs and 
pitchers has yet to be explained all is immersed 
in conjecture. The guarded words of your able 
correspondent, MR. EDWARD PEACOCK, admits 
this position when he writes, speaking of the con- 
tents of the like jars, that they " contained a con- 
siderable quantity of what resembled burnt wood." 
In the cinerean urns of the ancients, the ashes 
are sufficiently easy of detection to satisfy the 
most unpractised observer. The shape and size 
materially militates against the assumption that 
! these pitchers were so used, and the horizontal 
! position almost forbids the possibility of their 
j being applied to such purposes. There still re- 
mains another question : Was the form of the 
> common domestic pitcher ever appropriated to 

* This publication contains the problematical account 
' of the descent of the family of Allanton, forming the sub- 
ject of the Controversy, and drawn up mostly from materials 
avowedly furnished by Sir Henry Steuart, if not com- 
piled by himself. 

2"* S. XT. JAN. 26. '61.] 


funereal purposes ? And if they were so applied, 
it is evident but a small portion of the ashes could 
have remained within the small and wide-mouthed 
jar when placed in an horizontal position. Pagan 
urns were arranged in order, but were they ever 
laid in troughs ? 

F. C. H. says : " Other such jars having been 
found with human bones or ashes in them," &c., 
has most intimately connected them with the 
burning of the dead ; but it is much to be re- 
gretted such new and important matter should 
have been revealed without that reference which 
every querist naturally desires. 

The ages of the churches do not afford satisfactory 
evidence ; but as these troughs are arranged in 
strict conformity with the designs of both the 
churches named, it almost conclusively follows 
they are coeval only with the perpendicular style 
of architecture a period ages after the funeral 
pyre had ceased to be the common consignment of 
the dead. 

Impressed with the opinion that these troughs 
and jars were placed to facilitate the conveyance 
of sound, the extract from the Theatre of the 
Greeks was appended to the first notice of the re- 
cent discoveries. As reference has now been 
made to some papers in the Illustrated News, no 
comment is necessary for appending the following 
from the English Cyclopaedia, art. THEATBE : 

" The ancients also were obliged to have recourse to 
what seems a strange expedient for transmitting the 
actor's voice to the farthest part of the Theatre, namely, 
that of placing in cavities for the purpose beneath the 
seats, hollow metal or earthen vases, termed Echeia, 
^xeux, that is, 'sounding thing': which augmented the 
sound. Mr. W. Banks discovered something of the kind 
in the Theatre of Scythopolis in Syria ; but what effect 
such Echeia, and the metallic mouth-pieces of the masks 
worn by the actors really produced, it is not possible 
now to judge." 

In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiqui- 
ties, edited by Dr. Smith, under the word THEA- 
TRUM it is said, speaking of the passage between 
the tiers of seats : 

" One side of such a passage formed towards the upper 
rows of benches, a wall, in which in some theatres, 
though perhaps not at Athens, niches were excavated 
which contained metal vessels, ^xei, to increase the 
sounds coming from the stage and orchestra." 

Further extracts are unnecessary. Of the three 
component parts of this mysterious adjunct to the 
church, two are decidedly in favour of " sounding 
things," the vases and the walls. Of the third, 
the locality is against that conclusion; but as 
architects and builders, even in our own enlight- 
ened age, have committed some errors, it may not 
be unreasonably imagined that in the imperfect 
knowledge of the Greek contrivances some defec- 
tive conclusions of what they were, may have 
led the builders of the fifteenth century into the 
error of placing the " sounding things " at the feet 

of the choir, instead of being in the midst of the 
auditory. H. D'AvEXEY. 

(2 nd S. xi. 12.) 

Professor P. A. Munch, of Christiania, in a 
communication to the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, published in vol. i., part i. of their Pro- 
ceedings (Edin. 1852), offers a most ingenious ex- 
planation of how the name Pomona came to be 
applied to the mainland of Orkney. Before giv- 
ing the substance of it, it is necessary to remark 
that J. G. F. seems slightly in error, in saying 
that Solinus " records the fact that the island was, 
at the period when he wrote, about the middle of 
the third century, known by this name," as well 
as in supposing that his words imply "that such 
name had been given to it on account of the 
length of the day in that region." The only pas- 
sage in Solinus from which any such inference can 
drawn, is the following : " Ab Orcadibus Thyle 
usque quinque dierum ac noctium navigatio est. 
Sed Thyle larga et diutina pomona copiosa est " 
(chap. 22.). This, which is the reading of the 
common editions, may be rendered thus : " From 
the Orkneys to Thule is five days' and nights' sail. 
But Thule is fertile, and productive of long-last- 
ing corn." As if to complicate the matter still 
farther, Torfaeus in his Orcades (p. 5.) has re- 
marked : " Pomona a Julio Solino poly- 

histore Diutina appellatur." No such name ap- 
pearing in Solinus, Professor Munch was led to 
conjecture that in the historian's copy of the old 
geographer, the adjective diutina had been written 
or printed Diutina, the sentence reading thus : 
" Sed Thyle larga, et Diutina pomona copiosa 
est," " Thule is fertile, and Diutina has plenty of 

"Now," he adds, "when such a reading could be 
adopted in some MSS., it seems not only probable but 
almost certain, that in other MSS. the words have been 
arranged thus : ' Sed Thyle larga et diutina, Pomona 
copiosa est,' or ' Sed Thyle larga, et diutina Pomona co- 
piosa est.' In both cases, as in that of Torfaeus, the 
Diutina or Pomona has been construed as a name be- 
longing to the mainland of Orkney, evidently because 
Thule was not believed to be productive of corn, Pytheas 
describing it in such unfavourable terms." 

Buchanan's assertion that " Orcadum maxima 
multis veterum Pomona vocatur," the professor 
believes to be a mistake, as he is " certain that the 
name is not to be found in any book previous to 
Fordun's Scoti-Chronicon, 1. ii. c. 2., where he calls 
the Orkneys ' insulae Pomoniae,' having, as is to be 
well remarked, quoted Solinus only two pages 
before (c. 9.), where he speaks of the manners 
and languages of Scotland." 

In a note appended to Professor Munch's com- 
munication, Mr. David Laing, while admitting 
the ingenuity of his explanation of the origin of 



XI. JAN. 26. '61. 

the name Pomona, brings forward the objection 
.that Solinus, in using the word, is speaking of 
Thule, which was distant five days' sailing from 
Orkney. To this it may be answered that the 
error of transferring the name Pomona to the 
latter is chargeable against those who misapplied 
Solinus' words, and not against that author, whose 
meaning is obvious enough. Mr. Laing, having 
examined several of the earlier editions of Solinus, 
found the word pomona printed in two of them, 
with a capital initial letter, while in a third it 
appears as "Pynoma" a circumstance which 
seems greatly to strengthen, if not altogether to 
confirm, the probability of the correctness of Pro- 
fessor Munch's conjecture. JAMES MACDONAXD. 

J. G. F. is referred to Dr. Barry's Account of 
Jhe Orkney Islands, p. 20., where that author con- 
jectures that the name is compounded of two Ice- 
landic words, which signify Greatland ; " and this 
name (he adds) is very applicable if a comparison 
be made between it and the other Islands." 

May there not be some affinity between " Po- 
mona and the simple Mono," the name given by 
Caesar to the Isle of Man, and by Tacitus to An- 
glesea ? 

It is remarked in Haining's Historical Sketch 
and Descriptive View of the Isle of Man (Liver- 
pool, 1824), p. 3., citing Woods, a historian of the 
same island, that " Perhaps the words Mona and 
Man may both of them be derived from the an- 
cient British word Mbn, accented grave in 
Owen's Dictionary, and signifying what is iso- 
lated" a description not inapplicable to Pomona. 



(2 nd S. xi. 29.) 

Bentivoglio, in his History of the Wars of Flan- 
kers (English ed. 1678), makes no mention of the 
use of bombs at the siege of Nimeguen in 1590. 
Grotius, in his De Rebus Belgicis, translated by 
Manley, and published in 1665, is equally silent. 
Both authors, however, are more general than 
particular in their descriptions of the missiles 
-used in the sieges of which they write. Cayet, 
mentioned by FUSEE, may therefore be right in j 
stating that bombs were used at Niineguen. 

To find the first undoubted occasion on which j 
the bomb was employed as an instrument of of- 
fence, is not I fancy an easy task, but there is 
evidence to prove that it was invented and used 
before 1590. 

Leonardo da Vinci, the celebrated painter, 
equally celebrated as a military engineer, in a i 
letter he wrote to Ludovico il Moro, Regent of j 
.Milan (dr. 1489), speaks of his possessing a kind ! 

of bombard . . . with which to throw hail-shot ("mi- 
nuti di tempesta "), and with the fire of which 
to cause great terror to the enemy. The original 
of this letter is in the Ambrosian library at Milan. 
A translation of it is in Jervis's Engines of War, 
published in 1859, p. 41.; and a faulty one (so 
Captain Jervis states) is in Brown's Life of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, published in 1828. Two sketches 
of Da Vinci's bombards and bombs will be seen in 
Jervis, p. 42. 

Mante, in his Naval and Military History of the 
Wars of England, iv. 443. (without date), says, 
that the inhabitants of Venloo entertained the 
Duke of Cleves, then on a visit to them, by firing 
some bombs, said to have been just invented. 
This occurred about 1588. Mante's authority for 
this is Strada, and he proceeds, quoting that 
writer : 

" I know that some have written that a month or two 
before a like experiment had been made at Bergen-op- 
zoom, by an Italian deserter from the Spanish troops 
who had engaged with the Dutch, and had promised to 
make them some hollow balls of stone or iron, which, 
being thrown into a besieged town and bursting after 
their fall, would set everything on fire ; but, as he was 
preparing his composition, a spark having fallen on the 
powder, he was blown up, and by his death left his em- 
ployers in an uncertainty whether or not his search would 

Long before this period (1588) the bomb was 
known in England. A reference to Rymer's Fee- 
dera will show this. There the record is, that in 
1543, mortars for bomb-shells were cast at Buck- 
stead in Sussex. The mechanics employed were 
Ralph Page and Peter Baude, both Flemings. 
In Hollingshed the former artist is named Rafe 

Bombs were "invented," so Haydn states in his 
Dictionary of Dates, " at Venloo in 1495, but ac- 
cording to some authorities near a century after." 
Da Vinci's letter to the Sforza places the fact a 
few years earlier, about 1 489, and Strada about 
1588, nearly coincident with Haydn's dates. 
Haydn adds, "they came into general use in 
1634, having been previously used only in the 
Dutch and Spanish armies." This general use of 
the missile is apparently attributed to an English- 
man. James, in his Military Dictionary, art. 
"Mortar," states that Mr. Malter, an English 
engineer, first taught the French the art of 
throwing shells, which they practised at the siege 
of Motte in 1634. This is one year earlier than 
the siege named by FUSEE. _ As Haydn and James 
give no authorities for their statements, no idea 
can be offered of the sources from whence they 
obtained their information. M. S. R. 

x. 27. 156.) I have to thank MR. FYNMORE for 
his notice of my Query respecting the seventh 

<S. XI. JAX 26. '61.] 



DJarl of Anglesey. It would seem from Debrett, 
that Richard, the sixth Earl, only married two 
vives. I find that he married four : 1st, Ann 
Phrust, as stated by Debrett; 2nd, Ann Simpson 
( f Dublin, the only daughter of a wealthy citizen ; 
Jrd, Anne Salkeld, the mother of Richard, the 
seventh Earl ; 4th, Juliana Donovan, the mother 
of Arthur, the unsuccessful claimant of the earl- 
dom of Anglesey, but successful in his claim to 
the title of Viscount Valentia in the Irish peerage. 

ME. FYNMORE states, from Debrett, that the 
claimant to the title of Earl of Anglesey, on the 
death of the sixth Earl, was John Annesley, of 
Ballisack, Esq. The source from which I quote 
(namely, that it was Richard Annesley the son,) 
is the Gentleman's Magazine of the time when the 
contest arose (about 1767), in which a statement 
of the facts is given at some length. I am, there- 
fore, inclined to regard this as a more reliable 

The questions which I before put, still remain 
to be answered; and if MR. FYNMORE, or any 
other correspondent, can assist me in the solution, 
I shall feel greatly obliged. When did Richard, 
the seventh Earl of Anglesey die ? Where was he 
interred ? And if married, did he leave issue ? 

H. J. M. 

NATHANIEL HOOKE (2 nd S. x. 467.) ABHBA 
was so good as to refer me to the Catalogue of 
Sir William Betham's sale, in which mention was 
made of a patent creating "Nathaniel" Hooke 
a peer of Ireland ; but having some doubt that 
" Nathaniel Hooke " had been so distinguished, 
and thinking it more probable that it was Colonel 
Hooke who had been thus rewarded -for his ser- 
vices in Scotland in 1707, I took the liberty of 
writing to Sir Thomas Phillipps, who you stated 
in a Note to an article of mine on the subject of 
my ancestor, had purchased his patent, to ask 
him to favour me with a copy of it. Not having 
obtained the information as I had hoped, may I 
ask if any of your correspondents happened to 
see the patent in question previous to or at the 
sale, and could inform me whether the patent 
was granted to a " Nathaniel " Hooke, and if 
not, to whom ? 

The Christian name of the Colonel is never once 
mentioned in the Secret History, and all his let- 
ters are signed " Hooke." This work, it appears, 
was published simultaneously in Dublin and in 
London in 1760, and curiously enough was set up 
'n two distinct types in that year, showing how 
ittle correspondence there must have been be- 
tween the booksellers in the two capitals in that 
day. _ Copies of both editions lie before me. One 
:s printed, large octavo, in London for " T. 
Becket, at Tully's Head, near Surry Street, in 
:he Strand," and the other in small octavo, in 
Dublin, by "James Potts, at Swift's Head, in 
Dame Street, and Samuel Smith, at Mr. Faulk- 

ner's, in Essex Street." Both title-pages bear 
the words " Never before published," although in 
the Preface to each (for both works are identical) 
it is stated that the work is a translation from the 
French edition. Can any of your foreign corre- 
spondents refer me to this " French edition ? " 
The English title is 

" The Secret History of Colonel Hooke's Negotiations 
in Scotland in favour'of the Pretender in 1707, including 
Original Letters and Papers which passed between the 
Scotch and Irish Lords and the Courts of Versailles and 
St. Germains. Written by Himself." 

N. H. R. 

[In the Catalogues of the British Museum this work is 
entered as Colonel Andrew Hooke's. There is also an 
edition published in 1775, "London, Printed for John 
Donaldson, corner of Arundel Street, No. 195. Strand," 
8vo., pp. 210. In the title-page, the words "in favour of 
the Pretender," and " never before published," are omitted. 
The preface is entirely new, and the allusions to Lock- 
hart's Memoirs for notices of Col. Hooke are suppressed.. 
It states that the French edition was "printed at the 
Hague"; and this translation is dated "Edinburgh, 
April, 1760. The articles in the body of the book are 
also rearranged." ED.] 

SIR HENRY KILLIGREW (2 nd S. xi. 17.) Two 

or three letters, relating to Killigrew's mission to 
Heidelberg, &c., will be found in The Reformers 
of England and Germany, published by Dr. Heppe 
of Marburg, in 1859. The same may be seen in 
Latin, with an English rendering, in the same 
book as published in a translation (Hatchard's, 
1859). These letters have, I believe, been no- 
where else published. B. H. C. 

SEVERE WEATHER (2 nd S. xi. 30.) There are- 
some difficulties connected with the" method your 
correspondent A. A. suggests ; although, certainly, 
a register of the number of days, when skating- 
was practicable, in each year, would give a very 

food general idea as to the severity of the weather, 
ituation has a great deal to do with the strength 
of the ice. Some would consider it safe ; white 
others, not venturing on, would declare it was not 
strong enough for skating. 

One pond, of a tolerable size, in a very shel- 
tered spot on Clapham Common, usually retains- 
the ice for a considerable time after a regular 
thaw has set in ; and whenever a slight night 
frost occurs, is as good as ever for skating. The 
only drawback being, certain difficulty experi- 
enced in crossing two to four feet of weak ice 
covering the space melted during the thaw, be- 
tween the bank and the old ice. 

Skaters, when the pond was in this state, have 
been frequently amusing themselves on a mass o 
floating ice ; and all other ponds in the neighbour- 
hood " open-water." 

Although embracing but a short period, the fol- 
lowing table from what records I have kept may 
be serviceable ; at any rate, they will assist to 
form materials from which the desired result may 



[2 nd S. XI. JAN. 2G. '61. 

be attained. The ice being strong enough for 
skating on the pond just named, is not included 
in this statement ; which is of a more general 
nature, embracing the district between the Crystal 
Palace waters and the Croydon and Epsom ponds. 


1853. Jan., &c. No record. 
Dec. 17 to 19, 25 to 31 - 

1854. Jan. 1 to 5, 15. March 3, doubtful - 

1855. Jan. 18 to Feb. 25, Dec. 10 to 14, 20 to 22 

1856. Jan. 14, 15, March 30, 31, doubtful ) 
Nov. 30 to Dec. 4, 27 to 29 - - j 

1857. Jan. 30 to Feb. 5 

1858. Jan. 24 to 28, March 5 to 12 - - | 
November about 23 to 25 (24th certain) j 

1859. December 15 to 20 

1860. Feb. 12 to 15, Dec. 20 to 31 - 

1861. Jan. 1 to 14. Ice still bearing. 

Thaw of course occurring occasionally, but ice 
considered strong enough to bear on all the above 
days. J. S. A. 

ORIENTATION (2 nd S. x. 519.) With refer- 
ence to the inquiry of MELETES on " orientation," 
I give an extract from Fergusson's Handbook of 
Architecture (note 1., p. 516.) 

"In this and the following chapters the expression 
'East End,' is generally iised as if synonymous with 
altar end. 

" On this side of the Alps such an expression would 
be always correct. It is so in nine cases out of ten in 
such German cities as Milan or Verona, but is correct 
only by accident in such as Pisa, Ferrara, Bologna, or 
any of the cities of the south, where the Gothic races did 
not entirely supersede the original population ; but as 
without very large detailed plans of the towns it is im- 
possible to ascertain this, the expression has been allowed 
to stand. 

" The orientation of churches, by turning their altars 
towards the east, is wholly a peculiarity of the Northern 
or Gothic races : the Italians never knew or practised it." 


BRAZIL (2 nd S. x. 449.) I do not know that 
I can throw much light on this subject, but it 
seems at least unquestionable that the honour of 
the discovery of this great country belongs to the 
Spaniards. In the beginning of December, 1499, 
Vincent Yanez Pinzon, one of the skippers who 
had accompanied Columbus in his first voyage, in 
1492, sailed from Palos on a voyage of discovery, 
and on 28th January, 1500, reached the coast of 
Brazil, near Cape St. Augustine. From that 
point he sailed along the coast to the north west, 
passing the mouths of both the river of the Ama- 
zons and the Oronoko. He was followed almost 
immediately by another townsman of Palos, one 
Diego de Lepe, who also reached Cape St. Au- 
gustine, and sailed along the coast to the south 
west. These were intentional discoveries ; the 
next was purely accidental. Vasco da Gama 
having returned from India in September, 1499, 
the King of Portugal fitted out a strong fleet for 
the purpose of following up his success, and gave 
the command to Pedro Alvarez Cabral, who sailed 

from Lisbon in March, 1500; but authorities differ 
as to the day on which he reached the coast of 
Brazil. Bishop Osorio, the Portuguese Cicero, 
says, in his lib. i. De Rebus Regis Emmanuelis, 
that " solvit Capralis cum omni classe viii. Idus 
Martii, anno a Christo iiato M.D. ;" and that 
^octavo Kalend. Mail nautce terram conspiciunt." 
This latter date is of course, in English, 24th 
April. Mafihei, in his Historiarum Indicarum, 
lib. ii., says, "Capralis Martio mense ad Hesperides 
tertio decimo die processit," and then "post men- 
sem circiter in telluris conspectum ventis feruntur" 
This would bring us, somewhat vaguely, down to 
the 13th of April, as the day of discovery. Cas- 
taneda says that the fleet came in sight of land 
on the 24th of April, but stood along the coast 
till they found a good harbour, which they named 
Porto Seguro ; and next day, being in Easter week, 
a solemn mass was said on shore. Faria y Sousa, 
in his Asia Portuguese says that the fleet an- 
chored on Easter eve, in a harbour which they 
called Seguro. There seems, therefore, to be no 
room for doubt that this accidental discovery of 
Brazil by the Portuguese happened in the month 
of April, A.D. 1500 ; but how to reconcile the au- 
thorities with each other, or with the fact that the 
Good Friday of that year happened on the 17th of 
April, I do not know. 

The books above mentioned are the only ones I 
have at hand to refer to ; but if DELTA will look 
at Southey's History of Brazil, he will probably 
find the discrepancies accounted for and recon- 
ciled. J. L. 

MIDWIVES (2 nd S. xi. 59.) I do not know 
whether midwives were licensed by ecclesiastical 
authority, or by Act of Parliament. They were, 
however, compelled to take an oath, the form of 
which is given in Strype's Annals, vol. i. p. 537. 

Many parish Registers contain entries of bap- 
tisms by the midwife, and in some ancient injunc- 
tions to the Clergy by the Archbishop of York, 
is the following : 

" Item all Curates must openly, in the Church, 
teach and Instruct the Myclwiefes of the very wordes 
and fourme of Baptisme, to thentents, that they may use 
them perfietly, and none oder." (See Burn's 'History of 
Parish Registers, pp. 81, 82. 85.) 



In England, the midwife was licensed by the 
bishop of the diocese, or his chancellor, upon the 
certificate of the minister of her parish, as to her 
good character, and the recommendation of re- 
putable matrons as to her skill and knowledge. 


(2 nd S. xi. 50.) This prelate was not of Queen's 
College, Oxford. He was for a short time of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, whence he migrated 
to Queen's College in the same university, being 


. JAN. 26. '61.] 



admitted a sizar 7th March, 1578-9, and ma 
triculated 1st April, 1579. He proceeded B.A. 
1581-2, was admitted a Fellow of Queen's, 25th 
Aug. 1582, and commenced M.A. 1585. 


MR. S. GRAY (2 nd S. xi. 29.) Mr. Simon Gray 
was a native of Dunce, co. Roxburgh. He en- 
tered the War Office in February, 1810, and re- 
tired upon a superannuation allowance in 1828 
being then sixty-one years of age. He returned 
to his native town, and lived on some property 
which he had purchased. He was a man of ec- 
centric habits, having some peculiar views on 
political economy. He carried out his prudential 
maxims in the management of his own affairs, 
and, on his death, on 28th April, 1842, he left 
considerable property, the result, I believe, of his 
own thrift. His executor was his nephew, a Mr. 
James Thompson. I have never seen the book 
to which allusion is made in the Query. I pre- 
sume it must have been published before 1841, 
for I believe that during the last year or so of his 
life Mr. Gray was incapacitated from literary 
exertion. JOHN MACLEAN. 


SIR RICHARD POLE (2 nd S.x.512.) The right 
spelling of this name is Poole, and the descent of 
Sir Richard from Cadwallader, the last British 
king, is given in the Harleian MSS. 1412, fol. ]., 
labelled "Visitation of Oxfordshire, 1574." His 
arms are there shown to be, per pale or and sable, 
a saltire engrailed, counterchanged. The pedigree 
is, shortened, as follows : 

1. Cadwallider. 

2. Idwallus, first Prince of Wales. 

3. Rodricke Matloynoc. 

4. Canonus Diudaithe. 

5. Essilta, m. Morinus, Erie of the Isle of Anglice. 

6. Rodericus the Great. 

7. Amarudus, first Prince of Powisie, third sonne. 

8. Lewellen Andothe. 

9. Kinwinus. 

10. Bellethinus. 

11. Meridith. 

12. Grifunus, secound sonne. 

13. Owinus Kivilioke. 

14. Wenvinven, m. Susanna, daughter of Rychard de 
CJare, Erie of Gloster (one of those who signed an Eng- 
lish proclamation of Henry III., 18 Oct. 1258.) 

15. Katheren, m. Gilbert Poole, Knight (introduced 
without a word of explanation.) 

16. Owin Poole, m. Constance, dau. and here of the 
Lord Pimarthe. 

17. Amon, Lord of Pemarthe. 

18. David, first sonne. 

19. Blewlinus. 

20. Madoke. 

21. David Wair. 

22. Gallfrid Poolle, m. Edith, daughter of Sir Olliver 
St. John, Knight. (In Harleian MSS. 1562, fol. 67. b., 
labelled "Visitation of Sussex, 1634-1663," it is stated 
that " Sir Geffrey Poole, Knight, live Southampton, m. 
Edith, daughter of Sir John St. John, of Bletsoe.) 

23. Richard Poolle ; Knight of the Garter, m. Margaret, 
daughter and solle here of George, Duke of Clarence and 
of Ellizabeth, daughter and here of Therle of Sals. 

Sir Geoffrey (son of Sir Richard), and two of 
his sons, wrote their name Poole upon the wall of 
their prison chamber in the Tower of London, 
1562 and 1564. 

It would appear from the Harleian pedigree 
above copied, that the original arms of Poole were 
"or, a lion rampant gu., a bordure arg.;" and 
that the saltire belonged to the Pemarthe family, 
whose property passed to the Pooles, and was di- 
vided between the four sons of David (18th in 
the pedigree.) Blewlinus (19), was the first who 
omitted to quarter the lion with the saltire, and 
assumed the saltire alone, in which he was copied 
by his descendants. I believe, however, that the 
lion shows them to have been one of the reigning 
Welsh families. A list of the descendants of Sir 
Richard Poole, or Pole, and Margaret Plantagenet, 
would be very acceptable to many persons I think, 
and certainly to me. It is a subject which, by its 
unaccountable obscurity, invites investigation. 
The present owner of Fordington Manor, Sussex, 
may perhaps possess deeds which would assist the 
inquirer, as it was inhabited (some say built) by 
Sir Richard, and sold by Sir Geffrey, who, other 
authorities say, held it in right of his wife, Con- 
stance Pakenham. The will of the latter, which 
confirms this view, may be seen at the Will Office, 
London, dated 12th Aug. 1570, and proved in 
Sept. 1570. In it she desires to be buried near 
to her late dear husband at Stoughton ; but I 
have ascertained that no vestige or record of their 
interment exists there now. T. E. S. 

CENTENARIANISM (2 nd S. x. passim.) Ob- 
serving your correspondent J. R., M.D., wishes to 
know whether any person ever becomes a cente- 
narian, permit me to direct his attention to the 
Athenceum of Jan. 7, 1860, where he may see re- 
corded two well-authenticated examples, which I 
then communicated to that journal ; one being an 
old soldier still living in Chelsea Hospital, the 
other, Miss Baillie, a sister of the late eminent 
London physician, and of the authoress Miss 
Joanna. The former centenarian, named Rich- - 
mond, will attain his 106th birthday the 4th of 
March next ; while Miss Baillie, who resides at 
Hampstead, entered her 101st year the 24th of 
last September. J. WEBSTER. 

24. Brook Street, W. 

DATE OF MISSALS (2 nd S. xi. 48.) There are 
various ways of ascertaining the date of church 
service-books, but they are much the same as 
those used to discover the period at which other 
manuscripts have been written. In late times 
the insertion of a modern saint's day, or other fes- 
tival, would be a proof that the book was written 
after the bull of canonisation, or the institution of 


[2nS. XI. JAN. 26. '61. 

the holy-day had been promulgated at Rome, but in 
earlier times it was not so. Festivals have been 
observed for ages by local churches, which have 
only recently been formally approved by the 
Pope. K.P.D.E. 

DR. B AND LUTHER'S STORY (2 nd S.ix.501.) 

The story is not in the Tischreden, but is very 
likely to have been told by Luther. I copy it, 
retaining the old spelling, from " Teutsche Apo- 
phthegmata, das ist der Teutschen scharfsinnige kluge 
Spruche, in zwei Theil, zusammen getragen durch 
Julium Wilhelm Zinkgrafen, der Rechten Dok- 
toren, anitzo noch mit dem dritten Theil vermehrt, 
durch Johan Leonhard Weidnern, Leyden, 1644, 
12mo. pp. 392. 118.: 

" Eins Bischofs von Bamberg Narr. 

"Dieser hatte sich eingebildet, er were dess Herren 
Jesa Bruder, unnd hatte darumb stettigs mit seinem 

fiuckeln seinem eintritt gen Jerusalem, sein Leiden und 
ufferstehen zubegehen gepflegt. Nun haben die Niirn- 
berger mit dem Bischoff zuthun gehabt, derhalben, das 
er etliche Leut in ihrem Gericht gefangen, unnd da die 
sach durch die Rath vertragen ward, liess der Bischoff die 
von Nurnberg zur Tafel laden ; als sie aber wider heim- 
ziehen wolten, gab ihnen der Bischoff nach einander die 
Hand: der Narr siehet das geprang, Hand geben und 
kiissen, bucken und Kappenrucken, und spricht uberlaut : 
' O lieber Bruder Jesu, am Palmtag emptieng man dich 
auch schon, wie gieng dirs aber hernach ? Sie schlugen 
dich an ein creuz.' " P. 339. 

Observe that the query is answered only as to 
the story. I can throw no light on the political 
application of it. FITZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

PORTRAIT OF LIGONIER (2 nd S. x. 494.) I 
have a portrait, in a small oval, engraved by 
Ryland, of General Sir John Ligonier, the per- 
son, I presume, alluded to, who is represented in 
the military uniform of the period, in wig and 
cocked hat, and with the star of the Bath on his 
breast. No painter's name is given. 



GLEANERS' BELL (2 nd S. x. 476. 519.) To the 
previous notices of a bell being rung in various 
^places, as a signal for the gleaners to be at liberty 
to go forth in the morning, I wish to mention that 
in one parish in Norfolk, the want of such a signal 
was so much felt, that the bell of the Catholic 
chapel, which rings every week morning for mass 
at nine o'clock, has been long adopted as the 
signal for the gleaners to start i'air together into 
the fields, on their humble, but most useful avo- 
cation. F. C. H. 

ARMS WANTED (2 nd S. xi. 47.) On looking 
into Ormerod's Cheshire, (vol. ii. p. L37.) I per- 
ceive that some rich stained glass is spoken of in 
the chancel windows of Bunbury church, too 
much mutilated, however, for the original design 
to be traced. He alludes to the collections of 

Randle Holme (H. MSS. 2151), and also observes 
upon an error made by him in describing an 
armorial bearing in this church, a worn star- 
having been apparently mistaken for a label. 
Randle Holme cannot, certainly, always be de- 
pended upon for accuracy ; and I would suggest 
whether he may not, on a cursory inspection, have 
described as a-fleur-de-lis what in reality was a 
mutilated garb. With this correction the coat 
would be that of Weever, of the parish of the- 
same name, situate only a few miles from Bun- 
bury. Ormerod (vol. ii. p. .114.) describes the 
coat of Weever as S. 2 bars A. on a canton of the 
first a garb of the second. But in Mr. Papworth's 
Dictionary of Arms (p. 21.) there is a coat given 
under the name of Wever with the tinctures 
exactly as described by G. W. M., viz. S. 2 bars 
A. on a canton G. a garb O. ; and Burke has the 
same in his Armory. Your correspondent may 
know what likelihood there is of the coat, about 
which he inquires, being that of the Wever 
family. NED ALSNED. 

ENGLISH VERSE (2 nd S. x. 403., &c.) With 
reference to MR. KEIGHTLEY'S position respecting 
the construction of dramatic blank verse, it may 
not be out of place to mention that many years 
ago I remember hearing the late Mr. Thelwall 
maintain, that what is commonly called a deca- 
syllabic line, is in reality an hexameter : in other 
words, that it has six metric accents. 

Thelwall contributed to the Monthly Magazine 
several papers on elocution. It is probable, that 
in some of these there may be found a statement 
of his views on this point. Whatever may be 
thought of his theory, he was one of the best re- 
citers of English poetry I ever heard. MELETES. 


" Item to a Sfcacyoner for vj bokes of paper royall pro- 
vided for the Kinges receiptes and paymentes, xxxvj* 
vi d ." A. D> 1529 Trevelyn Papers ; Household Book of 
Henry V1IL 

K H. R, 

PAPER AND POISON (2 nd S. x. 491.) The Rev. 
JOHN WILLIAMS does not write like a smoker 
neither am I one ; but it may interest consumers of 
cigarettes to know that a paper to envelope them, 
is now made from the tobacco-leaf itself. Vide 
Paris Correspondence of the Globe. 


PATRON SAINTS (2 nd S. viii. 141.) The fol- 
lowing passage occurs in Fulke's Annotations on 
1 Tim. ii. 5. : 

" You have indeed distributed the several offices and' 
charges unto saints, and appointed us several patrons for 
all purposes : as nations, France to S. Denis, England to 
S. George, Scotland to S. Andrew. And diseases, Tooth- 
ache to S. Apollonia, the pestilence to S. Kooke, the ague- 
to S. Petronill. Beasts, as hogs to S. Anthonie, horses to- 
S. Loye, &c. Degrees of men and occupations: scholars 

3 S. XI. JAN. 26. '61.] 



to S. Gregorie. soldiers to S. Morris, physicians to S. 
osmus and Damianus, painters to S. Luke, shoemakers 
to S. Crispin and Crispianus ; for fire S. Agatha, for the 
sea S. Nicholas, for corn S. Jodocus, for wine S. Urbane, 
&c. But by what warrant from God, you are not able to 
show out of his word." 

" MONSTROUS MAGAZINE " (2 nd S. x. 494.) 
There was a second number published of The Mon- 
strous Magazine ; as in a volume of miscellaneous 
magazines, the first and second numbers are bound 
up with other magazines of about the date of pub- 
lication. The second number was published in 
June, 1770. The paging ends with p. 92., but 
there are twenty other pages occupied with title- 
page, dedication, introduction, explanation of 
plates, &c. There are three plates in the two 
numbers. Perhaps some other person can say if 
it extended farther. SAM. SHAW. 

MUNDEN THE COMEDIAN (2 nd S. X. 495.) 

Allow me to state that in addition to the portraits 
of Munden mentioned in your reply to L. R., 
there were in the late Charles Mathews' Theatrical 
Gallery at Highgate, the following by my father : 
as "Peregrine Forester," in Hartford Bridge; 
" Crack," in the Turnpike Gate ; and " Verdun," 
in Lover's Vows ; and by Zoffany as " Project," in 
a scene from the comedy of Speculation (with 
Quick and Lewis). L. R. may be directed also 
to Charles Lamb's essay " On the Acting of 
Munden," in the Essays of Elia ; and to Leigh 
Hunt's " Critical Essays " on the London per- 
formers. G. J. DE WILDE 

JOHN A LASCO (2 nd S. x. 210.) Full, and to 
some extent new details respecting John a Lasco 
may be found in a memoir of him recently pub- 
lished in the series of Lives and Select Writings 
of Fathers and Founders of the Reformed Church, 
vol. ix. pt. 1., published at Elberfeld, 1860. The 
writer of this new memoir is Petrus Bartels, and 

his book of course is in German. 

B. H. C. 

In answer to MR. MORTIMER COLLINS'S in- 
quiry, why no English edition of Praed's Poems 
has yet appeared, I would state that, about four 
years since, I made a similar inquiry at Messrs. 
Parkers, the publishers ; and was told they had 
an edition ready for publication, but it was de- 
layed in consequence of Mrs. Praed, the poet's 
widow, not being satisfied with the frontispiece 
a portrait of Mr. W. M. Praed. R. W. 

QUEEN DICK (2 nd S. x. 512.) Queen Dick 
was Richard Cromwell. There is a pamphlet in 
the British Museum, entitled Fourty four Queries 
to the Life of Queen Dick, 4to. Lond. 1659, the 
first Query in which is 

" 1. Whether Richard Cromwell was Oliver's Sonne or 
no ? " 


HYDROPHOBIA (2 nd S. x. 411. et ante). From 
personal intercourse with the lower orders of the 
Irish people for many years, I can affirm the popu- 
lar belief current as to the humanity of smother- 
ing the so afflicted between two feather beds, as 
well as the universal opinion as to its perfect le- 
gality. It is only one of the popular delusions 
common everywhere. Allow me to name two 

Forcible Abduction. Law evaded by putting the 
woman on horseback before the man ; by which 
means, the woman runs away with the man ! 

Judge of Assizes. Should anything happen to 
the judge en route, it is thought that some benefit 
should accrue to the defendants in criminal ac- 
tions. I heard that an assistant judge had died 
on the road, and when it came to the ears of the 
prisoners they set up a howl of joy, expecting that 
the law had perished with him, and demanded a 
release ! 

The word " cleverly," quoted by your corre- 
spondent 2. 2. reminds me that "a clever woman" 
is used in Ireland to signify "a fine, well-made 
woman." But I have never heard it used in re- 
ference to a man (2 nd S. x. 139. 457.). Also, "a 
strong shop " is one where a good stock of goods 
is kept for sale. GEORGE LLOYD. 

EPITAPH AT CROYLAND (2 nd S. x. 494.) In 
reply to T. W.'s Query respecting this curious 
epitaph, I may say that I visited that church 
March 25th, 1852, and made the following ex- 
tract in my note-book : 

" Beneath this place, in six foot in length, against y e 
Clark's pew lyeth the body of M r Ab m Baly. He dyed 
y e 3 d of Jan. 1704. Also y e body of Mary his wid. She 
dyed y e 21 May, 1705. Also y e body of Ab m , son of y e 
said Ab^ and Mary. He dyed 13* Jan. 1704, also 2 
which dyed in their Enfantry (sic). 

" Man's life is like unto a winter's day ; 
Some brake their fast, and so depart away ; 
Others stay dinner then depart full fed ; 
The longest age but supps, and goes to bed. 
O reader then behold and see : 
As we are now, so must you bee. 

I have no reason to think that this epitaph is 
not existing still, as it was in 1852. 


ANGEL HALFPENCE (2 nd S. xi. 28.) A " Far- 
thing-angel" is a quarter of an angel. Surely an 
" angel halfpenny" is a " half-angel," value in 1524, 
about three shillings and ninepence. The use of 
the words " halfpenny " and " farthing," to denote 
the half and the quarter of the unit, whatever that 
unit might be, penny, angel, noble, rial, may be 
illustrated by the Roman use of the word .4s, and 
its division 

" Unciolam Proculeius habet, sed Gillo deuncera." 

Juv. Sat. i. 40. 
W. C. 



XL JAN. 26. '61. 


The Dramatic and Poetical Works of Robert Greene and 
George Peele. With Memoirs of the Authors, and Notes. 
By the Rev. Alexander Dyce. (Routledge.) 

Little more than a quarter of a century has elapsed 
since such was the rarity of the works of Greene and 
Peele, that copies of those collected in this handsome 
volume would have cost more pounds than the pence for 
which they may here be purchased. Nor is this all. The 
plays and poems of these contemporaries of Shakspeare 
abound in words and phrases which are now caviare to 
the many ; but here we have them carefully edited and 
illustrated by one of our most accomplished scholars, who 
has added to the value and interest of their writings by 
his excellent Memoirs of Greene and Peele. This new 
issue of Mr. Dyce's edition of these Elizabethan worthies, 
will find a place in the library of every lover of our early 

Profitable Meditations. A Poem written by John Ban- 
yan whilst confined in Bedford Gaol. Now first reprinted 
from a Unique Copy discovered by the Publisher, and edited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by George Offor. (Hotten.) 

The industry of Mr. Hotten has discovered a curious 
and interesting poem by John Bunyan, printed in 1661, 
which has hitherto escaped the researches of all the edi- 
tors and biographers of the great allegorist. Having 
done so, he very wisely entrusted it to the press of Mr. 
Whittingham and to the editorship of Mr. Offor. No 
man living knows so much of John Bunyan as this gen- 
tleman, but he does not inherit Bunyan's spirit ; and on 
the perusal of his Introduction, the majority of readers 
will, we have no doubt, share our feelings, and wish that 
Mr. Offor would confine himself to what he really knows 
about Bunyan, and not drag in unnecessarily what he 
thinks about the Church. 

A Walk from London to Fulham. By the late T. 
Crofton Croker, F.S.A., Revised and edited by his Son, T. 
F. Dillon Croker, F.S.A. ; with Additional Illustrations, by 
F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. (Tegg.) 

Among other good qualities, the late Crofton Croker 
was a most affectionate father ; and the result is shown 
in the dutiful anxiety manifested by his son for the 
maintenance of that father's literary reputation. The 
present little volume is an instance of it. It is a reprint, 
with great additions, of some amusing papers contributed 
by Crofton Croker to Fraser's Magazine. It is chatty and 
genial, full of pleasant gossip about all the notabilities 
who have ever lived within the limited circle which it 
embraces; and its literary interest is greatly enhanced 
by the numerous and effective illustrations contributed 
by the author's old friend, Mr. Fairholt. 

Mysteries of Life, Death, and Futurity, illustrated from 
the best and latest Authorities. By Horace Welby. 
(Kent & Co.) 

It is very difficult to give, in our limited space, any 
adequate notion of the variety of curious topics which the 
ingenuity of Mr. Welby has gathered together upon the 
three great subjects of Life, Death, and Futurity. A 
glance at their titles will serve to show their nature: 
Life and Time; Nature of the Soul; Spiritual Life; 
Mental Operations ; Belief and Scepticism ; What is Su- 
perstition ; Phenomena of Death ; Sin and Punishment ; 
Man after Death ; The Resurrection ; Recognition of each 
other by the Blessed, &c. On all these, and many other 
cognate points, Mr. Welby appears to have read much ; 
and in the work before us, to have well digested what 
he has read. 

The new number of The Quarterly Revieiv opens with a 

good article upon Canada and the North-West." This 
is followed by one on "The Welsh and their Literature," 
which will be read with interest even by those who are 
not natives of the principality. " Motley's United Ne- 
therlands " forms the subject of the next paper, which 
cannot fail to attract more general attention to Mr. Mot- 
ley's recently published history. In " The Iron Manufac- 
ture," bearing as the subject does upon the great question 
of ^the naval supremacy of England, the Quarterly holds 
opinions which are encouraging and satisfactory. " Italy " 
forms the political article of this number, and, as might 
be expected, the Quarterly denounces Lord John Russell 
for giving sanction to enterprises with which we have no 
concern, " The Dogs of History and Romance " furnishes 
one of those gossiping articles which always lighten this 
Review. It is followed by a financial paper on " The 
Income Tax and its Rivals : " and the Number concludes 
with the article which will probably be considered the 
most important in it the Quarterly's reply to the Oxford 
Essays and Reviews. 



Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

Any portion of that work, containing the leaves 59. to 63.. and 120 

to 125. 

Applebee in Bolt Court, Fleet Street, about 1736. 

Wanted by W. O. Woodall, 11. Crescent, Scarborough. 

POEMS by T. H. Bayly. 2 Vols. 1844. Bentley. 
MICROCOSM. 5th Ed. 1825. C. Knight. Or any edition. 
FLIM-FLAMS. 3 Vols. Murray. 1805. 
VAUBIEN, by I. D'Israeli. 

Wanted by S. and T. Gilbert, 4. Copthall Buildings, E.G. 

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. Any of the Vols. I. to X. inclusive 
of the latest edition, in good condition. 

Wanted by Thomas Lampray, Esq., 18. Clement's Inn, W.C. 


OXONIENSIS. Will our correspondent, as he ; 
with a carefully executed drawing of the stone f 

on the spot, favour us 

A. J. M. will find Moor's Sermon, Preached at Gissing, treated of in 
"N. & Q.," 2nd S. i. 353. 422.461. 

FIAT JtJsiiTiA. The Hebrew poem inquired about in by Moses Ben 

F. FITZHENRY. Pedro Navarro is mentioned in the best biographical 
dictionaries. Our correspondent's hints will be acted upon. 

S. SHAW (Andover) has our best thanks. 

M. H. L. " Home, sweet home" a song in Clari, by Howard Payne: 
the music by Bishop. 

P. S. CAREY. Mr. March does refer to engravings from the seal by 

THETA. We have two communications relative to the O'DriscolU for 
this correspondent. Where shall we forward them ? 

The following letters for correspondents are still in our possession, our 
notices not having attracted the attention of the writers : 
B. (Blake Queries.) 

B., Dublin. (Blondeau Gougen), two letters. 

T. V. N. (Pedigree of Archbishop Cromer.) 

ZETA. Isaac Craven, of Trinity College, Cambridge, graduated A.M. 
1663 ; and Francis Cruso, of Cain's College, A.B. 1672; A.M. 1676. 

J. H. S. " TABBY, from Tabis: It. and Sp. Tabi, a kind of wrought 
silk. Hence Tabby-cat. See Richardson's Dictionary. 
ERRATCM._2ndS. xi. p. 58. col. i. 1. 34., /or " Fir " read " For." 

NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at nnon on Friday, and 

teil in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES 

Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (inclwling the Half- 

yearly INDEX) is 11s. 4rf., ivhich may be paid by Post Office Order i 

favour O/MKSSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, E.C.; to whom 


DNS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. 

2* S. XL JAN. 26. '61.] 



WILKINSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property and Works II- 
ative of the Fine Artp, will SELL by AUCTION, ,at the.r House, 
No. 13. (late 3.) Wellington Street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, 
the 6th day of February 1861, at One o'clock precisely, some most Valu- 
able and Important EAKLY MANUSCRIPTS, chiefly on Vellurn, 
collected during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I., by SIR 
JOHN SAVII.E THE ELDER, one of the Barons of the Court of 
Exchequer ; SIR HENRY SAVILE, Provost of Eton ; and SIR 
JOHN SAVILE THE YOUNGER, including Bedae Historia Eccle- 
siastica, Ssec. x. : Bedas Vita S. Cuthberti et Vitae S. Columbi, S. Oswaldi, 
S. Aidani. &c. Srec. xii.; Bedae Opusculum in Acta Apostolorum et 
Epistolas Canonicas, SKC. xiii. ; Bracton de Lesibus,; Charle- 
magne, a Romance in Norman-French, Saec. xiii.; Chronique Metrique 
d'Angleterre, Srcc. xiv.; Chronicme des Dues de Normandie, Ssec. xiv. ; 
Dante Commedia, So3C. xiv-xv. ; Chronicon Episcoporum Dunelmen- 
sium,Sa!C.xiv.; Taxatio Ecclesiastica Anglise, Saec. xiii.; Early English 
Poetry and Prose, by Lichfielde, Lydgate, Chaucer and others, Sac. xv.; 
Henrici Huntingdonensis Historia Angliae, two copies, Ssec. xii. and 
Sac. xiv.; Counterpart of an Indenture between Henry VII., John 
Islypp Abbot of Westminster, John Abbot of St. Saviour Bermondsey, 
and the City of London, by which the King grants an annuity for a 
perpetual service for the souls of himself, his wife, his children, his an- 

cestors, &c. dated 1504, THE KINO'S OWN COPY OF THE DEED, witn_n 
devices on the binding ; Higdeni Polychronicon, Sac. xv. ; Kalendanu 
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Lyndewood Provinciale, Soac. xv.; Piers Plowman's Vision (m verse), 
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brings many of the leading characters of a troubled period m living 
reality before the reader's mind." Observer. ^ 

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idiosyncrasies, seldom met trith in modern fiction." Liverpool Albion. 

Published by T. C. NEWBY, 30. Welbeck Street, Cavendish 
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so may he read with advantage as a dramatised pas- 
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ce, and turbulence did as much for misrule." 


A Gentlewoman, possessing all the requisite qualifications, and wne 

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she has resided, seeks a RE-ENGAGEMENT in either of the above 

can be most fav 

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Domestic Manager. Address (prepaid 1 ) E.L.B., Office of " NOTES ANIV 
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2 nd S. XI. FKB. 2. 'Cl.] 




jjo. 266. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Mathematical Bibliography, 81 Queen Eliza- 
beth's Verses written while Prisoner at Woodstock, 82 
Diodati, " DeChristo Grace Loquente," Ib. Defeat of Col. 
Baillie's Division of Madras Array, September 10th, 1780, 85. 

MINOR NOTES : Shakspcare, Derivation of Beggars in 
London a Century ac;o O^eiporroiertKa Frosts on the 
Thames Weather of July, 1602, 86. 

QUERIES : Family of Lawrence, 87 Corvinus " De Pro- 
genie Augusti," Ib. A dm. Samuel Greig: his Family, &c., 
88 Adam with a Beard Anonymous Dramas " Begone, 
dull Care" Church : Number to form a Congregation 
Fairfax, Joseph London Fires: Blowing up Houses with 
Gunpowder Heralds' Visitation, Co. Monmouth Hor- 
bh'nge, or " Orblinge " Knights too Fat to Bide 
Maiden Lane and Hand Court Narthecia : What? 
Roberts Family Shakspeare, 88. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Dr. Waring and Dr. Powell 

Dr. Jobn Jortin Yckul Waterworks at Old London 
Bridge St.Botolph, 89. 

BEPLIES : Snagg Family, 90 Satirical Allusion to John- 
son, yi Milton : Was he an Anglo-Saxon Scholar? 92 The 
Origin of Species, Ib. Charlatan, 93 Burying in Linen, 
91 O'Driscoll's Family, 95 Van Lennep's "Heer van 
Culemburg Mary Queen of Scots, had she a Daughter? 

John TJry Latin Graces Mr. Robert Laing Meason 

Shiptoniana Anaesthetics New Mode of Canonisa- 
tion "Bogie':" What is it? Inula, or Elecampane 
Calvacamp in Normandy Black Currant Rob Mews 
house of Guelph Maurice of Nassau Pasquinades 
Egidia Welch Whitsuntide, &c., 86. 

Notes on Books. 

(Continued from 2 nd S. x. 310.) 

Strachey went far towards supplying what had 
been for more than twenty years a desideratum 
(Bija, p. 4). He possessed a Persian translation of 
the JBija Ganita which was made in India in 1G34 
by Ata Alia Ruslieedee (Strachey, Bija, p. 4.), at 
Agra or Delhi probably (Hutton, Tracts, vol. ii. 
p. 153). This, together with the notes of Davis 
and of Burrow, furnished the . materials for 
Strachey's translation of the Bija Ganita. 

Samuel Davis bestowed considerable attention 
upon the Hindu specious arithmetic or algebra. 
Under date Bhagalpur, 15th Feb. 1789, (As. Res., 
ii. 268), he mentions the " bija ganita" and cites 
a passage from one of the Commentaries upon it, 
(I think, at least, that the passage is not text. 
Compare Strachey, Bija, pp. 1314, 90 with 
Colebrooke, Algebra, pp. 131-2). At that place 
and time, or very shortly after, Davis, with the 
assistance of a Pandit, made some important 
notes, containing abstracts and translations from 
the Bija Ganita. There may be trifling inaccura- 
cies in these notes, the translations never having 
been revised ; but their authenticity may be de- 
pended on, as they were made from the original 
Sanscrit Bija Ganita, which was procured for 
Davis at Benares,*by Duncan (Davis to Strachey, 
Jan. 1812. See Strachey, Bija, p. 119). They 

are from the Sanscrit only. Davis never saw the 
Persian translation (Strachey, ib., p. 5 note j). 

The notes of Davis, long mislaid and forgotten, 
were sent by him to Strachey (Bija, p. 119.) 
They were on loose detached pieces of paper, and 
must be regarded as memoranda made for private 
use only. Although they do not constitute a 
complete translation of the Bija Ganita, they 
describe accurately a considerable portion of its 
most curious parts (Strachey, ib. p. 5). Davis's 
notes on the Bija Ganita are printed at pp. 90 
110 of Strachey's translation, and a translation bv 
Davis of a portion of the Maricha is printed at 
pp. 110 115 of Strachey, who, with the assist- 
ance of Wilkins has (p. 117 and 111) given an 
explanation of Sanscrit words used in Davis's 

The Maricha, by Muniswara, surnamed Vis- 
warupa, grandson of Ballala, and son of Rangana- 
tha, is one of the numerous commentaries on the 
astronomical portion of Bhascara's Siddhanta Siro- 
mani (Colebrooke, Alg., p. xxviii). It was written 
towards the beginning of the 17th century (ib.; 
and As. Res., xii, 231, note j). Colebrooke (As. 
Res. ix, 325. He there calls it Marichi.) says 
that it is an excellent commentary. Davis (see 
p. 9 of Strachey's Bija) assigns to it a somewhat 
later date than Colebrooke. Strachey (p. 115) 
calls it Marichi, as does Davis (ib. p. 112.) 

Strachey (p. 1 0) informs us that the Persian of 
the Bija Ganita does not in itself afford a correct 
idea of its original (that it is an undistinguished 
mixture of text and commentary, and in some 
places it even refers to Euclid). Davis's notes 
I show positively that the main part of the Persian 
| translation is taken from the Sanscrit work and 
that the references to Euclid are interpolations of 
the Persian translator. See Strachey, pp. 56. 
Compare pp. 54 and 104, 66 and 105-6, 69 and 
108. Davis's text may be verified by Cole- 
brooke's (pp. 1314, 139142, 1467, 1629 
170178, 185, 191, 220226,268). 

Strachey had at one time a copy of the original 
Sanscrit Bija Ganita (see p. 10), and a Persian 
treatise on algebra (p. 14,f) and he mentions in 
more than one (pp. 4, 5, 7 and 9) place the Per- 
sian translation of the Lilavati made in 1587 by 
Fyzee. His knowledge of the latter appears to 
have been derived from Dalby's (Burrow's) copy. 
Perhaps Strachey's Sanscrit Bija contained the 
figure which he mentions at p 68, and which will 
be found at p. 225 of Colebrooke's Algebra. 

Mr. Davis, who afterwards resided in Hill 
Street, and was one of the Directors of the East 
India Company, brought over from India mathe- 
matical works both in the native language and in 
Persian translations (Hutton, Tracts, ii, 153) 
Mr. Willdm became librarian to the East India 
Company (ib., p. 167). JAMES COCKLE, M.A. &c. 
4, Pump Court, Temple, London. 



2a S. XI. FEB. 2. '61. 



A conjectural amendment of the verses cited by 
Hentzner in his Itinerary, is given by Walpole 


liberties which I think Walpole has taken, with 
what we may presume to have been a tolerably 
accurate transcript by Hentzner from the original 
writing in charcoal. To elucidate the matter, I 
subjoin three versions ; the first, Walpole's, as 
quoted by Percy ; the second, Hentzner's (from the 
edition of 1617) ; the third, what I would suggest 
may have been the original : 


" Oh, Fortune, how thy restlesse wavering state 
Hath fraught with cares my troubled witt ! 
Witness this present prison", whither fate 
Could beare me, and the joys I quit. 
Thou causedest the guiltie to be losed 
From bandes, wherein are innocents inclosed, 
Causing the guiltles to be straik reserved, 
And freeing those that death hath well deserved, 
But by her envie can b.e nothing wroughte; 
So God send to my foes all they have thoughte. 

" ELIZABETH E, Prisonner." 


" Oh fortune, thy Wresting vvavring state 
Hath fraught with Cares my troubled witt 
Whese vvitnes this present prisonn late 
Could beare where once was loy sloune quitt 
Thou causedst the guiltie to be losed 
From bandes where innocents vvehre'inclosed 
And consed the guiltles to be reserued 
And freed these that death had Vvell deserued 
But allhereni, can be nothing Vvroughte 
So God send to my foes althey have tought. 

" Elisabethe the Prisonner." 

Probable Original, 

" Oh Fortune ! thy restless wavering state 
Hath fraught with cares my troubled witt, 
Whose witness, this present prisonn late 
Could beare, where once was Joy slaine quite ; 
Thou causedest the guiltie to be losed 
From bandes where innocents were inclosed, 
And caused the guiltless to be reserved, 
And freed those that Death had well deserved ; 
But ail-herein, can be nothing wrought 
So God send to my foes all they have thought." 

I think that we must presume that Hentzner 
copied these verses as accurately as his small 
knowledge of the English language would allow ; 
and we cannot conceive him writing the line, 
" Could beare where once was Joy sloune quilt" 
if it had really stood " Could beare me, and the 
joys I quitt; the sense at the same time demand- 
ing that the words, " whose witness" should be go- 
verned by the following, " could beare." Walpole 
has nipped in the bud the poetical and pathetic 
phrase, " where once was Joy slaine quite," for the 
sake of an apprehended improvement in the me- 
tre. I believe, however, that any of your readers 
who are versed in the English metres of this, and 

especially of an earlier period, will find but little 
fault with the flow of the amended verses. The 
words fortune, witness, and guiltless, must be read 
as trisyllables. It is hardly fair to attempt to 
cramp and alter verses of the middle of the six- 
teenth century, so to make them conformable to 
our modern metre. 

There seems to be an allusion in verses 3 8. to 
a previous occupation of the prison by some per- 
son, who " Death had well deserved." 

Query. Who was this released criminal ? X. 

The first edition of this work was published at 
Naples in 1767 in an octavo volume (pp. xvi. 204. 
and four pages of approbations and errata). It 
has the reputation of being extremely rare, al- 
though a valuable dissertation on an important 
subject. A second edition, with an English pre- 
face, appeared in 1843, under the superintendence 
of Dr. O. T. Dobbin. This gentleman says: 

"The reader has in his hands an exact reprint of Dio- 
dati, with the exception that innumerable mistakes have 
been corrected of various kinds which did not affect the 
integrity of the text. The very few changes which have 
been made in it, or notes that have been appended, are 
distinguished by brackets, except the second date on page 
G7., which was obviously wrong." 

The principle thus laid down is undoubtedly to 
be approved, but the question has been suggested 
to my mind as to how far it has been successfully 
adhered to. 

Before I point out two or three variations 
which I have observed between the first edition 
(of which I have a copy) and the second, let me 
say, that the work is now to be found in the 
British Museum, although it is stated not to have 
been there when Dr. D. published his. 

a. Page 9. A coin of Ptolemy Soter is repre- 
sented. In Diodati the letters describing the 
metal are ^, and the inscription on the reverse 
is Uro\ffj.aiov Ba<riAecoy, which words are also read 
in the text. In Dobbin, the coin is described as 
^E (i. e. brass, and not silver), and the legend is 
nTo\/j,cuov Swnjpos. No account of these vari- 
ations is given, and the text is made to describe 
the coin as figur-ed by Diodati. 

b. Page 79. There is figured a coin of Herod 
the Tetrarch. As represented by Diodati, there 
is on one side a palm-branch with the letter L. on 
the left and A A on the right, which are explained 
in the text to signify the 34th year of the te- 
trarchy. The figure as given by Dobbin does 
not contain these letters, but the explanation of 
them stands in his text. . 

c. Page 80. The coin of King Agrippa., as given 
by Diodati, does not appear to have the L and ? 
\yhich are conspicuous upon the same as it stands 
in Dobbin's edition. 

S. XI. FEB. 2. '61.] 



d. Page 80. The second coin has on one side 
the word Aypnru in Diodati, but in Dobbin it is 

e. Page 81. The coin figured by Diodati has 
little resemblance to that of the reprint. In Dio- 
dati the reverse exhibits a well-defined rose and 
the word PoSiov ; but in Dobbin the flower looks 
like a lily more than a rose, and has besides the 
word Ajueiwaf, and omits to describe the metal 

/. Page 82. The coin of Tiberius in Diodati 
looks to the right, and has the inscription Ti. 
Caesar Avgvsti. f. imperator. In Dobbin the em- 
peror looks to the left, and the inscription reads 
Ti. Caesar Avgvst. imperato. 

The preceding deviations all refer to the coins, 
but I have noticed in the text one of so much 
magnitude that I will give the passage as it 
stands in both editions. 

Dobbin. Pages 89, 90. : 

' " Illic itaque non modo synagogam, verum etiam suum 
habebant extra urbem in via, quae Portuensis dicitur, 
ccemeterium, ut patrios servare hoc etiam in re ritus pps- 
sent. Illud autem Bosius primus detexit anno Christi 
MDCII., dum recpnditos terrse meatus trans Tyberim per- 
scrntaretur. Illic invenit primo sepulchra ad parietum 
latcra, ut fit, exceptis nonnullis in pavimento effpssis 
substratisque : neque in eis, ut in reliquis, ulla Christiana? 
religionis indicia apparebant, sed Mosaici tantum cande- 
labri septem lucernis distincti figura expressa. Lucerna? 
etiam iictiles in candelabri modum effictse. Fragmenta 
insuper laterum rubei- coloris, quibus olim calce oblitis 
sepulchra claudebantur." 

Compare this with the corresponding place in 
the edition of Diodati, as in my copy : 

"Illic itaque, et synagogos, et suum habebant cceme- 
terium. Quare innumevas repertte sunt ibi Autiquorum 
Judseorum inscriptiories, nonnisi quam Greece exaratse. 
Earum porro binas peculiares, sed erroribus reperi apud 
Bayerum, quas hie subnectam, et Latine vertam secun- 
dum ipsius emendationes. 

"Ev0a.Se Ktire Zwcri/xo; 
Sia /3iov oaiva-yaxyrj? 
A.ypnriri)<ri.(av ev eip-qyij KOI/TJ- 
eris O.VTOV . . . eKiOe 8e 
Keire EvAAis Appwv erwv e . . , . 

Hie quiescit Zosimus per totam vitam Synagogus Aqrip- 
pinensium, in pace dormitio ipsius .... Hie jacet Elias 
Aaron annorum ..... 

/ceire lou 
Alamos lepev? 



Julianus sacerdos 

Agrippinensium fdius 

Archisynagogi . 
" Bosius vero, qui ccemeterium illud Roma; primus de- 
texit anno Christi MDCII trans Tyberim ; invenit ibi in 
sepuleris Mosaici candelabri septem lucernis distincti 

rram expressam, fragmenta innumera laterum, quibus 
calce oblitis sepulcra claudebantur." 

Diodati, in my copy, also omits (p. 100.) the 
words which follow the Greek quotation ez/0a5e 
to aliosque, on the same page, as 

well as the expression "quam propriam Hebrse- 
orum fuisse, nemo est qui ignorat." 

There may be other differences, but these must 
suffice for the present. How are they to be ac- 
counted for ? No doubt Dr. Dobbin is a faithful 
transcriber, and I would suggest that those por- 
tions which have been now referred to were can 
celled and rewritten. Supposing this to be the 
fact, which copy is to be regarded as the corrected 

With reference to the coins, I expect a different 
reason has to be assigned. 

I should add, that in my copy of Diodati, to 
the word " Bayerum " there is this note, " Vide 
Bayerum in Lucubrationibus, pag. 20. Sponius 
in Miscell. Num. 118. & 119. pag. 371." 

My reason for calling attention to these differ- 
ences, and for asking you to place them on record, 
is the almost fabulous rarity which is assigned to 
the book. I suspect that mine is a corrected 
copy, because the leaf on which the variations in 
the text occur is without the signature. This 
should have been G 2, and we can easily under- 
stand why it was omitted if the leaf was reprinted. 

If you can find room for this Note, probably 
some of your readers will be able to say what they 
find in other copies of Diodati. B. H. C. 


The following narrative differs in many essen- 
tial points from the accounts which have been 
given of this disastrous affair. As it is written by 
one present in the action, and who from the situa- 
tion he held was likely to have the best means of 
knowing the facts, you will probably think it 
worth inserting in " N. & Q." 

It is transcribed from a copy made at the time 
by a relative of the writer. J. T. 

Sea View. 

" Narritive of the Disaster which befel the Detachment, 
under the Command of Colonel Baillie, near Madras, 
on September 10 th 1780, by Capt n Alex r Read, Aid- 
de-Camp to Colonel Fletcher, the 2 nd in Command. 

" On the 8 th of Sept r our Main Army was encamped at 
Congeveram, a village 50 miles from Madras, w ch General 
Monro considered the best situation to form a junction 
with two detachments on their march towards him. One 
from the Southward, commanded by Colonel Cosby; the 
other from tbe North d , com dfd by Col 1 Baillie. The latter 
having come to Perambacum, within 20 miles of us, wrote 
to Gen 1 Munro, that in consequence of an action -with a 
division of Hyder's Army, commanded by his son Tippoo, 
he was unable to proceed on his march, and would there- 
fore wait for him. The general, averse to leave Conjeve- 
ram, on account of a quantity of grain he had collected 
there, Colonel Fletcher, who always distinguished him- 
self by a spirit of enterprize, undertook to march a de- 
tachment to Perambacum to reinforce Baillie, and to 
carry with him a supply of ammunition, w h conveyances 
for his sick and wounded, which it was hoped \v d .enable 



[2 S.'XT. FEB. 2. '61. 

him to form the junction. Hyder's main army, the most 
formidable that ever was in India, being within 5 miles 
of us, and Tippoo encamp'd between us and Baillie with 
15,000 of his father's best troops, it was necessary to 
march under cover of the night. Accordingly, the de- 
tachment was formed after dark, consisting of 

Europeans - - 400 

Natives - 1000 

Total - - 1,400 

And at the time of its marching out of camp, an attack 
was made in a different part of the line upon one of the 
Enemy's picquets, in order to draw their attention that 
way, and favor the Colonel's march. This precaution 
had not however the desired effect : for the parties of horse 
were so numerous, that it was impossible to elude them. 
They soon espyed us, and annoyed us a little with their 
Rockets; but by marching quickly past them, without 
firing a shot, we soon got out of their sight, and they did 
not think it worth their while to follow. Though I was 
then one of the General's staff, I no sooner heard of Col 1 
Fletcher's destination, than T obtained permission to ac- 
company them ; in consequence, I acted as his Aid-de- 
Camp. At break of day we reached Perambacum, when 
we were a most welcome sight to Baillie and the troops 
with him; after beating off Tippoo, they had reasonably 
expected to be attacked by Hyder's whole force. The 
evening of the same day we began our march back to 
Conjeveram. The enemy Avere soon apprized of our being 
in motion, when the horse made their appearance all 
round; however, our flanking parties kept them at a 
respectable distance, and their Rockets did very little 
mischief. When we came opposite to Tippoo's encamp- 
ment, which was upon our left, he opened a few guns, but 
too late to have any effect, for the whole line had passed 
the range of his shot. After that, a considerable body of 
horse appeared in the rear. Supposing they entended 
making a charge, we drew up in order to receive them, 
which answered the probable intention of the enemy ; for 
whilst we were doing that, they got their guns on in 
front, which, when we began to move on again, they 
opened upon us and annoyed us considerably. This oc- 
casioned another halt, when a Battalion was detached to 
take their guns, which they could not get to on account 
of a rivulet between us and them ; they were, however, 
soon silenced by our field pieces, and the line would 
have moved on again but for the baggage, which had 
unluckily strayed in changing our position, and lost sight 
of us, the night being very dark. In three quarters of an 
hour it joined us again, and we were preparing to pro- 
ceed on our march, when a body of the enemy's horse 
came dashing by the Rear Guard ; at which the Sepoys 
(who were half asleep, resting so long upon their arms,) 
were so alarmed, that they instantly, without waiting 
for the word of command, clischarg'd their pieces ; and j 
the panick seizing those next to them in the line, it I 
gradually ran thro' the whole detachment ; so that no- j 
thing was to be seen but a continued sheet of fire, from j 
the rear to the front of the line. I was then returning 
at full speed from the rear, where I had been with orders, 
and was in front of the European grenadiers, when my 
horse, receiving two shots, fell down with me. Colonel 
Fletcher having seen me fall by the light of the mus- 
quetrj', ran immediately towards me, and ask'd if I was 
wounded. Finding myself lame, and not certain then 
that it was owing to" the fall, I answer'd doubtfully. 
Taking it for granted that I was shot, he took me by the 
hand, and said: 'My dear friend, sit down.' Then, 
turning to the Grenadiers in extreme anguish, he up- 
braided them for their timidity and confusion in giving 
their lire without the word of command, which occasional 

their shooting their own officers and one another. He 
thought, he said, they were fellows that nothing cou'd 
have frightened, and declar'd it had ever been his ambi- 
tion to be at their head ; but their behaviour that night 
had made him ashamed of them. He then exhorted them 
to be more cool and collected, and to pay more attention 
to their officers in future. Immediately after this, Colonel 
Baillie came to him to deliberate, whether it wou'd be 
best to proceed or not: when, on account of the darkness 
of the night, which had occasioned what had happened, 
and made them liable to lose the road or fall into an am- 
buscade, it was resolved to halt till break of day. 

" This is the unfortunate circumstance to which our 
disaster in the morning may be attributed : for had we 
paid as little attention to the enemy, and push'd on as we 
did the night before, we might have defy'd all Hyder's 
efforts to prevent the junction. We no sooner left our 
ground in the morning, than Tippoo was observ'd march- 
ing in a parallel line with us, and about a mile and a half 
distant. The road we were in led to Arcot; we had, 
therefore, to strike out of it to the left, and cross Tippoo's 
line of .march to go to Conjeveram. Just as we came to 
the turning, he open'd his guns, and was ready to oppose 
us. We immediately advanced into the plain"; answer'd 
him from our Artillery, and detached two Battalions of 
Grenadiers to take his guns, while we form'd in a hollow 
way to save our men during the cannonade. The Grena- 
diers having got possession of the enemies guns, their 
line of infantry very soon broke and dispers'd, and we 
had little else to do than advance upon them to compleat 
their destruction. But unfortunately Baillie, being satis- 
fy'd with half a victory, order'd three cheers, and re- 
main'd inactive, as if nothing more cou'd be done; untill 
Hyder, with the main body of his army, made his ap- 
pearance in our rear. Presently, a body of his Horse 
made a feeble charge, which we easily repuls'd ; and about 
the same time the Grenadiers, who had taken the enemy's 
guns, abandon'd them, and retreated to the line with 
precipitation and disorder; which the Horse observing, 
fell upon their rear, and cut several to pieces. By this 
time Hyder had open'd his numerous Artillery; and to- 
gether with Tippoo, who had retaken his guns, form'd an 
entire circle about us, so that we were rak'd from every 
quarter. As Colonel Baillie made no effort to extricate 
us, the fate of the day was then pretty evident. I ob- 
served to Col 1 Fletcher, that nothing cou'd save the de- 
tachm 1 but a desperate push to get possession of a village 
within 800 yards, where we ought at first to have taken 
post; but probably believing it impossible to reach it in 
the face of so many cannon, or unwilling to offer any 
opinion to Baillie, who had disapproved of an order hs 
had given but a little before, or very likely seeing that 
our fate was inevitable, he made little or no repty, and 
appear'd to be very uneasy in his mind. Baillie pro- . 
bably thought that we might be able to maintain our 
ground with our field pieces, untill Gen 1 Munro came to 
our assistance ; but that hope was soon dispell'd by the 
blowing up of our Tumbrells, w h contain 'd the little 
ammunition we had left. The enemy seeing this mis- 
fortune, which rendered our Artillery useless, they began 
to advance upon us briskly, and take better aim. Their 
shot and rockets now galled the troops exceedingly, who, 
in obedience to Baillie's orders were all huddled into the 
deepest parts of the hollow way. We were certainly 
more like a Mob than a regular arm}*. Such was our 
condition at the time the enemy made a charge upon the 
rear; which Col 1 Fletcher, intending to support, called 
out, Grenadiers, come this way.' Upon that the whole 
corps, Europeans and Sepoys, got up and hastened to- 
wards him. He then said, ' Captain Ferrier's Company 
only ' j but the noise and confusion was too great for him 

2* S. XL FEB. 2. '61.] 



to be beard. With some difficulty the Europeans were 
halted ; but the Sepoys, -who were in the rear of them, 
came pushing by with "such violence, that they drove Col 1 
Fletcher one way and me another, which separated us 
for ever ! The rout being general among the Sepoys, the 
enemy, horse and foot, left their guns, and came on like 
a deluge from every side to extirpate this little army. 
The slaughter began with the Sepoys ; but the European 
corps, in number about 600, still remained in a body, 
firm and obedient to their officers, and did great execu- 
tion : for being encircled by the enemy, who stood at a 
few yards' distance in a promiscuous crowd, every shot 
took effect. Being in no kind of order, they made but a 
feeble resistance ; for those in front, who stood the brunt 
of our fire, wishing to change their situation, made every 
effort to get away, but cou'd not, so great was the pres- 
sure of the multitude behind. Though our brave fellows 
kept them off, it was impossible to make their retreat 
good ; and certain that they must soon be overpowr'd by 
numbers. Col 1 Baillie thought it better to capitulate than 
maintain so unequal a fight, and order'd them to cease 

Killed on the spot - - - - 

Died of their wounds - 

Recoverd of their wounds - 

Unhurt - - - 


" Of about 550, non-commissioned and private, 225 
were kill'd on the spot ; and 325 were bro* into Hyder's 
camp, two-thirds of whom were very badly Avounded. 
We had about 3200 natives when we march'd from Pe- 
rambacum. A great many were kill'd, and. a very few 
made their escape to General Munro's army, which was 
upon its march to our assistance ; but hearing of our defeat, 
immediately went back, never halted till it reach'd 
Chingleput, 30 miles from Conjeveram. I have been told 
that no troops were ever seen in such consternation and 
terrour. The greatest dejection and dismay was ex- 
press'd in every countenance, and such irregularity was 
observ'd in the ranks, that had the enemy push'd them 
with vigour in their retreat, they must have shar'd the 
same fate with Col 1 Baillie and Fletcher's detachment. 
As it was they were obliged to leave their heavy cannon, 
a great quantity of baggage and ammunition, behind 
them. And it's said, so great was their apprehension of 
being followed by Hyder's whole Army, that it was once 
in meditation to march off the Europeans by night to the 
Sea Coast, and leave the Natives to shift for themselves ? 
which wou'd have been an indelible disgrace upon our 
nation, and the ruin of our affairs in India. The arrival 
of Col 1 Cosby from the South' 1 with the troops under his 
command, inspired them with some hopes of reaching 
Madras, and in another march they effected it. The 
enemy being now masters of the field, took Arcot and 
several other places, that we were not able to retake 
during the war ; which has proved the most unfortunate 
and ruinous we ever were engaged in. When I had not 
a doubt about Col 1 Fletcher's fate, I made every enquiry 
about him, and was as fully answer'd as was then pos- 
sible ; for I was inform'd by those who saw him after my 
separation from him, that he died most gallantly, having 
cut down several of the enemy before he fell. At the 
time the enemy charg'd the Sepoys, who had thrown 
away their arms and stripp'd themselves, to extenuate the 
enemies' desire of revenge or booty, a jemmadar and his 
party dash'd in where I was, and made a cut at me him- 
self, but miss'd me. He then offerd me quarter, which 
(not being tired of life) I gladly accepted. The fellow 
then took me by one arm, and ordering one of his horse- 

firing, while he put his handkerchief on the point of his 
sword, and holding it up, call'd out to the enemy for 
quarter. They immediately show'd an inclination to par- 
ley, when Baillie perceiving that the men still kept 
firing, he call'd to them ' Ground your arms! Throw 
them down, men!' and instantly darted among the 
enemy. The fatal order was no sooner obey'd than the 
faithless savages, thirsting for revenge and intent on 
plunder, made a general charge. The shock was as 
dreadfull as it was unexpected at that moment. They 
bore down all before them, and. a horrible massacre en- 
sued. In short, never was a detachment more effectually 
cut off, almost every man being kill'd, wounded, or taken 
prisoner. I shall forbear any comment upon this unfor- 
tunate affair, the officer who commanded not having 
surviv'd to vindicate his conduct; and I shall only ob- 
serve it is the general opinion, that had Col 1 Fletcher 
been in his place, the event wou'd have been very dif- 

" The following is a return of the officers of the de- 
tachment : 

Lt.-eols. Capts. Lieuts. Ensigns. Voiuntrs. Drs. Grand Total. 
13 3 19 1 1 28 

012311 8 

1 7 12 9 4 1 34 

025621 16 






men to lay hold of me by the other, rode away with me 
in this manner at a canter to some distance from the 
field of action. He then halted a little for refreshment ; 
when being able to converse w h him in his own language, 
he treated me with great civility, and gave me a horse 
to ride on to Hyder's encampment. 

" On my way I fell in with several of my brother 
officers, who were cover'd with wounds ; their hands tied 
behind their backs, and trudging it on foot. Some of 
them were stripp'd naked, carrying the heads of their 
friends, and others the plunder of those who had taken 
them. They saw with astonishment so great a difference 
in my treatment, and thought that I had certainly taken 
service. I had indeed given the jemmadar reason to 
imagine that I wou'd, and offer'd him assurances of future 
service, which induced him not to plunder me. But he 
found he had miss'd his aim, when he received only a 
reward of five rupees for taking me. Every man who 
took a European alive got the same ; two rupees were 
given for a head, and one hundred for a cannon. Being 
taken from under the charge of the jemadaur, I was sent 
among the poor fellows who were saved in the massacre. 
I never saw a more piteous spectacle. Col 1 Baillie was 
among them, and taking me by the hand, express'd great 
pleasure at seeing me alive. I was just able to tell him, 
that I was happy to see him again, when the painful re- 
flexion of our situation overcame us both. That circum- 
stance gave one some relief when, looking about me, I 
enquired the fate of my friends, and gave what assistance 
I cou'd to the wounded. Hyder had been with them be- 
fore I came, and had order'd his French surgeons to dress 
them. They say he behaved to them with great polite- 
ness; and far from appearing elated with his good for- 
tune, bore it as a thing he was accustomed to. Night 
coming on, two small tents were pitch'd, which, with 
crowding, contain'd only half of us ; and a quantity of 
boil'd rice and mutton (called pelaw) was sent us. We 
had no knives nor forks ; and our only plates were pieces 
of broken pots we pick'd off the ground, some of them out 
of places it wou'd be indelicate to mention. But the day 
before we dreaded no stroke in the power of fortune, and 
were now so fallen that we envy'd the condition of any 



S. XL FEB. 2. '61. 

that, however poor, were free. We, notwithstanding, re- 
conciled ourselves to every hardship, and bore our ill- 
fortune with patience and resignation. On the 4 th day, 
Hyder sent Col 1 Baillie 1,000 rupees for the use of all the 
prisoners, with some cloaths, for few of them had any- 
thing to cover them. A distribution being made, those 
who were able to march were divided from those who 
were not the first of whom were to be sent into Hyder's 
country; the others to Arnee, a place in the neighbour- 
hood, to remain till cured of their wounds. Palinkeens, 
cow-coaches, and tatoo horses (about the size of Shetland 
shelties, but of an inferior kind), were given to the officers, 
and bullocks to the wounded men ; and all were march'd 
out of camp together, under a strong guard of Caffrees 
and native Sepoys. There never was so motley a caval- 
cade. Every man was differently dress'd, differently 
mounted, and most of us made a most ludicrous appear- 
ance, which we cou'd not help remarking to one another, 
tho* the change in our condition was as great as can be 
conceived; and together with the prospect we had before 
us of a long and rigorous imprisonment, sufficient to de- 
press our spirits; for a march of fourteen days we reach'd 
Bangalore, the place where we were conh'n'd. We suf- 
fer'd a variety of treatment, a relation of which wou'd 
make a much longer letter than this. I shall, therefore, 
not attempt it at present. Several were poison'd, starved, 
and flogged to death. I was not of consequence enough 
for the tyrant to wreak his vengeance on, consequently 
surviv'd my misfortune, after an imprisonment of three 
years and seven months." 


Shakspeare, no doubt originated in the Norman 
or French edition of the double beloved-disciple 
name (Jacques-pierre, James-peter, Jakespear), 
of which it is composed ; the initial J being pro- 
nounced sh, as in many other instances, viz., in 

Shenkins for Jenkins. 

Sherard Gerard. 

Shiles Giles. 

Jeridan (old Jerry). 
Johnstone (Johnson). 
Je, in Switzerland and elsewhere, 
where the French language is provincialised, &c. 

With such a self-evident derivation before us, 
we may therefore dispense with the unlikely re- 
ference to the shaking of a spear, which most 
probably had nothing to do with the origin of the 
name, when first invented ; being only a sugges- 
tion from its accidental English form ; though the 
idea once started, the name may with some have 
seemed to be recommended by it. 

Those who consider that Shakspeare originated 
in spear-shaking rely on " Breakspear," " Win- 
spear," &c., as analogous, these names having a 
like termination in, and apparent reference to, 
action with a spear ; but this illustration is of the 
kind " ignotum per ignotius." We do not know | 
enough of Brakespeare, &c., to justify us in saying 
that their origin was connected with spears ; nor 

applying any inferences from them to other 
names. Probably Breakspear (a priest) was in 
part named after St. Peter, the chief of the 
Apostles, and not after spears. Winspear almost 
looks like " Owen " (or John ?) " Peter." 

R. T. A. 

" But notwithstanding we have so many excellent 
laws, great numbers of sturdy beggars, loose and vagrant 
persons infest the nation, but no place more than the 
City of London and parts adjacent : if any person is born 
with any defect or deformity, or maimed by fire or any 
other casuality, or by any inveterate distemper, which 
renders them miserable objects, their way is open to 
London, where they have free liberty of s'hewing their 
nauseous sights to terrify people and force them to give 
money to get rid of them; and those vagrants have for 
many years past removed out of several parts of the three 
Kingdoms, and taken their stations in this metropolis, to 

the interruption of conversation and business. As 

to those creatures that go about the streets to shew their 
maimed limbs, nauseous sores, stump hands or feet, or 
any other deformity, I am of opinion, that they are by no 
means fit objects to go abroad ; and considering the 
frights and pernicious impressions which such horrid 
sights have given to pregnant women (and sometimes 
even to the disfiguring of infants in the womb) should 
move all tender husbands to desire the redress of this 
enormity," &c. Propositions for Better Regulating and 
Employing the Poor, chap, xxiii. 36., in The Trade and 
Navigation of Great-Britain Considered, by Joshua Gee, 
6th edit,, Glasgow, printed and sold by K. & A. Foulis, 
1760, 16mo. pp. 180. 


Oi'ctpoiroLfriKa. When Coleridge awoke from 
his dream of " Christabel," he transcribed it me- 
moriter et in extenso : rarely has the extravagant 
and erring spirit hied back to its confine with so 
precious an acquirement. Was Coleridge its au- 
thor ? If not, who was ? 

One night, I sate out the presentation of a 
drama : all whereof has escaped my memory, save 
the general impression of its excellence and the 
remembrance of four especial lines. I awoke re- 
peating them : 

" The Morning now, like to some potent lord 
Making himself a king above his peers, 
Puts off her meaner coronet of stars, 
And takes the sun for her bright diadem." 

Claiming none of their praise to myself, I wish 
to record them in "N. & Q." MORPHINE. 

FROSTS ON THE THAMES. The following para- 
graph has appeared in many of the newspapers. 
Of its authorship I know nothing. It is worth pre- 
serving in " N. & Q." 

" The Thames was frozen for 14 weeks in 1063, and 
below bridge to Gravesend from November 24 to February 
10, in 1434. In 1515 carriages passed over from Lambeth 
to Westminster, and fires and diversions were witnessed 
in 1607. In 1684 the river was covered with ice 11 inches 
thick, and nearly all the birds perished. In 1716 a fail- 
was held, and oxen were roasted ; this frost continued 
from November 24 to February 9. A frost in 1740 lasted 
nine weeks, when coaches pfied upon the Thames, and 

FEB. 2. '61.] 



festivities of all kinds -were celebrated upon the ice. 
From November to January, in 1789, the river was pas- 
sable opposite the Custom-house; and in 1814, booths 
were erected. The present frost has lasted about 14 days, 
and if it continues for the same period longer, the scenes 
of the Serpentine may be transferred to our great metro- 
politan river." [Express, Jan. 11, 1861.] 


WEATHER OF JULY, 1602. In the preface (by 
Sir Egerton Bridges) to Davison's Poetical lihap- 
sody is noticed a letter, dated London, 8th July, 
1602, written by John Chamberlayne to Sir 
Dudley Carleton, in which occurs the following 
passage : 

" The thunder and tempestuous weather you write of 
hath found the way over sea, and played his part here all 
the last week more than ever I knew it." 

S. B. 


I should be greatly obliged to SPAL., or to any 
of your genealogical correspondents, who have 
been discussing the family of Lawrence, for in- 
formation regarding the parentage of Sir James 
Lawrence, Knight of Malta, author of The No- 
bility of the British Gentry, and other works. 
I am, moreover, particularly anxious to ascertain 
when, where, and by what authority he was re- 
ceived into the order of Malta. 

No record of his admission is to be found in 
the Archives preserved at Malta, and I searched 
diligently, but in vain, in the Chancellerie of the 
Convent of St. John of Jerusalem, at Rome, for 
his Proofs, and for the registration of his Bull of 

The only trace of it I could discover was con- 
tained in^the following short extract from a letter 
of the Conlmander Maffei, Receiver- General of 
Bohemia, addressed to the Grand-Master Hom- 
pesch, at Trieste, and dated 24th September. 

_^ Rapportera a Milorde Lawrence la decisione di S. A. 
Ema. riguardo la Croce che desidera," (AfSS. Cahier. 
No. 258.) 

As some apology for troubling your corre- 
spondents, as well as for occupying so large a 
share of your valuable pages, permit me to state . 
that during a long sojourn in Malta I employed ' 
much of my time in rescuing from oblivion every- i 
thing in the public records connected with what 
Bosio calls " cosi nobil, ricco, e principal membro 
dell 'Online, come sempre era stata la Venerabile I 
Lingua d'Inghilterra." 

I made a short abstract of every Bull con- ' 
nected with that Language that had issued from 
the Chancellerie of the Order of St. John, from 
the first quarter of the fourteenth century, when 
the series of the " Libri Bullarum " commences 

to the last quarter of the sixteenth, when all 
mention of the English " Tonge " ceases. 

I have, also, been fortunate enough to recover 
more than 700 names of English, Scotch, and 
Irish gentlemen who were admitted into its ranks 
from the middle of the twelfth century to the 
latter end of the sixteenth. From that period till 
the final expulsion of the Order from Malta in 
1798, the names of nine English knights occur, 
at long intervals; while from the commencement 
of the present century to the year just passed 
away, twenty-three British subjects are registered 
in the Chancellerie of the Order, at Rome, as 
having been received Knights, of Justice, De- 
votion, or Grace, Conventual Chaplains, and Do- 
nats ; of which number ten are natives of Malta. 

It is to complete my Roll of the extinct " Vene- 
rable Language of England " with accuracy, that 
I ask for information respecting Sir James Law- 
2. Saville Row. 


Professor Weber of Marburg has requested me, 
through a common friend, to assist him in inves- 
tigating an obscure point of literary history. He 
wishes to ascertain, if possible, the time at which 
the spurious treatise, De Progenie Augusti, falsely 
ascribed to Messala Corvinus, the contemporary 
and friend of Augustus, was written. 

The earliest edition of it with which I am ac- 
quainted is dated 1532. The title-page is as 
follows : 

"L. Flori de Gestis Romanorum Libri Quatuor a men- 
dis accuratissime repurgati una cu adnotationibus Io. 
Camertis, quse commentary vice in omne Romanam his- 
toriam esse possunt. 

" Ad haec, Sexti Ruffi viri consularis de Listoria Ro. 
epitome multo quam antehac emaeulatior. 

"Item, Messalae Corvini oratorig disertissimi de pro- 
genie ^ August! Cses. libellus, nunc primu excusus. His 
accessit rerum copiosissimus index. 

"Basilea;, apud Jo. Hervagium mense Martio, anno 

The dedication begins : 

"Clarissimo viro D. Wernhero Wolflino, Juris simul 
et Humanitatis consul tissimo, Jacobus Bedrotus Pluden- 
tinus. S." 

After speaking of Florus he goes on to say, 

" Consimilis argument! libellum Sexti Ruffi, et Messalas 
celebratissimi oratoris (si no fallit titulus) de August! 
geriealogia panegyricum. addidimus, quoru ille multis 
locis antea depravatis emendatior exit, hie nunc primu 
in luce prodit, dilucida Ro. imperij propagine complec- 

It is dated 

" Argent. Kalend. Mar. Anno MDXXVIII." 
This editor Bedrotus was the first professor of 
Greek in the University of Strasburg, at the 



. XL FEB. 2. '61. 

foundation of that university. He died in 1541. 
Besides the present work he edited Athenceus, and 
Luciibrationes variorum auctorum in M. T. Cice- 
ronis orationes. You will observe that he claims 
that his edition is an editio priticeps, but does not 
state from what source he obtained the MS. I 
have, however, been informed that there is an 
earlier edition of the Libellus de Progenie Augusti, 
RomaB, 1520, by Raphael Mecenate. I should be 
greatly obliged if any of your readers who may 
happen to possess, or to have seen this edition, 
would furnish me with any particulars about it. 

28. Gordon Square, W.C. 


This distinguished man was born in Scotland, 
his father being Mr. Charles Greig. He first en- 
tered the English navy, and distinguished himself 
Tinder Adm. Hawke at the defeat of Conflans, and 
at the taking of the Havannah. On peace being 
proclaimed in 1764, Mr. Greig, anxious for active 
service, left the English navy, and entered that of 
Russia, in which he rapidly rose, and became a 
vice-admiral in 1770. In 1775, Adm. Greig had 
the command of Cronstadt conferred on him; and in 
1782, having attained the rank of full admiral, he 
was promoted by the Empress Catherine for his 
skill and bravery at the battle of Chio (where the 
whole Turkish fleet was destroyed) to the chief 
command in the Russian navy. Adm. Greig was in 
great favour with the Empress Catherine, who 
conferred on him many marks of her esteem, and 
among them an estate in Livonia. The admiral 
died on the 15th October, 1788, on board his 
flag ship, before Sweaborg. After his death the 
Empress Catherine raised a monument to him in 
the Lutheran church at Revel, and had a medal 
struck in his honour. 

The admiral married a Russian lady, whose 
name I want to find out, and had by her several 
children. A grandson of Adm. Greig distin- 
guished himself, I am told, at the siege of Sevasto- 
pol, and in 1857 was officer of artillery to the 
Grand Duke Constantino. Another grandson is 
a barrister in England, and at the present time is 
Clerk of the Peace for Surrey. 

I shall feel much obliged to any one who will 
furnish me with information on any of the follow- 
ing points : What is the inscription on Adm. 
Greig's monument at Revel? Is it possible to see 
one of his medals in England? What was the 
name of the admiral's wife ? I should be glad to 
have a list of the admiral's descendants, showing 
their marriages, &c., with dates. Is anything 
more known of his ancestry ? What arms did he 
use ? The arms of one family of Greigs, settled 
in Scotland, are gu. 3 dexter hands arg., within a 

bordure or ; crest, a dexter arm in armour em- 
bowed, brandishing a scimetar ppr. ; motto, 
" Strike sure." Were the admiral's like these ? 

J. A. PN. 

ADAM WITH A BEARD. Can you inform me if 
there is any picture or statue by old or modern 
artists and sculptors in which Adam is repre- 
sented with a beard ? CENTURION. 

ANONYMOUS DRAMAS. Can any of your rea- 
ders, acquainted with the literary history of 
Birmingham, give me information regarding the 
authorship of the two following dramas ? 1. Con- 
rad, a tragedy, acted at Birmingham about 1816 
or 1817. I am not certain whether the play was 
printed, but it was written by the author of Tan- 
cred, a Tale, and other Poems, Lond. 1818 (?). 
It may perhaps afford some clue to the author- 
ship to mention that, among the subscribers to 
Tancred, I find Capt. Johnson or Johnston for 
fifty copies. 2. The Mysterious Murder, or WhaCs 
the Clock: a melo-drama, founded on a tale too 
true. Written by G. L. ; printed by Taylor, Moor 
Street, Birmingham, about 1819. ZETA. 

"BEGONE, DULL CARE." It appears to me that 
the following verse, which I have frequently heard 
sung by a lady, who learned it in childhood from 
the singing of others in this neighbourhood, is a 
powerful addition to the well-known song, " Be- 
gone, dull Care." In any company in which I 
have heard it sung it produced a great effect. Is 
it known as originally forming the concluding 
part of the lyric ? I should say it has seldom been 
surpassed in that class of composition : 

** This world, they s&y, was made of naught, 

And all that is therein 
And at the end of time it will 

To naught return again. 
Since this world at best 
Then's [Is?] but a jest, 

And life will soon decay ; 
Then while we're here, 
My friends most dear, 

Let's drive dull Care away. 

Begone, dull Care," &c. &c. 


A provincial paper states, that on one of these 
last cold Sundays, the curate of a rural parish dis- 
missed a very small assemblage of parishioners to 
their homes without performing the service. A 
London weekly journal of about the same date, in 
answer to a correspondent, states " Nine per- 
sons form a congregation, and cannot be legally 
dismissed without the usual services being per- 
formed. * Two or three gathered together ' are 
generally understood to form a congregation." Is 
there any law by which the number is defined to 

2nd S . XI. FEB. 2. '61.] 



be larger than that which is required to ensure 
the Divine presence, Matthew xviii. 20. ? 


FAIRFAX, JOSEPH. Can any one of your readers 
give me any information as to what appointment 
Mr. Joseph Fairfax held in the Forest of Wind- 
sor, circa 1740; or any particulars concerning 
himself or family? L. DE C. 

" Hark ! the drum thunders ; far, ye crowds, retire j 

Behold the ready match is tipt with fire ; 

The nitrous store is laid ; the smutty train 

With running blaze awakes the barrelled grain. 

Flames sudden wrap the walls ; with sullen sound 

The shattered pile sinks on the smoky ground," &c. 
Gay's Trivia, book iii. p. 78. ; Poems, 1720. 

The expedient of blowing up houses with gun- 
powder, in order to arrest the progress of the 
flames, is said to have been resorted to with suc- 
cess during the Great Fire of London, 1666 ; and 
from the above extract from Gay it may perhaps 
be inferred that the practice still continued in his 
days. Is there any well-authenticated instance of 

To descend to more modern times. Is there 
any case on record during the last century in 
which the same plan has been adopted ? At pre- 
sent (thanks to the multiplication and increased 
power of fire-engines, and to improved methods 
of building) there is no necessity for having re- 
course to such desperate expedients for the pur- 
pose of controlling the rage of the " devouring 
element." W. D. 

genealogist wishes to know where the Visitation 
for co. Monmouth, 1683, is deposited. T. M. 


origin of the word, and change to its present form, 
Horbling ? D. GLENN. 


"In the oldest order of knighthood, a knight who be- 
came too fat to ride was rightly deprived of his spurs," 
p. 22. The Art of Riding, London, 1710, 12mo. 

Which order, if any ? A. A. R. 

or any of your numerous readers inform me from 
whence Maiden Lane and Hand Court derived 
their names ? As the biographer of Turner, you 
will understand my interest in this point. 


5. Furnival's Inn. 

NARTHECTA : WHAT ? Amongst the micro- 
scopic slides of a London optician, I find "Foot of 
Narthecia" Would you kindly inquire for me 
whether this is a correct description, and to what 
order of insects it belongs; an effort in which I 
have hitherto failed. C. W. B. 

ROBERTS FAMILY. Wanted information re- 
specting the descendants of Lewis Roberts, mer- 
chant in London about 1638, who wrote The 
Marchanfs Mapp of Commerce. The Harl. MSS. 
mention three children Gabriel, born 1626, Wil- 
liam, and Ann Sarah. Can any reader of " X. & 
Q." furnish the names or any particulars of later 
descendants ? 

Also as to the ancestors of Mr. Samuel Roberts, 
an attorney in Gray's Inn Lane, 1730-34. He 
was admitted at Serjeant's Inn by Mr. Justice 
Probyn, 30th Nov. 1730. Would not the papers 
of Mr. Probyn give the names of his parents, and 
also his birthplace ; if so, where are they to be met 
with ? S. 11. met with his death accidentally on 
old London Bridge, 1734, but where buried can- 
not be ascertained by any of his descendants. I 
shall feel greatly obliged by any communication 
that will assist. E. J. ROBERTS. 

SHAKSPEARE. There was published Chefs 
tfCEuvre de Shahspeare (Othello, Hamlet, &c.) in 
French and English, with Notes Critical and His- 
torical, by D. O'Sullivan, 2 vols. 1837. Was this 
published in London, and is the translator a na- 
tive of this country ? ZETA. 

your correspondents be kind enough to give some . 
account of a controversy, circa 1760, between 
Waring, one of the best of English algebraists, 
and Dr. Powell. There were two pamphlets, I 
think, on either side. They are in the library of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, but are not readily 
accessible in London. WM. DAYIS. 

22. Grove Place. 

[The following account of this controversy occurs in 
a biographical sketch of Dr. Edward Waring in The 
Monthly Magazine for Feb. 1800, p. 46 : "Waring took 
his first, or bachelor's degree, in 1757, and the Lucasian 
Professorship became vacant before he was of sufficient 
standing for the next, or Master's degree, which is a 
necessary qualification for that office. This defect was 
supplied by a royal mandate, through which he became 
Master of Arts in 1763 ; and, shortl}' after his admission 
to this degree, the Lucasian professor. The royal man- 
date is too frequently a screen for indolence ; and it is 
now become almost'a custom, that heads of colleges, wha 
ought to set the example in discipline to others, are the 
chief violators of it, by making their office a pretext for 
taking their Doctor's' degree in Divinity, without per- 
forming those exercises which were designed as proofs of 
their qualifications. Such indolence cannot be imputed 
to Waring; A*et several circumstances previous to his 
election into the professorial chair discovered that there 
was, at least, one person in the University who disap- 
proved of the anticipation of degrees by external influ- 
ence. Waring, before his election, gave a small specimen 
of his abilities, as proof of his qualifications for the office 
which he was then soliciting ; and a controversy on his 
merits ensued : Dr. Powell, the master of St. John's Col- 
lege, attacking, in two pamphlets, the Professor; and his 



S. XI. FEB. 2. '61. 

friend, afterwards Judge Wilson, defending. The attack 
was scarcely warranted by the errors in the specimen ; 
and the abundant proofs of talents in the exercise of the 
professorial office are the best answers to the sarcasms 
which the learned divine amused himself in casting on 
rising merit. An office held by a Barrow, a Newton, a 
Whiston, a Cotes, and a Sanderson, must excite an in- 
genuous mind to the greatest exertions; and the new 
professor, whatever may have been his success, did not 
fall behind any of his predecessors, in either zeal for the 
science, or application of the powers of his mind to ex- 
tend its boundaries. In 1762 he published his Miscellanea 
Analytica, one of the most abstruse books written on the 
abstrusest parts of Algebra. This work extended his 
fame over all Europe."] 

DR. JOHN JORTIN. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me whether there is in existence 
a painting of Dr. Jortin, Vicar of Kensington, 
and Archdeacon of London ? He died in 1770. 

H. L. J. 

[The engraved portrait prefixed to Dr. Jortin 's Works, 
edit. 1810, was taken from a painting then in his daugh- 
ter's possession.] 

YOKUL. Amongst the many names by which 
rustics are designated, or by which they designate 
each other, such as a Yokul, a Chopstick, a Chaw- 
bacon, a Tummas, a Mate, a Feller, a Chap, &c., 
there is only one which particularly puzzles me, 
and that is the first. What is the derivation of 
" Yokul," and what is its proper meaning ? 



[As yoke seems plainly to be connected with the Latin 
jugum, we have always been disposed to derive yokul from 
the L. jiigalis or jogalis, which signifies " pertaining to a 
yoke " (as of oxen or other animals.) We would there- 
fore submit that the term yokul, as applied to a rustic, 
primarily signified one who yoked or drove oxen, horses, 
&c. ; and hence, generally, a peasant or countryman.] 

were these removed, and what part of the city 
was supplied by that machinery which, I believe, 
was moved by the rush of the river ? CENTURION. 

[In 1582 was first erected at London Bridge the famous 
engine for raising water for the supply of the city, the 
invention of Peter Moris, a Dutchman, but a free denizen. 
" He conveyed Thames water in pipes of lead over the 
steeple of St. Magnus church, at the north end of Lon- 
don Bridge, and so into diverse men's houses in Thames 
Street, New Fish Street, and Grasse Street, up unto the 
north-west corner of Leadenhall the highest ground of 
the City of London where the waste of the first main 
pipe ran first this year, 1582, on Christmas even ; which 
main pipe, being since at the charge of the city, brought 
up into a standard there made for that purpose, and di- 
vided there into four several spouts, ran four ways, plen- 
tifully serving to the use of the inhabitants near adjoin- 
ing, that will fetch the same into their houses, and also 
cleansed the channels of the streets north towards 
Bishopsgate, east towards Aldgate, south towards the 
Bridge, and west towards the Stocks Market." (Abra- 
ham Fleming, Holinshed's continuator.) The lease of 
the proprietors, which ran for 500 years from the first 
grant to Moris, at last comprehended all the stream of 
the river to the fifth arch inclusive. On Oct. 13, 1779, a 

fire broke out in a warehouse belonging to Messrs. Judd 
and Sanderson, hop-merchants at the foot of the bridge, 
which communicated to the waterworks, and reduced 
them nearly even with the river. (Gent.'s Mag. Nov. 
1779, p. 562.) These waterworks, which had by various 
improvements become one of the most curious and power- 
ful systems of hydraulic mechanism ever constructed, 
continued in operation till October, 18'22, when the* New 
River Company purchased the supply for 10,000/. Vide 
Richard Thomson's Chronicles of London Bridge,'} 

ST. BOTOLPII. Finding there are four churches 
dedicated to St. Botolph in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of (I believe) Newgate, Cripplegate, 
Aldersgate, and Aldgate, I shall be much obliged 
to any one who would state if there be any histo- 
rical connection between such dedication and the 
above-named localities, to account for the striking 
coincidence. A. Z. 

[In our first Series (v. 396. 475. 566., vii. 84. 193.) 
are several notices of this favourite saint of early times ; 
but they do not explain why the four churches dedicated 
to him in London stand at the gates of the city, viz. 
Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Billingsgate. St. Bo- 
tolph's festival is June 17; he has been considered the 
especial patron of mariners, which may account for these 
churches in the vicinity of the port of London having 
been dedicated to him.] 

. x. 243. ; 2 nd S. x. 

Querists in " N. & Q." should never despair of 
replies, for here is an instance in which, after an 
interval of six years, a Query has been answered, 
MR. ROFFE having obligingly forwarded the par- 
ticulars then requested, which I know will be 
most acceptable to one of your correspondents 
now abroad. 

In Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland, it is stated 
that Thomas Snagg, Esq., was appointed Attorney- 
General for Ireland by patent under letter of 
Privy Seal, dated Oatlands, 13th of September, 
1577. " The Queen by her said letters directed 
that he should have 100. English a year addition 
to his fee ; and for his better encouragement and 
supportation of his charges, to have in the pay of 
the army without cheque the wages of two horse- 
men and three footmen " truly a curious way 
of providing for high legal functionaries, but an 
exceptional case, for he is the only Attorney- 
General we find receiving such perquisites. A 
successor was appointed " vice Snagg, deceased," 
by patent dated 9th of September, 1580. 

In Hansard I find that Thomas Snagg, Esq., 
M.P. for Bedford, and Serjeant-at-law, was chosen 
Speaker of the House of Commons, and presented 
to Queen Elizabeth in that capacity by the lower 
house on the 12th of November, 1588. He was 
also a bencher and " double reader " of Gray's Inn, 
and his arms are still to be seen emblazoned in 

2 d S. XL FEB. 2. '61.] 



the large semicircular window of the Hall of that 

Mr. Manning, in his Lives of the Speakers ^ of 
the House of Commons, appears to be of opinion 
that he resigned before 1590, in which year he 
was appointed " Queen's own Serjeant." But he 
still appears as Speaker on the 29th^of March, 
1592, and his successor, the great Sir Edmund 
Coke, was not elected till the 22nd of February, 
1593 (35th Eliz.), on the assembling of a new- 

Quzere, when did he die ? Mr. Manning was 
unable to ascertain his ancestry. Can any par- 
ticulars now be obtained? 

His son, also Thomas, sat in the Parliament of 
1586 for the borough of Bedford, and received 
the honour of knighthood from King James I. 
shortly after his accession to the throne, and in 
the fifth year of that reign [1507-8] served as 
sheriff for Bedfordshire, as did also his descend- 
ants in 1665, 1678, and 1705. 

The Snaggs held, with other lands, the Manors 
of Marston Moretaine in Bedfordshire, and Latch- 
worth in Hertfordshire. In the parish church of 
the former are several very handsome monuments 
and sepulchral brasses to various members of the 

Thomas Snagg' s Old Manor House, at Marston, 
is still known, and some legends about the ghost 
of Lady Snagg still linger amongst the oldest 

I am desirous of ascertaining what relationship 
existed between Thomas Snagg, the Attorney- 
General, and Thomas Snagg the Speaker. Could 
they be the same person, and " deceased" a cleri- 
cal error for " resigned " ? If not, did the At- 
torney-General leave issue ? What was the con- 
nection between the branch settled at Chislehurst, 
Kent, and that at Marston Moretaine ? 

Mr. Manning, in the work before quoted, says : 
" We have not ascertained whether the blood 
of Snagg is still extant, but we find that the last 
heir male [of the Speaker ?] died in the early 
part of the 18th century." 

The family isjcertainly not extinct, for Thomas 
Snagg, a descendant of the Chislehurst branch, 
went over to Ireland about 1770, and three gene- 
rations (the eldest sons all likewise baptized 
Thomas), have since been settled in Dublin. 

Any genealogical information, references to 
printed works, copies of inscriptions, &c., relating 
to this family, will be acceptable. The name is 
so peculiar and uncommon that it affords special 
facilities for tracing the genealogy, because all 
who bear it may safely be assumed to be related, 
which is often too readily done without sufficient 
warrant in the case of names of more common 


(2 nd S. xi. 30. 52.) 

The Crispinus of Horace is the literary ancestor 
of a numerous race. The member of it indicated 
by the satirist I take to be the Crispin of Padre 
Isla. The date of the satire is 1772, in which 
year Nugent' s translation of Fray Gerundio was 
published under the direction of Baretti. Pru- 
dentio, after pointing out faults in Gerund's 
much-applauded sermon, says: 

" Instead of the acclamations which these simpletons 
gave thee upon finishing thy exhortation, thou shouldst 
have had that which was given to Father Friar Crispin, 
suiting thee as well as it did him, who without doubt 
must have been the Friar Gerund of his time : 
" All pretenders to style before Crispin must vanish, 
Who speaks Spanish in Latin and Latin in Spanish." 
"Huzza!"* Vol. i. p. 553. 

History of Friar Gerund, London, 1772. 

"S e," certainly Shebbeare ; "B e," not 

Bute, but, I think, Beardmore. 

" Where is Shebbeare? let not foul reproach, 
Travelling thither in a city-coach, 
The pillory dare to name; the whole intent 
Of that pa'rade was fame, not punishment, 
And that old, staunch Whig, Beardmore, standing by. 
Can, in full court, give that report the lie." 

Churchill, The Author, 1. 301. 

Shebbeare was sentenced to stand one hour in 
the pillory at Charing Cross. Beardmore, then 
under-sheriff, took him there in one of the city 
coaches, and allowed him to stand on " the wood," 
his head and hands not being put through, with a 
servant in livery holding an umbrella over him. 
At the end of the hour Beardmore took him back. 
For this, on the motion of the Attorney-General, 
the Court of King's Bench issued an attachment 
against Beardmore. The whole Court were indig- 
nant at the sentence not being fully executed, and 
Mr. Justice Wilmot cited a case from the year- 
books in which large damages were recovered against 
a defendant for beating his adversary's attorney, 
and the reason assigned was, " Quia the defendant, 
quantum in se fuit, non permisit regem regnare ; '* 
and, added his lordship, "it may, with at least as 
much propriety, be said of this under-sheriff in 
the present instance, that, quantum in sefuit, non 
permisit regem regnare." Beardmore was sentenced 

* The passage is badly translated. The original is, 

" No merecias, que al acabar la Platica, en lugar de los 
vitores con que te aclamaron los simples, te hubiesen apli- 
cado este otro vitor, que te venia tan de molde como al 
Padre Fray Crispin, que sin duda debid de ser el Fray 
Gerundio de su tiempo : 

" Vitor el Padre Crispin, 

De los cultos culto Sol, 
Que habld Espanol en Latin 

Y Latin en Espanol." Tom. iii. p. 139. 
Historia de Fray Gerundio, Madrid, 1822. 
I presume that " Huzza " is put after the couplet in 
English, as the equivalent of Vitor. 



[2" S. XL FEB. 2. '61. 

to two months' imprisonment in the Marshalsea, 
and fined fifty pounds. (R. v. Beardmore, 2 Burr. 

I can offer no conjecture as to M and 

C . Mallet died in 1765 ; Churchill in 1764. 

M certainly is not Murphy, who was always 

a friend and admirer of Johnson. Extracts from 
the Epistle to Samuel Johnson, Esq., are given by 
Boswell, one of them beginning with "Transcend- 
ant genius," &c., and the whole extravagantly 
complimentary. (Boswell's Life of Johnson, vol. 
ii. p. 121., Murray's edit. 1835.) H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Lost. Can it be supposed that Milton was ignorant of 
the publication of Junius? And is it not evident that the 
first three books of the Paradise Lost were an after- 
thought, entirely induced by the plot of the Paraphrase ? " 
Vide Palaographia Sacra Pictoria : or, Select Illustrations 
of Ancient Illuminated Biblical and Theological Manu- 
scripts. By J. 0. Westwood, F.L.S., &c. 

Professor Andras,' in his Disquisitio de Car- 
minibus Anglo- Saxonicis Cadmoni Adjudicatis 
(Parisiis, 1859), points out by numerous quota- 
tions the passages in which Milton may have been 
indebted to Csedmon for his imagery and lan- 
guage. J. MACK AY. 



(1 st S. iv. 100. 181.) 

The similarity between the Anglo-Saxon poem 
of Caedmon, paraphrased from Genesis, and some 
parts of Milton's Paradise Lost, is so striking as 
to have led many distinguished scholars to believe 
that Milton must have perused Caedmon in the 
original, and have borrowed his plot from the 
Anglo-Saxon poet. This appears extremely pro- 
bable, and is so well stated by Mr. Westwood in 
his beautiful and most instructive work, Palceo- 
graphia Sacra Pictoria (Lond. 1844), that I hope 
a corner may be found in " N. & Q." for Mr. 
Westwood's note, which no doubt must have es- 
caped the notice of your correspondent J. E. of 
Oxford, when he addressed to you, in Aug. 1851, 
the Query quoted above : 

** The plot of this paraphrastic history in fact so much 
resembles that of the Paradise Lost, that it ' has obtained 
for its author the name of the Saxon Milton.' (Wright, 
Biogr. Brit. Liter, p. 198.) When, however, the following 
circumstances are taken into consideration, I think we 
are, on the other hand, fully warranted in supposing that 
this striking resemblance was not altogether accidental, 
but resulted from Milton having borrowed his plot from 
the Anglo-Saxon poet. The MS. of Junius was published 
in 1655.* About this period Milton was engaged upon his 
History of England previous to the Norman Conquest, 
such a publication would therefore find its way to him. 
Paradise Lost was published in 1667, but its composition 
occupied a number of years. (See the Life of Milton 
by his nephew Edward Philips, Pickering's edit, of Mil- 
ton's Poet. Works, 1826, vol. i. p. Ixii.) And we learn 
from Philips that it was at first intended for a tragedy ; 
* and in the fourth book of the poem there are six verses, 
which, several years before the poem was begun, were 
shown to me and some others as designed for the very 
beginning of the said tragedy.' These verses commence 
with what stands as the 32nd line of the 4th Book. Now it 
will be at once remembered that the first three books are 
occupied with the history of the expulsion of the devil 
and his angels from heaven, their discussions, &c., and 
it is precisely this portion of the Anglo-Saxon Para- 
.phrase which is so strikingly similar to the Paradise 

* " Caedraonis Monachi Paraph. Poet. Genesios, &c. 
Anglo-Saxonice conscripta et nunc primum edita a 
Francisco Junio F. F. Amst. 1655." 

(2 nd S. x. 447. ; xi. 34.) 

The opinions attributed to the Japanese Bonze 
are common to the Buddhists of all ages. As 
Fucarandono (?) propounded them they would 
have been, and were, propounded centuries before. 
In the writings of Hiouen-thsang, a Chinese pil- 
grim who visited India between A.D. 629 and 
645, we find similar ideas expressed.* 

The followers of Buddha do not believe in the 
existence of a creating God ; for, the Singhalese 
assert, " if there existed such a creator, the world 
would not perish and be annihilated." Thus they 
do not believe in a creation ; everything, say they, 
has existed from all time the world, the gods, 
the human race, and all animated beings. They 
also believe the earth to have been destroyed ten 
times in former ages, and to have been produced 
anew eacn time by the operations of NATURE; both 
gods and men. The Buddhists assert the soul to 
have existed from all time (their doctrines con- 
tain no mention of a created soul) ; but they 
hold that it will transmigrate for a vast number of 
years, and then reach a state of passive uncon- 
sciousness (called Nirvana) ; the highest state 
of bliss of which a Buddhist can conceive. 

Similar ideas are also found throughout the 
literature of the Hindus ; indeed, as Buddhism was, 
originally, but modified Brahmanism, this is what 
might have been expected. 

Thus the first book of the Vishnu-purana (a 
Sanskrit work about a thousand years old) con- 
tains a description of the manner in which the 
universe proceeds from Prakriti that is, eternal 
crude matter; and although the explanation is a 
hodge-podge of mysticism, the theory on which all 
is supposed to be based is sufficiently clear. Upon 
stepping back another thousand years, to the cen- 
turies just preceding Christianity, we meet with 
some such notions in a poem called the Bhagavat- 

* Memoires sur les Contrees occidentales, par Hiouen- 
thsang. Latelv translated from the Chinese by M. Stan- 
islas Julion. 

2" S. XL FEB. 2. '61. ] 



Gita, of which I subjoin Mr. Griffith's elegant 
translation : 

" Nor thou, nor yonder Princes, e'er were not, 

For ever have they been, though changed their lot; 

So shall their being through all time extend, 

Without beginning and without an end; 

The Vital Spirit in this mortal clay 

Lives on through Youth, through Childhood, to Decay ; 

And then new forms the fleeting souls receive 

Why for these changes should the Hero grieve ? 

Know that What Is can never cease to Be, 
What Is Not can Be never," &c., &c. 

Something very like the idea of all things ema- 
nating from natural selection is, indeed, older than 
the Rig-veda (B.C. 1200); for in the 10th Book 
of that singular collection occurs a hymn contain- 
ing the following passage. The poet is speaking 
of times previous to the development of the 
world : 

" Darkness there was, and all at first was veiled 
In gloom profound, an ocean without light. 
The germ that still lay covered in the husk * 
Burst forth, one nature, from the fervent heat. 
Then first came Love upon it, the new spring 
Of mind yea, poets in their hearts discerned, 
Pondering, this bond between created things 
And uncreated." 


(2 nd S. xi. 48.) 

There can be no doubt as to the derivation of 
this word. It suggests itself at once to every one 
who, like myself, has but a moderate knowledge 
of Italian ; and it may be found in any good Eng- 
lish Dictionary from Johnson downwards. 

Charlatan comes from the Ital. ciarlatano, and 
this from ciarlare, " to chatter," or rather " to 
talk much and in a light, frivolous, and boasting 
manner." From this verb also comes the subst. 
ciarlata, "chattering." Charlatan thus exactly 
corresponds to our quack, for this comes from the 
verb "to quack," which Johnson defines "to chat- 
;er boastingly, to brag loudly, to talk ostenta- 
tiously," supporting his definition by the following 
quotation from Hudibras : 

" Believe mechanick virtuosi 
Can raise them mountains in Potosi ; 
Seek out for plants with signatures, 
To quack of universal cures." 

Under charlatan he quotes the following from 
Browne's Vulgar Errours : 

Saltimbanchoes, quacksalvers, and charlatans deceive 
them in lower degree." 

But probably this is not early enough for X. O. 

As for the derivation of ciarlare (pron. charlar e, 
,he c,h as in China), it will be found, I think, in the 
Lat. garrulus (garrire, to prate, chatter). This 

* The Cosmic Egg. 

may seem somewhat far fetched ; but the Spanish 

equivalent for ciarlare is charlar (pron. the ch as 

j in China), or garlar, which latter is evidently the 

same word as the Italian garrulare, a verb made 

| from garrulo, or the Spanish garrular. That the 

hard Latin g is sometimes softened in Italian is 

shown by comparing giallo (pron. fallow, yellow) 

j with the corresponding Lat. gal\us (gilvus, gil- 

' bus, galbanus), which Kiddle says = x\<ap6^ light 

green, or greenish-yellow. So g-atidium, gioja, 

| (pron. joysi), joy. It is no easy matter to find 

i instances in which a hard Latin g has become c 

! in Italian, still I find at any rate one, viz. Lat. 

(rades, Ital. Cadice (Cadiz). The converse is 

more generally the case, as castigare, Ital. gasti- 

gare ; catus (a tom-cat), Ital. g-atto, &c. 

The Lat. ca and ga generally remain hard in 
Ital., though they "are very commonly softened in 
French. Cf. campus, campo, champ ; carus, caro, 
cher ; castus, casto, chaste ; gamba. (Lat. a hoof), 
Ital. g-amba (a leg), Fr. jambe ; castigare, gasti- 
gare, cAatier; catus, Ital. gatto, Fr. cJiat. 

I should not have entered into this perhaps 
wearisome detail> but that no one would, I think, 
be apt to believe in the derivation of charlatan 
from garrulus upon the mere assertion of any one, 
however good an etymologist. According to my 
views the steps of the process may be represented 
as follows : garrulus, garrulo, garrulare, garlare 
(Span, garlar, charlar), carlare, ciarlare (as in 
the Ital. ciambra, another form of camera, from 
the Lat. camera), ciarlata, ciarlatano, charlatan. 
All these words still exist with the exception of 
garlare and carlare, the steps I have supplied. 
As alike in sound, one might compare Carolus, 
Ital. Carlo, Fr. Charles. F. C. 

This word occurs in Cowley, Butler (Hudibras"), 
and Sir T. Browne, but I have no note of it earlier 
in English. It is a common word in French, 
where it has been long used for quack doctor, 
mountebank, &c., like the Latin circulator, which 
it resembles in form. The word appears, how- 
ever, as a Spanish one, where charlar means to 
babble, to talk too much, and charlatan, a prating 
fellow ; hence, a mountebank, &c. In Italian it 
is ciarlare, to chatter, prate, and ciarlatano, a 
quack or mountebank. We should expect to 
find it in Latin, but I am aware of no word like 
it except some derivatives of clarus, as claricitare, 
which in Lucretius, 5. 946., signifies to cry aloud 

" Claricitat late sitientia ssecla ferarum." 

B. H. C. 

A French dictionary furnishes me with a reply 
to the philological portion of X. O.'s Query. 
" De 1'Italien, ciarlatano, forme dans la meme 
signification, de ciarlare, parler beaucoup;" the 



*<i S. XI. FED. 2. '61. 

"gift of the gab," or the power of PUFFING, are 
evidently the chief attributes of the so-called 
charlatan, whatever may be his peculiar vocation ; 
whether he be a vendor of drugs, or a general 
impostor, he thinks he shall be heard for his much 
speaking. F. PHILLOTT. 

In Malcolm Flemyng's Dissertation on Dr. 
James's Fever Powders occurs the following pas- 
sage, which may be acceptable to your corre- 
spondent : 

" Dr. Ckarleton, a celebnfted Pln'sician in 

Charles II.'s reign, who had the licensing of Quacks, told 
me on his Death Bed, that all the useful and successful j 
cures performed by the Mountebanks of his time were 
solely owing to preparations of Mercury and Antimon}'." 

Is this the origin of the word " Charlatan " ? 

T. N. 

(2 nd S. xi. 47.) 

The Acts of Parliament concerning which Q. 
snakes inquiry in " N. & Q." are the 30th Car. II. 
c. 3. and 32nd Car. II. c. 1. Both were repealed 
by the 54th Geo. III. c. 108. The first act for 
burying in woollen is entitled " An Acte for the 
lessening the importation of Linnen from beyond 
the Seas, and the encouragement of the Woollen 
and Paper Manufactures of the Kingdome." After 
the passing of this act every clergyman was bound 
to make an entry in the burial register that an 
affidavit had been produced in proof that each 
corpse Avas clad at the time of interment in wool- 
len grave-clothes only. For every infringement 
of the act a fine of five pounds was imposed, one- 
half to go to the informer, the other to the poor 
of the parish. No affidavit was required in the 
case of those who died of the plague. 

Almost every parish register that I have exa- 
mined and I have read many contains some 
notice of the carrying out of this law ; but the 
form of the affidavit, and the manner in which it 
is noticed in the register, varies much in different 
parishes. I believe many of these affidavits still 
exist ; when they are found they should be care- 
fully preserved as relics of bygone manners and 
legislation. I have seen more than one, but un- 
fortunately have in no instance made a transcript; 
those which have come in my way have been 
throwing about as waste paper at the bottom of 
church chests. A document of this kind taken in 
April, 1769, in the borough of Harwich, is printed 
in "N.&Q." 1 st S. v. 414. 

That this law was in full operation from the 
passing of the Act in 1678 to its repeal in 1814 
does not, I conceive, admit of doubt. I have 
heard more than one person ocredit speak of 
the great delay and consequent inconvenience 
that was caused by the necessity of procuring 

an affidavit before a funeral could be proceeded 

The following notes from the parish registers of 
Scotter, co. Lincoln, illustrate this subject: 

"Affid. Mrs. Ann Carrington, Relict of W m Carring- 
ton, late Rect r of this parish, was bur\ r ed Decem r 11 th 

" None returned. Margaret, the wife of Robert Fowler 
of Scawthorpe, Sep r 15 [1707]. 

" M r Edwin Anderson of Thimick, Wid r , was Imryed in 
linnen 2 1st [Oct. 1717]. 

" Paid 50 s to y c poor of Scotter according to act of Par- 

" Thomas Rhodes, accidentally killed by John Drewry 
with a Gun, was burj-ed in linnen, Oct r 4 th [17171. 

" Mary, Daugh r of Tho. Peacocke, Jun r , October 8 th 
Affd. [1724]." 

Other extracts of similar nature have been 
given by other correspondents in the First Series 
of " N. & Q." The following are perhaps worth 
reprinting as additional illustrations. 

Ratcliffe, Lancashire. Parish Register : 

" 1679. An orphan of Ralph Mather's of Radcliffe was 
buried y e 9 th day of April, and sertefied to be wounde 
uppe in woollen onely, under the hand of M r William 

Churchwardens' accounts of the same parish : 

" 1681. Received a fine of James Crompton ffor buringe 
his son, and not bringinge in an affidavit! according to 
the Acte ffor burying in woollin, 02 : 10 : 00." 

This compulsory use of woollen was very much 
disliked, not only for the reason before given, but 
also as an infringement on personal liberty, by 
interfering with many old and cherished funeral 
customs. It is probable that the higher classes 
usually paid the fine. Many of your readers, 
better versed than I in the literature of the last 
century, will be able to give references to pas- 
sages in the popular literature, indicative of this 

" ' Odious ! in woollen ! t' would a Saint provoke !' 
(Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke) ; 
' No, let a charming chintz, and Brussels lace, 
Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face.' " 
Pope's Epistle to Sir Richard Temple, line 237. 

Thus wrote Pope df Mrs. Oldfield the actress, 
not, however, until he had read of her funeral in 
Westminster Abbey, when she was not buried in 
woollen, but in "a Brussels lace head-dress; a 
Holland shift with tucker and double ruffle^ of 
the same lace, and a pair of new kid gloves." 
Gent. Mag., March, 1731. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Q. will find the answer to part of his question in 
the register books of his own or any other parish 
in England. Burying in woollen was by 30 C. II. 
s. I.e. 3. enjoined " for the encouragement of the 
woollen manufactures, and prevention of the^x- 
portation of money for the importing of linen." 

Undoubtedly "the observance of such a law" 

1 'a s. XI. FEB. 2. '61.] 



vas very strictly "enforced," insomuch _ as no j 
( orpse could be buried without an affidavit that 
i s provisions had been complied with, under pain | 
( f a fine of five pounds, to be levied on the goods j 
and chattels of the deceased, or (failing those) on 
the goods of the person in whose house the death 
recurred, or of any person concerned in the en- ; 
shroudment of the deceased. W. C. 


(2 nd S. x. 521.) 

It would afford me great pleasure to assist 
" Theta " in his inquiries, and with that view I 
herewith send him a copy of a pedigree of the 
O'Driscolls among my collections. Not knowing 
" THETA'S " address, I take the liberty of enclosing 
it to the care of the obliging editor of "N". & Q." 
The title " Lord of Baltimore " only means, as 
we would now say of any large landed proprietor, 
that he was lord of the manor of so and so. The 
first English plantation made at Baltimore was 
by Sir Thomas Crook, who took a lease of it for 
twentv-one years from Sir Fineen O'Driscoll, 
settled a colony of English Protestants there, and 
procured a new Charter of Incorporation from 
James I. The members consisted of a sovereign 
and free burgesses. (Vide Smith's Hist, of Cork, 
vol. i. p. 276. seqq?) As regards the Algerine 
pirates, it is evident that the western coast of the 
co. Cork was at this time infested by them, so as 
to call for the vigorous interference of the authori- 
ties to check their atrocities. Subjoined is a pro- 
clamation to that effect, which I copied from the 
Council Book of Munster in the British Museum, 
last summer. (Bibl. Harl. 697. PI. xlix. 1.) This 
interesting record, so valuable to the student of 
the history of the South of Ireland, is entitled 

"The Councell booke for the province of Mounster, 
jontayninge all the Actes, Recordes, and Entries of that 
Provinciall State, from the xx th daie of August, 1601, 
foruard, devided under the Sixe heads and titles here- 
fter followinge, viz. Orders and Decrees. Recogni- 
zances. Pleadges and Alteracons of pledge. Entries of 
^omissions and tres of State. Proclamations and Inhi- 
bitions. General hoastinges and rysinges oute." 
(Folio 36.) "Apud Corck, vi. August, 1610 : 
" Wheras the King's most excellent Ma tie having been 
enformed of the contynuall releeff that pyratts have re- 
ceived from tyme to tyme in the westerne ptes of this 
province as Baltimore, Inisherkin, and divers other 
parts thereabouts, as well by the contynuall supplyes of 
snch desgat and dishonest men as resorted thither of 
purpose to joyne and combyne themselves w th the said 
ivrats, as also of such shameles and adulterous women 

as daylie repaired unto them, and especially by the 
ineanes of divers Taverns, Alehouses, and victualling 
houses that have from tyme to tyme basely and merce- 
narily intertayned both these kinds of p'eople, of his 
princely care and desire to contynue league and aniytie 
w all other Christian princes who (not without collour) 
-re become jealouze of that releeff and countenance which 

they pretend the said pj'rats to have lately founde and 
received in the said western ptes, hath given speciall di- 
reccon unto the 11s. [Lordships] of his highnes most 
honourable privy councill in England, to take some good 
and speedy order for the prevencion thereof in tyme to 
come ; Wherennto their lip 5 having not only made many 
good provisions \v ch are published and put in execution, 
in that kingdom, but have also sent over hither many 
straight commandments and direccons for the same pur- 
pose unto the Right Honourable the Lord deputye, w ch 
are by his rp. seconded and sent unto us, wherein not- 
withstanding we have likewise used our best endeavours, 
yet hath there been litle or no reformacon thereby pro- 
cured, so as wee can fynde no other assured meanes left 
for the securitie of these lewede and wicket pyratts, but 
by unpeopling and layeing waste certain Hands in those 
borders and other places open unto their arrivals which 
they have and yet do hitherto most comonly frequent. 
We do therefore for the speciall reasons and considerations 
above mentioned by this our act of Councill resolve and 
appointe that a speciall comission shall be forthwith 
clirrected to such persons as shall be thought meete, an- 
swerable in effect to the several articles hereunder 
written. Impr3'mi3. To suppress all such taverns and 
alehouses as they shall fynde superfluous, leaveing only 
some feow for the necessary intertaynment of fishermen 
and travailors, who are to give good security that they 
shall not receive nor releeve any pyrats or consort of 
pyratts, nor any other that shall travaile into those ptes, 
for their releeff, service, or supply whatsoever. Item, to 
unpeople the Hands of Insharkan and the rest, and also 
all such places upon the contynent as are weake and 
open unto the arrivall of the said pyratts, only except 
some houses and inhabitants as shall be fitly drawen 
within the guard and pteGion of some strong hold or 
Castell. Item. To suffer none to remaine inhabiting in 
those ptes but such as shall fynde sufficient securitie not 
to intertain any pirratt nor any other wandering travailor, 
not having pass from the Vice-president or some other 
of the Councell, but that they shall within four and 
twentie hours bring or send them before the said Vice- 
president or some one of the Councell. Item, that no 
Taverner, Inkeeper, or Alehouskeeper within the Citties, 
Tounes, or Suburbs of Youghal, Kinsale, Corck, Ross, 
Bandonbridg, &c. shall receive or contynue any such 
wandering traveller in bis house without the lyke bring- 
ing or sending him within three days unto the said 
Vice-president or some one of the Councell to be further 
delt w th all according to pollicy and justice. Item. To 
give straight order and chardg unto all the inhabitants 
of those partes that if any of the pyratts or their consorts 
shall presume to breake or come into any howse, assault 
any person, or take away any goods or money from any 
place or psonne, that then "the partie so offended shall 
raise hue and cry upon the said mallefactor, and that 
whosoever shall refuse or neglect to follow and pursue the 
said hue and cry, shall be forthwith apprehended and 
punished for his said contempt according to discression. 
Item. That the provost marshall, w th some competent 
number of horsmen, shall attend the said commissioners, 
and himself be joyned with them in the said commission, 
and lastly, that fiftie of the lord president's fote com- 
pany (w* h a discreet officer) shall be appointed to attend 
the dayly dirreccon of the said Commissioners, to be 
left and disposed of in Castles and other cheeffe holdes in 
those parts where they shall (as they goe) fynde good 
cause to leave them, w ch said soldiers after they shall be so 
garrizoned by the said Commissioners, shall receive their 
weekly lendings from their Cap*, to the'nd they may not 
be any wayes chardgable or grevous unto the contrv. 
Rich d . Morrissen, Dom. Sarsfeld, Edw. Harris. 



XI. FKB. 2. '61. 

On the two following pages are proclamations 
to the same effect ; the first is directed 

To our welbeloved W m . lord Bishop of Cork. S r . Parr 
Lane, Knt. Henry Gosnold, Esq. Cap 1 . Henry Skip- 
v/ith, and Richard "Aldworth, Esq., or any two of them, 
so as the said Henry Gosnold or Cap*. Skipwith be one." 

This document is dated Mogeely, xxvi. Aug. 
1611. R.C. 


S. xi. 43.) A SENEX myself, I am indicted by 
another SENEX for having committed larceny. I 
could plead the prascriptio triginta annorum, niy 
legend, " Jacoba en Bertha," having been pub- 
lished, and the crime imputed to me committed, 
in 1829; but the accusation is made in such a 
polite and friendly way, that I do not wish to 
screen myself behind any fins de non-recevoir. I 
rather frankly confess that SENEX is in the right, 
and that the above-named song is a translation of 
Sir Walter's " Young Lochinvar," adapted to the 
story in the Analecta ; which story, indeed, could 
never have been better told than with the words 
of the Scotch bard. 

But SENEX did not only guess rightly with re- 
gard to the origin of my song, he was also in the 
right when he very kindly suggested that perhaps 
there might be found some passage in my works, 
indicating the source from which I took my song. 
There is indeed such a passage in the Naschrift (or 
"postface,") to the edition of 1829; which Na- 
schrift, I don't know why, was not reprinted in the 
last edition, and so perhaps did never meet the 
eyes of SENEX. In that Naschrift, I warned the 
gentle reader, that not only the " Heer van Cu- 
lemburg," but several other songs and passages of 
my Legends, were borrowed from foreign authors. 
This confession, if not wholly taking away the 
crime, may serve to alleviate it. 

The more I am indebted to SENEX for the good 
opinion he appears to entertain of me as a poet 
and a novelist, the more I feel the desire that he 
should also see an honest man in his fellow SENEX. 


Amsterdam, Jan. 23, 1861. 

TER ? (2 nd S. vi. 204.) By a strange coincidence 
I had just been reading MR. REID'S curious paper 
on Mary and Douglas of Lochleven (ante, p. 50.) 
when I met with a bookseller's catalogue in which 
Castelnau's Memoirs are spoken of as the only 
book containing an account of Mai'y's having 
given birth to a daughter by Bothwell. I was 
about on the instant to send off to " 1ST. & Q." a 
Query as to the fact ; but on second thoughts 
first referred to its Indices to see if it contained 
anything upon the subject. I was rewarded for 
so doing (as one generally is for doing right) by 

finding a long and valuable Query by A. S. A., 
in the sixth volume of the present Series. A. S. 
A.'s paper seems almost to settle in the affirma- 
tive his own inquiry ; but not so completely, I 
dare say, as to satisfy those who think the beau- 
tiful Scottish Queen could do no wrong. A. S. 
A.'s Query has, however, not called forth a single 
reply. You have among your many learned cor- 
respondents one at least (I mean J. M., who has 
done so much in your columns to illustrate Early 
Scottish History and Literature) capable of throw- 
ing light upon this very curious point of history, 
and I hope you will indulge me with the small 
space necessary to recall attention to it by the 
present communication. D. M. 

t JOHN URT (2 nd S. ix. 304.) All that could be 
discovered concerning John Ury is to be seen in 
A Brief Sketch of the History of the Catholic 
Church on the Island of New York, by the Rev. J. 
R. Bayley, Secretary to the Archbishop of New 
York (now Bishop of Newark, N. J.), New York, 
1853. It is there stated as most probable, that 
Ury was a Catholic priest : " founded upon the 
circumstance that, when arraigned as a priest, tried 
as a priest, and condemned as a priest, he never 
formally denied it, nor exhibited any evidence of 
his being ordained in the Church of England." 


LATIN GRACES (2 nd S. xi. 48.) Your corre- 
spondent will find the Latin " graces " used in 
the Colleges and Halls of the University of Ox- 
ford, in the 2nd vol. of Reliquice Hearniance, edited 
by the late Rev. Philip Bliss, D.C.L. I have not 
the book at hand, and did not make a note of the 
page when I read it. K. P. D. E. 

MR. ROBERT LAING MEASON (2 nd S. x. 503.) 
This gentleman is a native of Scotland. He is 
a younger son of the late Mr. Gilbert Laing Mea- 
son, of Lindertis, originally Mr. Gilbert Laing, 
but who assumed the name of Meason on succeed- 
ing to the estates of Mr. Gilbert Meason, of More- 
don. Mr. Gilbert Laing Meason was the brother 
of Mr. Malcolm Laing, the historian of Scotland, 
and of Mr. Samuel Laing, Senior, the author of 
Travels in Norway and Sweden, fyc. ; and by con- 
sequence, Mr. Robert Laing Meason is a cousin of 
Mr. Samuel Laing, the Financial Minister of In- 
dia. I was told that he had gone to Norway to 
reside, and that he had been writing poems in the 
Norwegian language. It has been remarked that 
an hereditary talent exists in this family of the 
Laings, and Mr. Robert Laing Meason does not 
appear to form an exception. B. H. F. 


SHIPTONIANA (2 nd S. x. 450. ; xi. 33.) Just 
after the Cato Street conspiracy, I called on my 
friend John Taylor, the editor of The Sun (then 
in its Tory meridian), when he exclaimed "We 

* S. XL FEB. 2. '61.] 



have them now! one of their gang (Monument 
H the fellow's name) has peached; and he is 
1 jd<jed in the Tower for safe keeping." " Ah ! 
].a!" said I, "Mother Shipton's prophecy, word 
lor word! " 

" When the Monument doth come to the Tower, 
Then shall fall rebellion's power." 

" Where did you find that ? " cried Tory John, 
pretty considerably astonished. "There are se- 
veral editions of Mother Shipton," I gravely re- 
plied; "I found it in mine." He insisted on a 
copy. Into The Sun it went that same evening, 
and in due time he showed rne several provincial 
journals into which it had been copied. In fact, 
it went the round of the press. Over and over 
again he asked me to show him niy copy, until I 
was obliged, in confidence of course, to confess 

ANAESTHETICS (2 nd S. xi. 10.) The American 
surgeons, it is known, prepare the patient more 
carefully for an operation than any others. They 
use acetate of morphia. A medical friend, who is 
critical on the use of choloroform, proposes to use 
e'er, that is, cold till sleep supervenes. I should 
propose to try the vapour of absolute alcohol. 
The quotation is a very remarkable one ; but the 
discussion would be foreign to your columns. 


St. John's Wood. 

MODE OF CANONISATION (2 ud S. xi. 38.) 
This Note reminds me that, about twelve years 
since, I published a drawing of the then lately- 
restored chancel of St. Mary's Church, Kidder- 
I minster. The restoration was mainly effected at 
the cost of the patron, the present Earl of Dudley. 
My sketch was most skilfully lithographed by Mr. 
I F. Bedford ; but Messrs. Day & Son omitted some 
such words as "This View of," in the title to the 
,print, and made it to read thus: "The Interior 
iof the Chancel of St. Mary's Church, Kiddermin- 
ster, is dedicated (by permission) to the Rt. Hon. 
the Lord Ward." There has been some reason 
jto believe that this church (which was Baxter's 
1 church) was twice dedicated ; and if -so, this third 
ijdedication was the more unnecessary. 


I "BOGIE:" WHAT is IT ? (1 st S. x. 160.) Your 

Correspondent, TIMON, derives this word from a 

jyillain of that name, who is reported to have pil- 

Jlaged Surat in 1664. This material Bogie may 

jhave alarmed the Dutch merchants of that place, 

fejilthough it appears from the story that he avoided 

'coming to logger-heads with them; but I much 

Question his authorship of the famous spectrum, 

rvhich held our infant grandmothers in fear. The 

eign of nursery terror seems to have been uni- 

i [rersal : thus, it is said (see Gibbon), the Assyrian 

ftnothers scared their infants with the name of 

IN arses; so did the Syrians, with that of Richard 

of the Lion-heart ; and the Turks, with some ver- 
sion of the name of the Hungarian king. I expect 
that Lurdane was a sound causing terror in iis 
day ; and our own Wellington is celebrated in 
song, in a sort of Anglo-French nursery-rhyme, 
which I do not remember to have seen in print, as 
being " tall and straight as Rouen steeple," and 
dining and supping, regularly of course, " every 
morning and at night," upon the never-failing 
supply of " naughty people." (A version of this 
little ode, of three or four stanzas, would be a 
pretty addition to the Arundines Cami.~) 

To apply this to Bogie, whom I can hardly con- 
ceive to have appeared in England, from the 
Dutch, only in the seventeenth century, the notion 
of terror convej'ed in it points to Boh ; who (as 
Warton tells us, Diss. i. p. xxviii.) was the fiercest 
of the Gothic 'generals, and son of Odin to boot, 
whose name was enough to spread a panic among 
his enemies. Then, passing onwards, we have the 
Russian word bohg (= angel, or saint) ; and in 
the sixteenth century we find bugs*, in the com- 
pany of " goblins, fairies, nightmares, urchins, and 
elves " (see Brand's Pop. Antiq., " Robin Good- 
fellow, alias Pucke, alias Hobgoblin ") ; and also 
used for terror in the version of Psalm xci. 5., in 
Mathewes's Bible. 

I would suggest, therefore, that Bogie has been 
received, among other vernacular legacies, from 
our northern ancestors, derived from old Boh, 
through the Scandinavian lohg, and is neither 
more nor less than ghost ; and that this is also the 
origin of the name of the strange sect of Mystics, 
or Spiritualists, in the tenth century, who were 
styled in the Slavonian district, Bogomiles. F. P. 

INULA, OR EJLECAMIANE (2 nd S. x. 472.) 
Elecampane (Inula Helenium) is a plant of the 
composite order, well known to all botanists, and 
to be found growing wild in various parts of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland. It was formerly 
much used as a medicine in dyspeptic and pulmo- 
nary complaints, but appears to be at present nearly 
excluded from the English pharmacy. The sugar- 
plum, to which it originally gave its name, is still 
sold ; but it appears doubtful whether the real 
herb, Elicampane, still enters into its composition. 
I find, in Minsheu's Guide into the Tongues : 

" Helicampane (Enula campana), quod fuerit in Cam- 
pania primo inventura." 


" Helenium (Gr. eAeMov), quia traduut Helenam hanc 
herbam priraum sevisse." 

Pliny, speaking of the herb Helenium, says : 
" e lacrymis Helenas dicitur natum ; est ideo in 
Helena insula laudatissimum." Gerarde says : 

" That which the Greeks name eXei/ioi/, the Latines 
name Inula. Some report that this plant took the name 

* .Richardson gives bug, buybear, bugabo ; but not Bogie. 



r_2 n * S. XI. FEB. 2. '61. 

of Helenium from Helena, wife to Menelaus, who had her 
hands full of it when Paris stole her away." 

Pliny mentions another Helenium, which has 
been thought by Dioscorides, Theophrastus, and 
other ancient authors, to be either Conyza minor, 
minima, or incana. The latter plant Lobel called 
C. Helenitis mellita ; this last epithet would agree 
with the honey smell of the leaves which Pliny 
speaks of. The following recipe, date 1598, may 
be acceptable to some of your readers : 

" How to confect Elecampane Root. 
" In the spring of the yeere is this roote to be digged 
out of the ground, and the outtermost peeles to be cut oif, 
the root made very cleane ; afterwards cut it in thickish 
shives or slices, then seethe the same softly in two waters, 
to the end the bitterness may be taken away and they 
be very mellow. Then lay them on a cleane cloth, to the 
end they may waxe somewhat dry. Put them in a leaded 
Pot, and powre meetly hard sodden Sugar upon them 
until the roots be covered. This shall stand a day and a 
night, then shall the Sugar draw all the moisture of the 
roote unto it ; and after powre the Sugar off againe, and 
boyle it unto a sirupe. This being done, then powre it 
luke warme upon it, and do so often as the rootes 
give any moisture from them." 


A correspondent, F. D. MAGENS, inquires if 
there is any herb vernacularly known by the 
name of Elecampane ; or if this word is ever used 
to denote anything but a schoolboy's dainty. I 
beg to reply that Elecampane is a herb not un- 
common in gardens, bearing a general resemblance 
to the sunflower ; and with a blossom also like it, 
only of a deeper yellow, smaller size, and petals 
more radiated, somewhat like those of dandelion 
or coltsfoot. I believe that there are twenty- six 
species of it ; and it is indigenous to Britain. Dr. 
Thornton says that the root is esteemed a good pec- 
toral, is candied, and has thus become a sweetmeat 
for children. Dr. Hill found an infusion of the fresh 
root, sweetened with honey, very successful in 
hooping-cough. F. C. H. 

If MR. MAGENS refer to any British Flora, he 
will find that Inula is the name of a genus of 
English plants, of which the most prominent is 
Inula Helenium, or Elecampane. The root is, I 
believe, frequently candied, and used as a sweet- 
meat and antispasmodic. It is still retained in 
the London Pharmacopoeia as an ingredient in 
confection of black pepper. It is sold in powder 
by all chemists, but most extensively in the agri- 
cultural districts. T. W. GISSING. 

CAI/VACAMP IN NORMANDY (2 nd S. xi. 47.) 
I cannot answer SENEX, but the following extract 
from the " Acts of the Archbishops of Rouen," 
in Mabillon's Analecta (ii. 437-8.), may interest 
him : 

" Hugo succeeded Gunhard. He was of noble origin, 
but ignoble in all his deeds. He was a monk at St. Denis 
when William, son of Rollo, Duke of the Normans, gave 
him the bishopric ; but spurning the holy rule, he gave 

himself wholly to fleshly lust, for he begat many children, 
and destroyed the church and its property. Todiniac, 
which was in the domain of the archbishop, he gave with 
| all its appurtenances to his brother Radulphus, a most 
powerful man, son of Hugo de Calvacamp, and so alien- 
ated it from the domain of the archbishopric unto this 

Todiniacus is clearly the etymon of Toeni, and 
Radulfus was the first member of the Toeni family, 
at least so it would seem. Calvacamp I cannot 
discover ; but I imagine, from a note in Mabillon, 
that information may be found in the History of 
the Archbishops of Rouen, by the learned Benedic- 
tine Fran9oisPommeraye, who wrote several works 
relating to the same city and diocese, and died in 
1687. B. H. C. 

BLACK CURRANT ROB (2 nd S. x. 471.) The word 
Rubb, spoken of by Captain Burton, has the very 
same origin as the Rob of our grandmothers. 
Rob is derived from the Arabic, and will be found 
in old treatises on physic in company with many 
other medical terras derived from the Arabic, as 

" Loch, Lat. Lhictus, a thin confection of the Arabians." 

" Al Harmel, Arab, for rue." 

" Alscebram-Arabiim, for spurge," &c. 

" Rob Arabum is a certain confection which the Ara- 
bians call, in the plural, Robub; which is in Latin Sapa, 
the juice of anj r herbe or fruit defecate." 

And, curiously enough, the recipe for " pomegra- 
nate-rob " found a place in books on medicine : 

" Rob de Granatis. Take the juice of Sower Pome- 
granates, and when it has stood one night, and the cleare 
is poured off, then seethe it to the thickness of Honey : 
whitest that it is hot put some Mints into it ; so let it 
coole, then take the herbs out. This may be used warm 
or cold." 

It would be interesting to know whether the 
Rubb Rumman is made in the same way. N. D. 

MEWS (2 nd S. x. 489.) In Norfolk, a breeding- 
cage for canaries, goldfinches, and other small 
birds, is called a mew, an extension of the old 
meaning of a cage for moulting falcons. The re- 
ference to a former explanation of this word 
should have been 2 nd S. iv. 108. F. C. will excuse 
this rectification by F. C. H. 

HOUSE or GUELPH (2 nd S. xi. 38.) The error 
of the author of The Antient and Present State of 
Germany needs correction, in stating the name of 
Henry the Proud as Henry Guelph^A.v.^ 1135, 
whereas the Guelph family was extinct in the 
male line A.D. 1055. The heiress of that house, 
Cunegonda, married Azo of Este, who left two 
sons, Guelph and Fulke, the former created Duke 
of Bavaria in 1070, who left two sons, Guelph 
and Henry the Black ; and the last named left 
also two sons, Henry the Proud (Duke of Ba- 
varia, 1127, and of Saxe, 1136) and Guelph (who 
gave name to the party opposed to the Guibe* 
lines). In the house of Este, therefore, the name 
Guelph was a Christian or baptismal name, and 

. XI. FEB. 2. '61.] 



iot a family or surname. Plenry the Proud was 
grandfather of Otto IV., Emperor in 1209, and 
Teat-grandfather of Otto the Infant, created the 
irst Duke of Brunswick by the Emperor Frede- 
rick II. in 1235. Otto the Infant inherited the 
extensive territories of the house of Guelph in 
Lower Saxony; and he is the ancestor of^the 
houses of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel, of Brunswick- 
Luneburg and of Hanover. 

The same author is also in error in saying that 
Lothair was Duke of Saxony A.D. 1135, whereas 
lie was Saxon Count of Supplmburg, elected King 
in 1125, and crowned Emperor in 1^33, as Lothair 
II. See Koch's Tableau des Revolutions, Tables 
cxxix. cxxx. and xv.; also Penny Cyc., art. "Ger- 
many." T. J. BUCKTON. 

MAURICE OF NASSAU (2 nd S. xi. 11. 37.) 
Your correspondent would do well to consult the 
Archives ou Correspondance inedite de la Maison 
d" 1 Orange Nassau, edited by Mr. G. Groen van 
Prinsterer. Of this correspondence several 
volumes have been published : the two which 
came out in 1857, covering a period from 1584 
to 1625, contain some letters of interest to the 
student of English history. B. H. C. 

PASQUINADES (2 nd S. iii. 390. 474.) Would 
CUTHKERT BEDE, or some other correspondent 
who has turned his attention to the subject, fur- 
nish the readers of "N. & Q." with a list of the 
rival publications to Punch? 

If the entire list should be too long for inser- 
tion, one supplemental to that in the Quarterly, 
referred to by CUTHBERT BEDE (2 nd S. iii. 475.) 
would be most acceptable to many. A. IRVINE. 

EGIDIA (2 nd S. xi. 10.) This name is merely 
fashioned with a feminine termination from -ZEgi- 
dius, the Latin name of St. Giles. There was no 
saint named Egidia, nor any other person known 
in history. It is a modern adaptation, like many 
others. " F. C. H. 

WELCH WHITSUNTIDE (2 nd S. xi. 30.) MR. 
OFFOR asks : " What can be the meaning of the 
sun skipping, playing, dancing, and wheeling ? " 

On a summer morning, at sun-rise, the orb <of 
day is sometimes seen thickly shrouded with mists 
and vapours ; and in the struggle to throw them 
off', the appearance of a swimming rolling motion 
is communicated to it. I have frequently ob- 
served the same to occur in certain states of the 
atmosphere at sun-set, just a little before it sud- 
I denly drops to illuminate another region. In 
j mountainous countries, such as Wales and Scot- 
i land, these effects are the more likely to occur, 
I and at the period of the year referred to ; but one 
lean scarcely help thinking that Arise Evans, in 
', his enthusiasm, must have drawn largely on his 
(imagination for his description. G. N. 

Without doubt MR. OFFOR knows that there is 
a pretty superstition, that on Easter-day morning 
the sun dances for joy. Sir John Suckling alludes 
to it in a very well known little poem. W. C. 

GHOST (2 nd S. xi. 49.) JUDIARIUS will find some 
accounts of this affair in the Nonvich Mercury, 
which for several weeks reported the proceedings 
of the Syderstone ghost. Not having a file of the 
above paper to refer to, I cannot give dates ; but 
I well remember the sensation produced in the 
neighbourhood at the time. On one occasion, if 
not more than one, a clergyman from Norwich 
went over to hear the knockings, and gave his as- 
sent to the belief already entertained by some of 
the wiseacres at Syderstone, that they were pro- 
duced by spiritual or supernatural agency ! All 
this, and more, will be found in the Mercury ; but 
I do not think the offer made by a party of stout 
young fellows from Fakenham was reported in 
print. These gentlemen, among whom was an 
acquaintance of mine, not being duly impressed 
with a fear of the devil, although in this par- 
ticular instance, fully believing in his personal 
existence, offered to investigate the matter, and 
effectually to put a stop to his visits to the par- 
sonage, but as one of the conditions they pro- 
posed was that the rector and all his family should 
for one or two nights vacate the house and premises, 
and give them absolute possession, their offer was 
rejected, and the spirit continued his pranks, 
probably much longer than he would have done 
had the irreverent young gentlemen aforesaid 
been allowed to take him in hand. Q. 

EDMUND KEAN, ETC. (2 nd S. x. 307.) The 
following is, I think, the passage in Lucian, 
though it does not carry all the meaning ascribed 
to it in the Letter : 

" Ot/u.o.1 Se are KCU rStv en-l TJJ? O'KTJI'TJS rroAAaKis etopaKerai TOWS 
rpayiKOVS VTro/cpiras TOVTOV?, jrpbs ras XP e ^ Tail/ Spafjidrtav apri 
jtxei/ ( Ivpeoi'Tas j f IOTC Se Ilpia/uovs yiyvo^evov;, % '' 
Kal 6 aurb; el TV\OL, juiKpbi/ e/u.Trpocrflei', jaaAa ere/w.i'&i?, TO TOW 

irpoijA#e> VTTO TO-J TTOCIJTOI) *cKA.ev(ra/w.eVos." Necyomantia^ 16. 

ed. Bipoat, iii. 21. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. " 

17.) Thanks to J. R. I have tried without suc- 
cess to meet with a copy of the Life of Lady Jane 
Grey, by Sir H. Nicolas ; but, until I do so, I 

satisfied with his statement. 

P. R. 

A JACK OF PARIS (2 nd S. xi. 48.) Does E. H. 
find an illustration of the phrase he quotes from 
Sir Thomas More, in 

" And many a Jacke of Dover hast thou sold, 
That hath ben twies hot and twies cold "? 

Chaucer, The Coke's Prologue. 

W. C. 



S. XI. FEB. 2. '61. 


xi. 69.) Most London registers contain refer- 
ence to the plague in this year, as well as to those 
in 1593, 1625, and 1665. The registers of Ch. 
Ch., Newgate Street, prove the great mortality 
of the autumn of 1563. In June the burials were 
only 3, and in July 18 ; in August they rose to 
43, and in September to 105. In October they 
fell to 54, in November to 19, and in December 
to 5. C. J. K. 

S. xi. 50. 76.) Hasted is in error. Abp. Whit- 
giffc issued a commission to Richard Milbourne, as 
rector of Sevenoaks, on the 18th of Feb. 1595. 
(DucareFa Extracts.) 

In the register of baptisms at Sevenoaks occurs 
that of " Anne, dau. of Rich a Milbourne, Rector, 
bapt. 1 Jan. 1597." C. J. R. 


Catalogue of the Antiquities of Animal Materials and 
Bronze in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. By 
W. K. Wilde, M.D., M.R.I.A. Illustrated with Three 
hundred and Seventy-seven Wood Engravings. (Hodges 
& Smith.) 

In " N. & Q." of Sept. 26th, 1857, we called attention 
to the first portion of this valuable Catalogue, That was 
devoted to the "Antiquities of Stone, Earthen, and Ve- 
getable Materials." In the present Division Dr. Wilde 
treats of Antiquities formed of Animal Materials and 
Bronze : and when we say that his four hundred pages of 
description are illustrated with nearly as many admirable 
woodcuts, we feel quite justified in the opinion that we 
then pronounced, and which we here unhesitatingly re- 
peat, that this Catalogue " will be found an indispensable 
handbook to the keepers of the various local museums 
now scattered throughout the countiy, and most useful 
to all the secretaries and working-men of the now nume- 
rous Archaeological Societies." 

An Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms belonging 
to Families in Great Britain and Ireland, forming an 'Ex- 
tensive Ordinary of British Armorials, fyc. By John W. 
Papworth, F.R.I.B.A. Part VI, (Printed for the 

We are glad to chronicle the progress of this useful 
work, which it appears from a notice prefixed to the pre- 
sent part would be greatly expedited by an increase in 
the number of subscribers, as the continuation, which is 
in the printers' hands, can only be proceeded with in 
proportion to the amount of subscriptions received. The 
present Part extends from BEND Trefoil to BIRD 


Conies de Cantorbery, traduits en vers Francais. Par 
le Chevalier de Chatelain. Tome III. (Pickering.) 

The Chevalier de Chatelain deserves the best thanks 
of all the admirers of Dan Chaucer for the mingled skill 
and industry with which he labours to make him known 
to other than English readers. In this third, or supple- 
mentary volume of the Canterbury Tales, he has translated 
very effectively several of the more curious pieces such 
as the Tale of Beryn, commonly attributed to the Father 
of English Poetry. 

Sketches of Natural History, with an Essay on Reason 

and Instinct. By the Rev. J. C. Atkinson. (Rout- 

A carefully revised reprint, with many illustrations of 
an interesting series of papers contributed to The Zoolo- 
gist a book which may well stand on the same shelf with 
White's Selborne. 

A Pictorial Handbook of Modern Geography on a Po- 
pular Plan, Sfc. By Henry G. Bohn. Illustrated by 150 
Engravings on TVood, and 57 Accurate Maps. 

Another proof of the industry and activity of Mr. Bohn. 
The advantage of having maps in the book which the 
student is using, instead of hi's being obliged to refer to 
a separate Atlas, is sufficiently obvious. 

Notes on the Site of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 
An Answer to the Edinburgh Reviewer. By James Fergu- 
son. (Murray.) 

This will be considered, we doubt not, by a large ma- 
jority of readers as satisfactorily establishing the accuracy 
of Mr. Ferguson's views. 

Modern Statesmen, or Sketches from the Strangers' Gal- 
lery of 'the House of Commons. By J. Ewing Ritchie. 

Mr. Ritchie looks at modern statesmen through ultra- 
radical spectacles, and his descriptions bear strong marks 
of the distortion consequent thereupon. 

We take this opportunity of acknowledging the receipt 
of a number of small books and pamphlets which we have 
not room to notice at greater length: A Guide to the 
Architectural Antiquities in the Neighbourhood of Oxford. 
Part I. Bicester. (J. H. Parker.) A Memoir of Northum- 
berland, descriptive of its Scenery, Monuments, and History. 
By W. S. Gibson, M.A. (Longman.) Life Story, a 
Prize Autobiography. By J. L. Hillocks. (Tweedie.) 
The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom. By 
the Rev. W. M. Mitchell. (Tweedie.)^T//e Queen Mother, 
and Eleanora. Two Plays. By Algernon Charles Swin- 
burne. (Pickering). Eleanora. A Poem. (J. H. Par- 
ker.) Stammering and Stuttering; their Nature and 
Treatment. By James Hunt. (Longman). The Old 
Church Porch. Vol. IV. Part I. (Whittaker.) Daily 
Hymns. By the Venerable R. W. Evans. (J. II. Parker.) 



Particulars of Price, &n. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

BACON'S WORKS, by Basil Montagu, Esq. 14 Vols. London, 1S25 8. 
Wanted by the Librarian, Dover Proprietary Library. 


Wanted by Mr. Thos. Allan, 10. High Terrace, Edinburgh. 

MACBETH. The National Edition of Knight's Pictorial Shakspeare. 
Wanted by T. II. ., Woolwich Farm, near Theale, Berks. 


The first portion of this inter- 

esting document will appear in our next 

W. S. LEIGHTON; P. S. CAREY. We have letters for these correspon- 
dents. Where can'tce forward them ? 

J. ALEXANDER DAVIES for an article on Perpetual Lamps, see " N. & 
Q.," 1st S. v. 87. 

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reached it* destination. He is, therefore, requested to write direct tc 
Arthur John Nash, Sparldrook, Birmingham. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
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n*S. XL FEB. 2. '61.] 




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JU who want a delicious cup of Chocolate should procure FRYS' 
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Sold by Grocers, Confectioners, and Druggists, and Wholesale by the 
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eious aroma, grateful smoothness, and invigorating power have 
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labelled, " James Epps, Homoeopathic Chemist, London." 


[2* S. XI. FEB. 2. '61. 


Now ready, Svo., with Portrait, price 10s. Gd. 



Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Vauxhall Bridge Road. 

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-John Bull. 

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" Mr. Sainsbury has discovered in H. M. State Paper Office docu- 
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" Mr. Sainsbury has been labouring in the State Paper Office not in 
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light on Rubens' character and per- 
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afterwards Earl of Totnes, to SIR THOMAS ROE. Edited by JOHN 
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Members raay be addressed to the Secretary, or to Messrs. 
WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 


1. Restoration of Ed ward IV. 
2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop Bale. 
3. Deposition of Richard II. 
4. Plumpton Correspondence. 
5. Anecdotes and Traditions. 
6. Political Songs. 
7. Hay ward's Elizabeth. 
8. Ecclesiastical Documents. 
9. Norden's Description of Essex. 
10. Warkworth's Chronicle. 
11. Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder. 
12. TheEgerton Papers. 
13. ChronicaJoceliuideBrakelonda. 
14. Irish Narratives, 1611 and 1600. 
15. Rishanger's Chronicle. 
16. Poems of Walter Mapes. 
17. Travels of Nicander Nucius. 
18. Three Metrical Romances. 
19. Diary of Dr. John Dee. 
20. Apology for the Lollards. 
21. Rutland Papers. 
22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 

23. Letters of Eminent Literary Men. 
24. Proceedings against Alice Kyteler. 
25. Promptorium Parvulorurn : Tom. I. 
26. Suppression of the Monasteries. 
27. Leycester Correspondence. 
28. French Chronicle of London. 
29. Polydore Vergil. 
30. The Thornton Romances. 
31 . Verney 's Notes of the Long Parliament. 
32. Autobiography of Sir John Bramston. 
33. Correspondence of James Duke of Perth. 
34. Liber de Antiquis Lejdbus. 
35. The Chronicle of Calais. 
36. Polydore Vergil's History, Vol. I. 
37. Italian Relation of England. 
38. Church of Middleham. 
39. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I. 
40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 
41. Diary of Walter Yonge. 
42. Diary of Henry Machyn. 
43. Visitation of Huntingdonshire. 
44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 

1 45. Twysden on the Government of England 
| 46. Letters of Elizabeth and James VI. 
47. Chronicon Petroburgense. 
48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary. 
49. Bury Wills and Inventories. 
50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium. 
51. PUgrimage of Sir R Guylford. 
52. Secret Services of Charles II. and Jas. IT. 
53. Chronicle of Grey Friars of London. 
64. Promptorium Parvulorum, Tom. II. 
55. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. II. 
56. The Verney Papers to 1639. 
57. The Ancren Riwle. 
58. Letters of Lady B. Harley. 
59. Roll of Bishop Swinfield, Vol. I. 
60. Grants, &c., of Edward the Fifth. 
61. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. III. 
62. Roll of Bishop Swinfield, Vol. II. 
63. Charles I. in 1616. 
64. English Chronicle 1377 to 1461. 
65. Knights Hospitallers. 


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Address A. B'., 13. Tachbrook Street, Warwick Square, S.W. 

S. XL FEB. 9. '61. ] 



No. 267. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Diary of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy King-at- 
Arms, 101 The Leaden Coffins of Bishops Peter Browne 
and Isaac Mann at Ballinaspie, 104 Sir Richard Shuck- 
burgh: Anecdote by Walpole, 105 The Beard Contro- 
versy, 106. 

MINOK NOTES: Of the Name "Pah-dough" Saveloy 
Book Auctions, 1740 Arithmetical Books France 
Past and Present Archbishop Talbot, 106. 

QUERIES : Roger Bacon, Galen, Avicenna, Dioscorides 
Peter Barker Biography Change of Name Chyrnis- 
try Deeds relating to Dale Family ^Eneas, and the 
Professor of Poetry Hieroglyphical Picture of Charles 
the Martyr Plague Cross Queries respecting Knights 

Knights settled in Ireland Quevedo Screaming 
Fishes Seal Wanted John, Lord Williams, of Thame 

A Wishell of Silver, 107. 

QTTEBIES WITH ANSWERS : John Burel Thomas Howard 

House over-insured, 110. 

REPLIES : The Rt. Hon. William Elliot, 110 Basset and 
Maser, 111 Alexander Ross, 112 Vulgate, 113 Pomona 
in the Orkney Islands, Ib. " Corpus sant," 115 Pelayo's 
Visit to North of Spain The Monteith Prideaux of 
Barbadoes and Blake Dutch Tragedy of Barneyeldt 
Queen Dick Portraits of Ligonier and Earl of Lichfield 

Scutch Arms of Cecil Yorkshire Words Life of 
James II. George III. and Hannah Lightfoot The 
Cross of Christ : its Inscription Widercombs " Bucke 
Verteth " The Ass with Two Panniers Epitaph Tal- 
bot Edwards Wat erville Family Sheep and Mutton 

Lathi Graces, 115. 

Monthly Feuilleton on French Books. 



[The following Diary of William Oldys was discovered 
in a Common-Place Book of the Rev. John Bowie, usually 
called Don Bowie, Vicar of Idmerston, Wilts, now in the 
British Museum. Mr. Bowie obtained the loan of it from 
the late James Pettit Andrews, Esq., of Brompton, on 
June 1G, 1784, and returned it to that gentleman on" 
April 14, 1785. The original is thus described by Mr. 
Bowie: "Diarium plus ultra in white vellum Pocket- 
book, 8vo. gilt leaves." Although it was in the custody 
of this gentleman for ten months, we are inclined to 
think that he only made a transcript of a portion of it ; 
but even the fragment here presented to the reader will 
help to illustrate the life and habits of one of the most 
useful of the literary antiquaries of the last century. 

As we hope to furnish in a subsequent paper some few 
additional particulars to the little that is known of the 
personal history of William Oldys, we avail ourselves of 
this opportunity to solicit from our correspondents the 
communication of any unpublished facts or documents re- ' 

lating to him which may be found in their libraries 


1737, June 22. Mrs. Cooper came to my cham- 
bers: said she would return me Puttenham's Art 
of Poesy, Browne's Pastorals, and Sir Henry Wot- 
ton, when she had finished her extracts for the 

second volume of her Muses' Library^ to be pub- 
lished by Christmas. 

To keep the large old MS. volume of the statutes 
of the Order of the Garter \vith the Arms of the 
Knights thereof, their portraits and Illuminations 
of the Ceremonies of the Order of the Bath composed 
temp. Henry VII. and VIIL, till Mr. V. [Vertue?] 
has seen it. To take particular notice of Talbot's 
Rose, a sheet printed from a copper-plate and 
bound in this book, entitled " The Union of the 
Roses of the Families of Lancaster and York, with 
the arms of those who have been chosen Knights 
of the Garter from that time to this day, 1589." 
In this Rose the arms of all those who have been 
(since the marriage in 1486 of King Henry VII. 
of the House of Lancaster, which bore the Red 
Rose, with Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. of 
the House of York, whose ensign was the White 
Rose) chosen into the Order of the Garter, insti- 
tuted about 20 Edward III. are orderly set down . 
The English arms placed within the Rose ; those 
of Foreign princes in the leaves beneath. There 
are the heads of Henry VII. and his Queen Eliza- 
beth engraved at the two upper corners over 
this great crowned Rose, also in the flowery leaves 
of it, the said King Henry, his son, King Henry 
VIIL, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, be- 
tween the arms of the Knights Companion, who 
have all their names and dates of their creations 
subscribed. At the bottom JEg. Pluventor; sold 
in the Black Friers, Tho. Talbot, composuit ; Jo- 
docus Hondius, Flander. Sculps. Londini, and 
the date is 1589. 2 

June 29. Saw Mr. Ames's old MS. on vellum, 
entitled Le Romant de la Hose, which cost forty 
crowns of gold at Paris when first written, as ap- 
pears by the inscription at the end. 3 It had been 
Bishop Burnet's book, his arms being pasted in it ; 
and Mr. Rawlinson's, being mentioned in one of 
his Catalogues. In the same Catalogue also is 
mentioned Sir William Monson's collections 4 , which 
Mr. West bought and lent me before the fatal 

1 "The Muses' Library, or a Series of English Poetry 
from the Saxons to the Reign of King Charles II. By 
Elizabeth Cooper. London, printed for T. Davies, 1738, 
8vo." There are some copies of this work with th im- 
print "Printed for James Hodg'es, 1741," and others with 
" Vol. I." on the title and last leaf; but notwithstanding 
these variations, no more than one volume, or one edi- 
tion, was ever printed. It is said to be mostly compiled 
by William Oldys. 

2 Noticed in Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica, p. 36. In 
the Cotton library (Vesp. D. xvii.) is "A miscellaneous 
collection concerning Abbies and various historical mat- 
ters, extracted from chronicles, rolls of noble families 
their pedigrees, &c. by Thomas Talbot." 

5 See Herbert's Ames, vol. i. p. xxxix. 

4 Sir William Monson, an Admiral of note in the reign 
of James I., formed considerable collections, principally 
relating to the affairs of the navy. There are occasional 
copies from, them, and allusions to them, in papers in the 
State Paper Office. 



[2"* S. XI. FEB. 9. '61. 

fire happened at his chambers in the Temple, where 
this probably was burnt, and near 3000Z. worth 
of other like most valuable curiosities. 5 Mr. Ames 
also told me that the Society for Promoting of 
Learning 6 intended to begin at last with publish- 
ing Sir Thomas Roe's Letters, but heard nothing 
of the " Considerations " I wrote in six sheets, 
above two years ago, upon the best method for their 
publication, at the request of Samuel Burroughs, 
Master in Chancery, who made me promises of 
being concerned in the edition, and of other 
favours for my furnishing him with many intel- 
ligences and tracts, when he was writing his pam- 
phlet about Fines 7 ; but I never had any of those 
favours, nor six of twenty-one volumes of tracts I 
lent him ; nor the three Catalogues of my pam- 
phlets, nor those " Considerations " in MS. which 
I bestowed half a year upon, though I hear they are 
in the hands of Richardson the printer. 8 Mr. 
Ames also told me that Mr. Cook is the author 
of Seymour's -Survey of London, in 2 vols. fol. 
[1734.] 9 

July 2, Saturday. Sent a letter to Mr. Anstis 
about the Old MS. of Knights of the Garter and 
Bath. He sent his son to see it when I was 

4, Monday. Returned Sir T. More's works : 
some of his English poetry therein might be for 
Mrs. Cooper's work, or Mr. Hayward's [British 
Muse~\ on Fortune, &c. 

7, Thursday. Saw Mr. Lockman. 10 Told me 

5 This lamentable fire occurred on Jan. 4, 1737, when 
upwards of twenty chambers were destroyed, containing 
a large number of valuable books and manuscripts. 
Among those who were sufferers bv this calamity were 
Counsellor York, Mr. West, Mr. Peters, Mr. Floyer, Mr. 
Blew the librarian, Counsellor Collins, &c. Mr. James 
West was subsequently one of the vice-presidents of the 
Society of Antiquaries. The Catalogue of his library, 
digested by Samuel Paterson, is one of the richest extant 
in literary curiosities. 

6 The Society for the Encouragement of Learning com- 
menced its brief existence on February 3, 1736-7. See 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, pasfim. For a list of the 
works printed under its patronage, see Bowyer's Anec- 
dotes, and Kippis's Bing. Britan., ii. 441. 

7 Published under the pseudonym of Everard Fleet- 

8 This manuscript is in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 4168.), and is entitled " Some Considerations upon 
the Publication of Sir Thomas Ptoe's Epistolary Collec- 
tions." On a fly-leaf Samuel Richardson has added this 
note: "This was written (I think) by Mr. Oldys, and by 
him tendered to Samuel Burroughs, Esq., as his senti- 
ments about the Method of publishing Sir Thomas Roe's 
Letters, &c." It comprises thirteen pages folio. 

9 This work has always been attributed, on the autho- 
rity of Wm. Upcott, to John Mottley, the compiler of 
Joe Miller's Jests ; but it would appear from the above, 
that it was the compilation of Thomas Cooke, a dramatic 
poet and miscellaneous writer, who died in great poverty 
on Dec. 29, 1756. As Cooke was concerned with Mottley 
in writing Penelope, a Dramatic Opera, 8vo., 1721, Sej'- 
mour's London may have been their joint-production. 

10 Mr. John Lockman, Secretary to the British Herring 

he had finished the Life of Mr. Samuel Butler 
for the General Dictionary. That he had had 
much conversation with Mr. Longueville, who has 
Butler's History and Progress of Learning l a 
poem by the same hand in Hudibrastick verse, 
and other writings of his in prose never printed. 
That he has also got an original picture of Butler, 
painted by Lilly or Riley. That Butler had 300Z. 
for Hudibras ; that he died in Rose Street, Covent 
Garden, and was 80 years of age. Saw Dr. Pe- 
pusche ; 2 to have farther talk about his rare old 
musical collections. 

30. Old Mr. Booth 3 , Treasurer of Gray's Inn, 
came to my chambers and very courteously 
brought me Gervasii Tilberiensis de Necessariis 
Scaccarii Observantiis Dialogus. 'Tis a very fair 
copy, in a thin folio bound in black calf, with a 
note of this Gervase of Tilbury, nephew to King 
Henry II. from John Bale in his Scriptor. Illus- 
trium Majoris Britannia Calalogo, Cent. 3. fol. 
250., written by Mr. W. Lambard the Antiquary 
in 1572, whose book this then was, as appears by 
his name, both at the beginning, in a kind of in- 
scription to Sir Thomas Bromley, and the end 
of it. He has made short marginal observations 
throughout, and some corrections, having had the 
advantage of comparing it with a more antient 
copy, this not being older in all probability than 
King Henry the Eighth's time. 4 I take it to be the 
same book which Mr. Madox published not many 
years since of the Exchequer 5 , and have a notion 
that Mr. Hearne published a copy of the black 
Book of the Exchequer. 6 There is in the last 
chapter but one [two] of the first part of this MS. 
copy, entitled Quid liber Judiciarius, et ad quid 
compositus sit, the best reason given for the mean- 
ing of Domesday Book, composed at the command 
of William the Conqueror, that ever I met with, 
no ways favouring their conjecture who derive it 

Fishery, a very honest man, but very indifferent poetas- 
ter, best known for his share in the' General Dictionary, 
10 vols. fol. 1734-41. He died 2nd Feb. 1771. 

1 This, which is only a fragment, was printed (vol. i. 
p. 202.) in the edition of Butler's Remains, edited by 
Thyer in 1759. 

2 John Christopher Pepusch, one of the greatest theo- 
retic musicians. He was organist at the Charterhouse, 
and died 20th July. 1752, aged eighty-five. His curious 
library was dispersed after his death. 

5 Oldys, in the British Librarian, pp. 286. 374., ac- 
knowledges the obligations he is under to Nathaniel 
Booth, Esq. for the use of his library. Mr. Booth was a 
bencher of Gray's Inn, and Controller of the Fines and 
Green Wax Money in the Court of Exchequer. He died 
s. p. Oct. 9, 1745, aged eighty-five. 

4 Who is the present possessor of this MS. ? 

5 Maclox's History of the Exchequer was first published 
in 1711, fol. Gervasius' Ancient Dialogue is appended to 

Hearne published Liber Niger Scaccarii, Wilhelmique 
etiam Worcestrii Annales Rerum Anglicarum, Oxon. 
1728, 8vo. 2 vols. 

2-> S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



from Domus Dei? But why Sir Hen. Spelrnan in 
his Glossary fathers that chapter upon Henry de 
Blois, Bishop of Winchester, I know not, nor 
believe that Mr. Madox his reasons that the whole 
treatise was written by Richard Nigelli filius or 
Nelson, Bishop of London, will prevail with every 
body to disinherit old Gervase of Tilbury, who 
has been in possession so many years. _Yet Selden, 
in Titles of Honour, is also for depriving old Ger- 
vase of it from the authorities there quoted. 8 

August 8. Rec d Mr. Ames's letter of thanks for 
the fine pictures I gave him drawn with a pen, &c., 
and desire from Mr. Ward, Professor of Rhe- 
toric, at Gresham College, who is writing the his- 
tory thereof, that I would furnish him with what 
I farther found of Edward Brerewood, which I 
gave him two days after when I returned his book 
of witches. 

I went that night with him to his club, and saw 
the operations of the phosphorus, which the owner 
told me he made of nothing but flour and allum. 

Invited by Dr. Harris to his brother's 9 at Hum- 
merton, near Hackney, where old Mr. Strype, 
author of many voluminous pieces of ecclesiastical 
history is still alive 10 and has the remainder of 
his once rich collection of MS. tracts, &c. 

7 The passage, as given in a translation by W. B., 
Gent., in Lansdowne MS. 610. p. 30 b ., is as follows : "This 
booke is by the countrymen called Doomesday Booke, 
that is, the Day of Judgment by a metaphor. For as 
the judgment of the strict and dreadful accompt of the 
last day can by noe act or evasion be eluded ; soe when 
there is any controversie in the kingdome which are 
there recorded, when they come to the Booke, noe man 
may denye or decline the judgment thereof without 
punishment. For this cause we call the same Booke, 
' The Booke of Judgment ' ; not because certaine doubts 
are there determined, but because from that, as from the 
Day of Judgment, there lyes noe appeale." 

8 Professor Liebrecht, the learned Editor of Des Ger- 
vasius von Tilbury Otia Imperialia. In Einer Auswahl 
neu, herausgegeben, Hanover, 1856, shares, however, the 
opinion of Madox, that this Treatise on the Exchequer 
was written by Richard Bishop of London, and not by 

9 Mr. Harris, an Apothecary at Homerton, married to 
a grand-daughter of Strype, and in whose house Strype 

10 An interesting picture of Strype in his old age is 

fiven by Dr. Knight in a letter to Zachary Grey, dated 
4 M*arch, 1733-4, printed in Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, v. 360. : " I made a visit to old Father Strype 
when in town last: he is turned ninety, yet very brisk, 
and with only a decay of sight and memory ; he would 
fain have induced me to undertake Archbishop Bancroft's 
Life; but I have not stomach to it, having no great 
opinion of him on more accounts than one. He had a 
greater inveteracy against the Puritans than any of his 
predecessors. Mr. Strype told, me that he had great 
materials towards the life of the old Lord Burleigh and 
Mr. Foxe, the Martyrologist, which he wished he could 
have finished, but most of his papers are in characters ; 
his grandson is learning to decypher them." Strype died 
on the 13th December, 1737 a few months only after 
Oldys's visit to him. 

Aug. 13. Rec d letter from Mrs. Cooper to 
borrow old Marlow's poem of Hero and Leander 
for the continuation of her Muses Library ; sent 
by the servant a very scarce collection of old 
poetry, called The Paradise of Dainty Devices \ 
in which are several pieces written by the old 
Lord Vaux in King Henry the Eighth's time, the 
Earl of Oxford, Sir W. Raleigh, Mr. Edwards, 
Jasper Haywood, Hunnis, Churchyard, Kinwel- 
mersh, Lloyd, Whetstone, &c., printed 4. 1578. 
To borrow one of Caxton's books of Sir Hans 
Sloane, and remember to apply the story of Ab- 
syrtus in the preface for Mr. Hay ward's Collec- 
tion of select thoughts from our old poets. 

To enquire at Covent Garden Coffee House 
who bought Sir Walter Ralegh's Head, said to be 
painted by Zucchero ; Beaumont and Fletcher by 
Cornelius Johnson [ Jansen] ; Ben Johnson, and 
Spenser, and Shakespear, by Mittens [John ?], 
Greenhill the painter ; and Cowley by Sir Peter 
Lely ; Secretary Thurloe by Dobson ; and Con- 
greve on copper by Sir Godfrey Kneller, as is 
pretended in the catalogue for the sale of Pictures 
there, on the 10th of March last. 

Aug. 25. Rec d of Purser, the printer in Bartho- 
lomew Close, the first sheet of Mr. Hay ward's 
British Muse, and a proof of the second, and pro- 
mise to send me every sheet as soon as composed 
to correct, and a fair sheet as soon as wrought off, 
that I may make timely observations for the Pre- 
face. Mr. Booth brought me two MSS. to make 
use of: the one a Declaration of the Hardships of 
John Danyell of Deresbury, Esq. in the fine of 
30001., loss of his estate worth 20,0007., and im- 
prisonment which he endured upon account of the 
Earl of Essex ; 'tis the original in 4to., dated at the 
end of the Preface from the Fleet in 1602, but he 
has several things in it written below Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, as letters, petitions, &c., to King 
James, Lord Chancellor Egerton, &c., ending with 
Danyell's Disasters, a narrative of his said 
Hardships. 2 The other MS. is a miscellany, be- 
ginning with a letter of Sir Francis Walsingham 
to the Earl of Pembroke, and some of the Earl of 
Leycester's letters from the Low Country, parti- 
cularly one about the death of Sir Philip Sidney, 
written to Sir Thos. Hennage, 23 Sept. 1586 ; A 
Speech about the Queen of Scots ; Her answer to 

1 The Paradise of Dainty Devices, first published in, 
4to. 1576, and reprinted in Brydges's British Biblio- 

3 John Danyell, of Deresbury, was Ward to the Queen : 
ob. 1609. In the State Paper Office, Domestic James I. 
vol. lii. 33., is a "License to John and Jane Danyell, to 
print and publish the works entitled 'Danyell's 'Disas- 
ters : ' ' The varyable accidents in a private man's lyffe ; ' 
and ' A Declaration of the fatal accidents of Jane Dan- 
yall.' " For some particulars of John Danyell's venality, 
consult Camden's Annals of Queen Elizabeth, fol. 1688. 
p. 630., and Kippis's Sioy. Britan., art. PETEU BALES, i. 
543., from the pen of William Oldys 



O*S.XI. FEB. 9. '61. 

Mons r de Salant ; The Book of the whole Navy 
("Royal); An analogy or resemblance between 
Joan Queen of Naples, and Mary Queen of Scots, 
with the addition and precedents or examples of 
Emperors and Popes, &c., putting other princes 
to death ; A letter from Sir Edward Stanley ; Li- 
~ber Pads or Nomin: Justiciar: ad Assiss: in Com: 
subscript; Number and names of all the ship, 
&c.. appertaining to the River of Chester, by W. 
Wale, Maior, at the command of the Earl of 
Derby, Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire and Che- 
shire, 1585 ; A. Cosbye's letter to Sir W. Stanley 
from Utricht, about surrendering the town of 
Deventer ; Number of serviceable men and muni- 
tion in the Isle of Man ; A particular valuation of 
Guddischen Demain ; The strange apparition of 
Death, Famine, and Pestilence in France, April 18, 
1587; A letter of the Earl of Leicester from 
Dort, 22nd Aug. 1587 ; Arthur Aly from the 
Hague, 15 Oct. 1587, to Rt. Hon. Mr. Jno. Wool- 
ley of the Privy Council ; Answers of Christopher 
Southworth, priest, to interrogatories ; The Earl 
of Leycester to Mr. Woolley, 3rd Oct. 1587 ; 
again to him, 9th Oct. following ; The whole 
yearly revenue of the Kingdom of Spain ; The 
confession of Edward Burnell, Jan. 1, 1586 ; His 
examination before Sir George Carey and Ralph 
Lane, Esq., same day ; The manner of the execu- 
tion of the Queen of Scots, 8th of Feb., in the 
presence of such whose names are underwritten ; 
A prophesy signed Merlin applied to Sir Francis 
Drake; Sir Walter Ralegh's five preferments 
about the year 1586 or 87 ; A sonnet of Sir Wal- 
ter Ralegh's, one stanza and distich of which was 
printed in the old Art of English Poesie, 4to. 
1589, which I have quoted in his Life ; A particu- 
lar of some new year's gifts, beginning with my 
cousin Katherine Howard's new year's gift, &c., 
with several other things up and down the book 
relating to some Estates, &c., of Henry Earl of 
Derby, which makes me think the collection was 
made by him or somebody nearly under him. 
(To be continued.') 


Some years ago a report got into circulation, on 
the evidence of a farm labourer at Ballinaspie, 
Anglice Bishopstown, about two miles from Cork, 
that the vault under the Episcopal Chapel there 
(now a dairy), had been desecrated, and the 
leaden coffins which contained the remains of 
Bishops Browne and Mann stolen. This story 
spread far and wide, and though most people be- 
lieved it, nevertheless I always had my doubts 
as to the value of the evidence on which the re- 
port was grounded. Every one who knows the 
Irish character is aware that in matters con- 

cerning the dead they always exhibit a feeling of 
intense reverence and respect, even amounting to 
superstition. In this case it remained to be 
proved. I may here mention that Ballinaspie 
was formerly the country residence of the Bishops 
of Cork, and only passed from them when the 
temporalities of the see were vested in the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners. The chapel was built by 
the munificence of Bishop Peter Browne for the 
benefit of his successors in 1730, as an inscription 
on a stone in the western wall inside the building 
testifies. (See Cotton's Fasti, part iii. p. 188.) 
This little chapel is 30 feet in length by 16 in 
breadth ; the side walls are 12 feet 6 in. in height ; 
the gables are 20 feet in height. On the eastern 
gable is the belfry, concealed in the ivy which 
gracefully creeps up the chancel. It was lit by 
two windows in each of the side walls and the 
chancel ; at the western side is a small porch, 7 feet 
square and 10 feet high. This is ascended by a 
semicircular flight of five steps of cut limestone, 
with which material the corners of the building, 
&c. are faced. In the centre of the court yard is 
the crown and mitre, set in the pavement with a 
yellow-coloured stone, which has a very pretty 
effect. The old episcopal residence no longer 
exists. The present dwelling-house is quite 
a modern building. The other memorials of 
Bishop Browne are a small circular edifice, in- 
tended as a retreat. It is built on a rock a short 
distance N.W. of the chapel, and was once orna- 
mented with various shells and some vitrified 
substance of a dark blue colour. It is most pro- 
bable that here this learned prelate used to retire 
for meditation, and penned his work on The Proce- 
dure, Extent, and Limits of Human Understanding, 
Lond. 1729, which is said to have furnished Bishop 
Butler with the ideas which were subsequently 
developed in his celebrated work on the Analogy 
of Religion. Two neat arches span the Bishop's- 
brook, which runs within a hundred yards of 
the residence, and give an extremely romantic 
appearance to the whole. I am particular in these 
details, as the place was near being demolished 
some years ago, when in the hands of an ignorant 
and unprincipled tenant. Bishop Browne also 
constructed large ponds here, and he is said to 
have introduced pike into the stream, a fish 
which he was particularly fond of. A short time 
since I represented to John Lewis, Esq., the pre- 
sent proprietor of Bishopstown, the importance of 
setting this matter regarding the Bishop at rest. 
Mr. Lewis immediately concurred in my views of 
the subject, and appointed Saturday, the 12th of 
the current month, to carry out the investiga- 
tion. The following particulars are from the 
note-book used on the occasion : 

"Jan. 12, 1861. This morning, a little after 6 o'clock, 
Mr. Lewis set three labourers to clear awaj' the earth 
which filled up the space between the steps and the en- 

2*a S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



trance to the vault under the chancel of the Episcopal 
Chapel at Bishopstown. In about three hours this work 
was accomplished, and the space cleared, when a very 
large and weighty flag presented itself, fixed upright, 
and closing securely the entrance to the vault. This, 
after much difficulty, and the assistance of two other 
men, we got in an inclined position against the steps, and 
then descended, by means of a ladder placed against the 
flag, into the vault, which is 14 feet long by 8 broad, 
and 6 feet 2 in. high, and paved with square flags. On 
procuring candles we discovered the two coffins at the 
upper end of the chamber lying side by side about two 
feet apart, and resting on two low walls made of brick. 
The timber of the outer coffins had completely decayed,, 
and lay on the ground as it fell off, like a thick mould. 
The lead coffins were quite perfect, and evidently had 
never been disturbed. The first coffin examined was 
that of Bishop P. Browne. On the lid, embedded in the 
decayed timber, we found the plate, which required the 
greatest care to touch, as it was quite corroded, and not 
much thicker than a sheet of paper. This we succeeded 
in raising. It was originally square, and in the centre 
was an oval with a bead pattern, within which were the 
letters ' P.O. & R. 1735.' As the lid of this coffin had 
never been soldered, and had yielded a little to the weight 
of the decayed timber that lay on it, it was found neces- 
sary to take it off (to replace "it in its proper position, and 
exclude the drops of water which fell from the ceiling 
near it), when all that was mortal of Bishop Browne pre- 
sented itself. There was no appearance of an inner shell. 
The body was placed in the lead, enveloped in folds of 
linen, which was not in the slightest degree discoloured. 
The body was nearly entire from the middle up; so 
perfect were the features, that any one who had seen his 
portrait at the Palace at Cork would readily have de- 
tected the resemblance. The lid was then carefully re- 
placed. The outer coffin must have been originally 
adorned with escutcheons, as the remains of such decora- 
tions were found mixed up with the decayed timber. 
The massive brass handles were as perfect as ever. 
Bishop Mann's coffin must have been originally studded 
with thousands of small nails. The leaden coffin is in 
the highest state of preservation. On the lid was a 
mitre of brass, and below it a large brasa plate, quite 
sound, with this inscription : 

" ' THE RIGHT REV d . 




DIED 10 th DEC*. 1788, 

AGED 77.' 

" Both the mitre and plate were gilt. This coffin was 
closely soldered all round. Bishop Browne's coffin is 5 
feet 8 in. long, 21 in. across the shoulders, and 11 in. in 
depth. Bishop Mann's coffin is G feet 2 in. long, 22 in. j 
across the shoulders, and 15 in. in depth." 

After the investigation, which occupied over 
an hour, the flag was carefully replaced, and the 
earth filled in as before. There formerly existed 
a monument to the memory of Bishop Peter 
Browne in the chapel, but being formed of some 
perishable material, such as plaster-of-Paris, it 
gradually crumbled away after the roof fell in. 
The building is now thatched with straw. The 
marble monument of Bishop Mann was removed 
to the porch of the cathedral church of -St. Finn 
Barrs, Cork, in 1848. The inscription is given 
in Cotton's Fasti, part iii. p. 190. To some in- 

teresting particulars relating to Bishop Maun 
which appeared in " K & Q." (2 nd S. x. 143.), I 
may add the testimony of a respectable old man 
who died some years ago. He told me he had a 
distinct recollection of Bishop Mann's funeral, 
and that as it passed from the Palace by the 
Glasheen Road (where he resided) to Bishops- 
town, the choir of the Cathedral, which preceded 
the coffin, were chanting dirges, followed by the 
prebendaries, both in surplices ; and that the paro- ' 
chial clergy followed the coffin in academic cos- 
tume with a numerous retinue of citizens, &c. 

R. C. 


In the tenth volume of " N. & Q." (2 nd S. x. 
191.), I inquired whence Walpole got the story, 
" too good," I thought, " to be true," which was 
repeated with a variation in the Quarterly Review. 
My Query called forth an. interesting reply from, 
the editor, curiously illustrating the utility of "N". 
& Q." as a means of drawing forth information on 
obscure points. On reading the entire story re- 
lated by Dugdale, I see that Walpole has, as I sus- 
pected, given a false turn to it. Sir Richard 
Shuckburgh, far from being a man so engrossed 
by his own amusements as to be indifferent to the 
great events passing around him, was really a 
brave and devoted royalist. But he was, at the 
same time, a jolly, sporting squire, who saw no 
harm in following his hounds up to the time when 
the advance of the opposing armies called for 
his services in the battle-field. Lord Wellington 
kept foxhounds when in the Peninsula, and no 
one ever accused him of lukewarmness, because, 
in the intervals of warfare, he could amuse him- 
self with a good run. 

After noticing John Shukburgh, Dugdale con- 
tinues thus (Antiq. of Warwickshire, 2nd edition. 
London, 1730, p. 309.) : 

" His son, Richard Shukburgh, Esq. who succeeded him 
in his estate, was no way inferior to his ancestors. As King 
Charles the First marched to Edgcot, near Banbury, on 
22nd Oct. 1642, he saw him hunting in the fields not far 
from Shuckborough, with a very good pack of hounds; 
upon which, it is reported that he fetched a deep sigh, 
and asked who that gentleman was that hunted so mer- 
rily that morning when he [Charles] was going to fight 
for his crown and dignity. And being told it was this 
Richard Shukburgh, he was ordered to be called to him, 
and was by him very graciously received. Upon which, 
he went immediately home, armed all his tenants, and 
the next day attended on him [Charles] in the field, 
where he was knighted, and was present at the battle of 
Edghill. After the taking of Banbury Castle, and his 
majesty's retreat from those parts, he went to his own 
seat, and fortified himself on the top of Shuckborough, 
Hill, where, being attacked by some of the Parliament 
forces, he defended himself till he fell with most of his 
tenants about him ; but being taken up, and life perceived 



[2< S. XI. FEB. 9. '61. 

in him, he was carried away prisoner to Kenilworth Cas- 
tle, where he lay a considerable time, and was forced to 
purchase his liberty at a dear rate." 

Surely a public vindication is due to the me- 
mory of this " fine old English gentleman." 



Nearly two centuries have elapsed since the 
publication of a small tract, called, " De habitu 
crinis dissertatio singularis." The curious reader 
will find it at the end of a work entitled 

"YH00E2IS H0IKH de finibus et officiis secundum 
Naturae Jus, &c., auctore Roberto Sharrock, &c. Oxon. 

The following circumstance is given as the 
origin of this controversy : 

" Narrat Reyherus circa tempera Salmasii accidisse, ut 
duo Presbyteri reformat* rcligionis in Belgio simul con- 
vivio interessent; alter quidem veteranus, alter novellus; 
ille resectos capillos, hie prolixam comam alebat. Inter 
alia veteranus novelli comam reprehendere, et Juris Na- 
turae temeratorem appellare, ob dictum Pauli, 1 Cor. xi. 
14. Licet novellus comam aiere per naturam non illicitum 
esse probaret, exemplis Veteris Testament!. Senior tamen 
ille capillorum impugnator sua auctoritate multos per- 
movit, ut a suis starent partibus et comatos a commu- 
nione Christianorum arcerent. Quo facto plerique Bel- 
garum capillos circumcidere coacti sunt," &c. 

Sharrock takes a more liberal view of the text* 
and considers that the word <[>v<ns in the passage 
does not so much signify nature, strictly so called, 
as common use or custom, and remarks that it may 
have been peculiar to the Corinthians to consider 
it a disgrace for men to wear long hair, for among 
the Spartans and Athenians it was esteemed 
honourable, as regards the former (Arist. Rhet. i. 
C. 9. 'Ey AaKfoaifj-ovi KO/J.O.I/ Ka\bu, eAeuflepfos (njueToj/) : 
and Plutarch says that King Cherillus, being 
asked, why his people nourished their hair, re- 
plied, ori rS>v KOff/JLoav aocnravtiaraTOs ovr6s e<rrl (Plut. 
in Apoiheg. Cherilli.*) The following extract 
from Martinus Martinius will now be read with 
interest : 

" Tartari debellatis Chinensibus urbem Zaokin cepe- 
runt ; vetabant deinde, ne Chinensium quispiam crines 
aleret. Percrebuit edicti fama. Quid fit? Milites, victi, 
togatique alias cives capessunt arma, eamque induunt 
aninii magnitudinem, et pugnandi audaciam, quam prior, 
qua pro Rege Regnoque decernebatur, minime sequabat, 
maximaque exinde victoria sunt potiti. Mirum etiam est 
quod de Cheuxa Insula, Capillitii Asylo, refert. Hanc non 
ita pridem soli erant qui incolebant Piscatores, tandem 
devicta a Tartaris China, editoque de crinium tonsura 
edicto, omnes, hac una moti ratione, ut libere possint 
comam alere, illuc fugiebant ; adeoque est factum, ut in 
insula prius deserta septuaginta urbes jam stent, et in- 
finita incolarum multitudine ab impressionibus hostium 
bene muniatur." 

Another short treatise follows with this title j 
"Pars 2. Ubi Cl. Salmasii Singularis de habitu Crinis 

sententia animadvertitur, et ad Historic veritatem ex- 


Both tracts will amply repay a perusal, and 
the numerous authorities quoted will be valuable 
to those interested in the present " Beard move- 
ment." R. C. 



OF THE NAME " FAIRCLOUGH." The following 
is a good illustration of how names in the course 
of time, through mispronunciation and mis-spell- 
ing, become so disfigured and changed, as to be 
hardly recognisable except by the ear, or by some 
laborious process of expiscation. It is almost un- 
necessary to say that the pages of " N. & Q." are 
prolific with instances of this kind : 

" Dr. Daniel Featley his right name was Fairclough, 
and by that name he was ordained, as his Letters of Orders 
witnessed. All the antient Deeds of the Family ran in 
the name of Fairclough, and his elder Brother so wrote 
his name ; but even in his days, by the mistakes of people, 
the word varied from Fairclough to Faircley, then to Fate- 
ley, and at length to Featley ; which name he first owned 
in print of all our family. He was extracted originally 
out of Lancashire, where many of the same House do to 
this day retain the Primitive name, and give the same 
Coat of Arms with us. The name at first arose from 
that Fair Cliff where his Ancestors long since were 
seated: for in the Dialect of that country, a Cliff w as 
antiently written dough." From Mr. "John Featley 
(p. 72.), in The Lives of Ten Excellent Men (chiefly the 
older Bishops of the English Church) : London, Printed 
for Mark Pardoe, 1677, IGrno., pp. 164. 

An inscription, at the commencement of this 
rather interesting little book quoted, is, " To the 
Noble and Ingenious Gentleman-Scholar, J. H., 
in hopes he will live to increase the Number of 
Excellent Men, this Remembrancer is Dedicate 
by C. B." Query, What are the names indicated 
by the initials ? G. N. 

[_The author is Clement Barksdale, noticed in Wood's 
Athena, iv. 221.] 

SAVELOY. In Mr. Hotten's Diet, of Modern 
Slang, $r., this word occurs with the explanation, 
" a sausage of chopped beef smoked, a minor kind 
of polony" but with no hint as to its origin. Al- 
low me to suggest an obvious derivation in the 
French word cervelas " (espece de grosse et courte 
saucisse), polonese or bolonese, a kind of sausage" 
(Chambaud) ; itself derived from the Ital. cervel- 
lato, "a kind of dried sausidge ; called also, il Re 
de' cibi, the King of Meats" (Florio's Ital. andEng. 
Dictionary, by Torriano, 1659). The pronuncia- 
tion of the French word is almost identical with 
our modification of it; and its ancient, if not illus- 
trious genealogy from " il Re de' cibi," seems to 
claim notice in a new edition of Mr. Hotten's 
Dictionary, and perhaps also in the pages of " N. 
& Q." S. H. H. 

BOOK AUCTIONS, 1740. In Sir James Prior's 
Life of Malone, we find Malone saying : " Sir Jos a 


S. XI. FEB. 9. '01.] 



lleynolds once saw Pope. It wns about^the year 
1740, at an auction of books or pictures." I have 
seen a MS. entry in an old book, signed "T. B. " : 
" bought at an Auction in Covent .Garden, 1736." 
Was there at this time an established auction for 
books at Covent Garden ? * Auctions appear to 
have been a much more fashionable place of re- 
sort a hundred years ago than now. Then ladies 
were there in hoops, brocaded satin, hair-powder, 
patches, and fans. Of course, one may now occa- 
sionally see gentlemen at Christie's or-Sowerby's. 
But the costume ! WM. DAVIS. 

St. John's Wood. 

ARITHMETICAL BOOKS. Many of your readers 
must know MR. DE MORGAN'S List of Arithmeti- 
cal Books since the Invention of Printing, drawn up 
from actual Inspection. I am enabled to add half 
a dozen articles, extracted from Mr. Home's Cata- 
logue of the Books of Queen's Coll. Cam. 8vo. 
1827, p. 629. They are all early and rare, and 
well deserving a place in the bibliotheca of the 
most learned college in Europe : 

"Pselli, Michaelis, Arithmetices Compendium Grsece, 
4to. Paris, 1538. 

' Coetsii, Henrici, Arithmetica Practica, 8vo. Amstelo- 
dami, 1G97. 

" Kami, Petri, Arithmetics Libri duo, folio. Franck- 
furt, 1599. 

" Salignaci, Bernardi, Arithmetical Libri duo et Algebra? 
totidem, cum Demonstrationibus, 4to. Francfort, 1593. 

"Tacquet, Andrea?, Arithmetics Theoria et Praxis, 
8ro. Antwerp, 1665. Very rare. 

' Willsford, Thomas, Arithmetic Naturall and Artifi- 
cial!, or Decimalls, 12mo. London, 1656." 


22. Grove Place. 

passage, written by the Marquis D'Argenson in 
the middle of last century, suggests some curious 
speculations in the middle of this : 

" La Lecture des Memoires de Sully m'a souvent fait 
naitre cette Pensee, que, pour bien gouverner des Francais, 
il faut un phlegme, une perseverance, une tenacite de vues 
qui se rencontrent bien rarement chez notre Nation in- 
constante et le'gere. Qu'e'taient Sully et M. Colbert? De 
bons Flamands, des Hollandais renforces, gens de peu 
d'Esprit, de nulle Imagination, mais a idees saines et 
correctes, ne s'eii departant jamais. Remarquez encore 
com me ces Generaux Allemands conduisent merveil- 
leusement nos Armees. Cette rudesse du Nord est bien 
preferable (pour tout ce qui tient aux vertus du Com- 
mandement) & la turbulence du Midi, a cette Fourberie 
Italienne, qui a gagne notre Politique. Le trop d'esprit 
a gate nos Affaires: -le bon sens peut seul les reparer." 
Memoires du Marquis D'Argenson, Paris, 1825, p. 307. 

France was the " Sick Man " then : 

" Comme on plaisante ici sur les choses les plus se'rieuses, 

[* Mr. Cock, the celebrated book auctioneer, resided at 
this time in the Piazza, Covent Garden, who dispersed 
the libraries of Dr. John Freind (1728), Thomas Sclater 
Bacon, and John Bridges, the historian of Northampton- 
shire (1737), and that of Michael Maittaire in 1747. 

il court un Epigramme sur le Cardinal dont je n'ai retenu 
que le trait. ^ La France est un Malade que, depuis cent 
ans, trois Medecins de Rouge vetus, ont successivement 
traite. Le premier (Richelieu) 1'a saigne: le second (Ma- 
zarin) 1'a purge': et le troisieme (Fleury) 1'a mis a la 
Difete." Aw*, p. 331. 


ARCHBISHOP TALBOT. The following extract 
from Foxes and Firebrands, part ii. p. 96. (Dublin, 
1682), is worthy, I think, of a corner in " N. 
Q.," and accordingly I send it : 

" Several of his Majesties Subjects of Ireland being in 
London upon the death of Oliver Cromwell the Usurper, 
who were more desirous to see his Funeral Solemnities 
than to see him officiate in his Tyrannical Government, 
obtained leave to be at a Friend's House at Westminster, 
to behold the Celebration thereof. John King, then.Dean 
of Tuam, a faithful Subject of his Majesties, shewed to 
several of the Spectators, saying, There goes Peter Talbntt 
[afterwards Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, 16G9- 
1680] amongst the Mourners in deep Mourning; -which 
had not these Spectators seen, they would scarcely have 
believed that it had been he. At that time, it being the 
fashion for Mourners not to cast off their Mourning Cloaks 
so soon as they do now-a-daj's, he was seen by several to 
walk in the same habit, with his Cloak folded under his 
arm, for some months after this Funeral, walking in the 
Piazza, in Covent Garden, arid other of the Streets of the 
City of London" 


In the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1810, 
there is a sketch by Vertue of a picture of Roger 
Bacon, then in the possession of the Duke of 
Dorset. Can any of your readers inform me what 
became of that picture after the Duke of Dorset's 
death ? 

I should also be glad of any information about 
any bust or likeness of Galen, Avicenna, or Dios- 
corides. J. R. R., M.D. 

PETER BARKER. Is there any biographical 
sketch to be found of Peter Barker, minister of 
Stour Paine, in Dorsetshire ? His quaint and 
learned disquisition on the Ten Commandments 
went through two editions at least. The first, 
according to an old catalogue of Leslie's, was 
published A.D. 1624; the second, which I have, 
A.D. 1633. His name does not appear in Hut- 
chins's Dorset, though I conceive that he was un- 
doubtedly vicar of Stour Paine ; but the list, like 
too many others, is sadly defective. 


i BIOGRAPHY. I shall feel much indebted by 
printed or MS. references being furnished to 
pedigrees, or particulars respecting, the following 
families and individuals : 

1. Richard Evers, of the family of Evers of 
Coventry, who married Frances, dau. of Giovanni 
Vulpe. Frances died in 1636, cctat. circa 50. 

2. The Mountaynes of Yorkshire, who " kept the 



S. XI. FEB. 9. '61. 

name in that county" in 1662. One of them was 
mother by Giovanni Vulpe of the above Frances, 
widow of Richard Evers. 

3. Richard Francklyn of Elsworth, co. Cam- 
bridge, of the family Francklyns of Greenford, in 
Middlesex. The arms of Franklyns of Middlesex 
were : argent on a bend azure, three dolphins of 
the field. Sarah, the daughter of the above- 
named Richard Francklyn, was widow of Roger 
Ball of Brinisfield, co. , and died in 1666. 

4. James Babington of Carlton. co. Notts, died 
in 1640. 

5. Robert Gudgeon of Skipton, co. York, died 
in 1655. 

6. William Halstead of Worsthorne, co. Lan- 

7. John Savage of Barrow, co. Chester, whose 
eldest daughter, Elinor, was widow of Francis 
Fitton of Garden, co. Chester, and died 1661, 
cetat. 55. INVESTIGATOR. 

CHANGE OF NAME. Can a Scotchman, born 
and bred in Scotland, who has half-a-dozen 
Christian names, drop some of them on settling 
in England, and in his new name enter into any 
legal contracts, &c., without thereby rendering 
them void ? HERALD. 

CHYMISTRY. Allow me to take this oppor- 
tunity of referring to the correct spelling of this 
word. The Times (perhaps under some fear of 
" Chemos, th' obscene dread of Moab's sons,") 
uniformly writes, not only in its own articles, but 
in all the advertisements and communications which 
it prints, chymistry and chymist, and utterly ig- 
nores old Chemos. There is in the Brit. Museum 
(I cannot refer to the Catalogue, but think it is 
in an early volume of Add. MSS.) a dissertation 
on this word ; and the result there concluded is, 
that it ought to be spelt chemist and chemistry. 
I observe that the best medical writers adopt this 
latter form, in honour of old Chemos, as I suppose ; 
and medical men, upon the ne sutor principle, 
should have credit for spelling words in their own 
faculty with correctness. F. FJTZHENRY. 

of your readers inform me who purchased, at the 
sale of Sir Cuthbert Sharp's effects, which took 
place in his castle "some years ago, several deeds, 
some of the fifteenth century, relating to the 
family of Dale of Staindrop, co. Durham ? J. D. 


" JEneas was much like Sir John Falstaff, but with 
more dignity and less wit. He took his friends where 
they were peppered ; marching into battle and running 
out of it. However, he had grace enough to thank the 
gods for giving him strong legs. He had strong arms, too, 
and could throw bulky stones when he was safe behind a 
wall. In the storm, his hair stands on end ; and he talks 
and weeps like a Neapolitan skipper, who prays to his 
saint instead of taking the rudder and making his men 

work the ship. The Professor of Poetry shews how much 
better Virgil uses words than Lucan and Seneca; but he 
might have given them a good word for choosing heroes 
who were big in act as in talk, instead of one who moved 
at his ease from a weak woman of whom he had had 
enough, and like a lapwing from a strong man of whom 
he feared to have too much." An Essay on Heroick 
Poetry, by J. B., M.A. : London, 1728, pp. 96. 

On what are the charges of thanking the gods 
for strong legs, and throwing stones from behind 
a wall, founded ? Who is the Professor of 
Poetry ? M. E. 


MARTYR. I extract the following from a small 
work (pages 69) published at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, in 1757, entitled, Four Topographical Let- 
ters, written in July, 1755, &c., &c. The writer is 
speaking of his visit to Leicester : 

" The Great Church being open for Prayers, we went 
in, but found nothing remarkable there, except the Pic- 
ture of Charles the Martyr, surrounded with Hierogy- 
phics (sic); such as trampling on earthly Crowns and 
Sceptres, and reaching at a Crown of Glory, which an 
Angel is holding out ; near him is a Palm Tree, with D r 
Dolby's Motto Crescit sub pondere ! A plain honest- 
looking Clergyman who was viewing it, told me, he 
thought such Pictures did great Hurt ; for the} 7 warmed 
the Zeal of some People so much, that they fasted more de- 
voutly, and praj'ed with more Fervency on the 30 th of Ja- 
nuary, than they did on Good Friday : and that some People 
paid greater Devotion to the Day whereon King Charles 
was beheaded, than they did to that on which Christ was 
crucified ; and, if they had Power, would compel all to be 
as devout as themselves, or knock them on the Head. 
What is this (said he) but fasting for Strife and Debate, 
and smiting with the Fist of Wickedness? ' I questioned 
my Companion whether he thought this Parson was a 
Whig or a Tory ? For my own Part, I could not think 
he came there with proper Principles for Church Pre- 
ferment." Pp. 5, 6. 

Is the picture still in existence ? 


PLAGUE CROSS. Some time ago, being at the 
library at Guildhall with the late librarian Mr. 
Herbert, we were turning over some papers which 
apparently had not been opened for years, and 
which were chiefly broadsides, when we disco- 
vered a printed sheet, which no doubt was one of 
the dread " Plague Crosses " which were affixed 
by the authorities to the doors of the houses 
where there was infection. As I remember, it 
was the ordinary size of a broadside, and bore a 
black cross extending to the edges of the paper, 
on which was printed the words " Lord have 
mercy upon us." In the four quarters formed by 
the limbs of the cross directions for managing the 
patient, regulations for the visits of the medical 
men, and the supply of medicines, food, and water 
were also printed. Mr. Herbert was delighted at 
the discovery of so curious a relic of old London, 
which he considered perfectly unique. On visit- 
ing Guildhall a short time back, I inquired of the 
active and intelligent sub-librarian what had be- 

2 nd S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



come of this relic, when he assured me they 
certainly had not got such a thing in their pos- 
session, and in fact he had never heard of such a 
thing. It is supposed it may have been stolen 
during Mr. Herbert's illness. At the same time 
I discovered a sort of proclamation of the House 
of Commons, which appeared to have been printed 
very shortly after the attempt of the King to seize 
the five members. I regret extremely I did not 
take a copy of it at the time, as this also is miss- 
ing. Are any of the readers of " N. & Q." aware 
of the existence of a Plague Cross ? If so, I should 
be extremely obliged if it could be inspected. 

.& -A.. 

Poets' Corner. 

respecting the marriages of the following Knights, 
and should be glad to obtain other information 
about them. The date attached to each name is 
that of marriage, which in every case was per- 
formed in London or its suburbs : 
1575. Sir Rowland Clarke. 
1607. Sir Robert Leigh. 
1618. Sir Robert Inkinson of the Inner Temple. 

Sir Arthur Dakings. 
162?. Sir Halten Ffarmer. 

162J. Sir Thomas Chamberlain and Lady Eliz* 

1628. Sir John Barker and M Mary Parkhurst. 

1629. Sir Thomas Travers. 

1630. Sir Cranmer Harris. 
1634. Sir John Wirley. 
1638. Sir John Mildrum. 
1664. Sir Francis Faw." 

C. J. R. 

obliged to any correspondent of " N. & Q." if he 
would supply me with a correct list of the names 
of all those of knightly rank who settled in Ire- 
land during the reigns of Henry II. and of his 
successor. If my request be too troublesome, or 
would occupy too much space, perhaps a corre- 
spondent might favour me with a reference to the 
works I ought to consult for the attainment of my 
object. R. M. 

QUEVEDO. Dom Francisco de Quevedo has 
had the honour of appearing in your pa^es twice 
(1 st S. i. 381., and 2 d S. vii. 296.) ; the former as 
a direct query, and the latter in reference to the 
quotation from Quevedo in Cowper's Table Talk. 
As both Queries remain unnoticed, may I put a 
more direct one, Is Dom Quevedo a myth ? 

I have lately picked up a copy, said to be, 
the second edition corrected, " made English by R. 
L." (I presume " L'Estrange " from the Query 
about Queen Dick, 2 nd S. x. 512.), "London, 
Herringman, at the sign of the Blew Anchor, in 
the Lower Walk of the New Exchange, 1667." 

From local expressions, reference to Billiter 
Street, Covent Garden, Charing Cross, Ratcliffe 
Highway, Trip to Hackney, Tyburn Gallows, &c., 

as well as some unmistakable English proverbs, 
I think if there ever was a translation, R. L. 
should have said, " so as to apply to London." 

Cowper did not quote rashly, however, so I 
ask with MB. BRUCE, where did he get his idea ? 
Certainly not from L'Estrange's translation. 


SCREAMING FISHES. From the letter of an in- 
telligent lady, I make the following extract : 

" In the early part of December, I called upon a Quaker 
gentlema,n at Darlington, for whom I waited in a room in, 
which stood a small aquarium, containing, along -with 
the usual allotment of sea-anemones, starfishes, &c., five 
fishes not larger than minnows a species of blennies, as 
I was informed. After watching their motions for a few 
minutes, as they floated near the surface of the water, I 
stooped down to examine them more nearly ; when, to 
my utter amazement, they simultaneously set up a shriek 
of terror so loud and piercing, that I sprang back as if I 
had been electrified. I think a human being could 
hardly have set up a louder or shriller scream than did 
these tiny inhabitants of the water. Have you ever met 
with, or heard of, in any other case of the finny tribe, so 
striking an exception to the truth of the common saying, 
1 As mute as a fish ? ' " 

I wish to ask whether the experience of any 
reader of "N. & Q." has furnished any instance 
of similar or other loud sounds produced by fishes, 
either in confinement, or under other circum- 
stances ? H. 

SEAL WANTED. The story of the recovery of 
the Grimsby Seals tempts me to ask the follow- 
ing. Wanted an impression, or the original seal, 
of that which appears as No. 2. of the plate of 
seals prefixed to the Account of the Surname of 
Baird. It is the seal of " George Byrd of Ordinh- 
nivas," dr. 1550. The original was in the pos- 
session of the editor of the volume, but has since 
been lost. SIGMA THETA. 

monument to John, Lord Williams, of Thame, 
in the chancel of that church, the alabaster 
figures of that nobleman and his wife Elizabeth 
are placed with their faces to the west. Lord 
Williams, who was present officially at the burn- 
ing of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, died on the 
14th of October, 1559, during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. Can it be that the simple desire to 
change as far as possible the ancient customs, led 
to the adoption of this position ? I am aware that, 
anciently, the clergy were buried with their faces 
to the west ; but am not acquainted with any 
other instance of laics being so placed. As to the 
position of the coffins, it is impossible to decide 
the question ; as tradition declares them to have 
been used for moulding bullets by Cromwell's 
soldiers before the battle of Chalgrove, and the 
vault is now empty. FREDERICK G. LEE, F.S.A. 

Fountain Hall, Aberdeen. 

A WISHELL OF SILVER. I find this noticed in 
A Caveat for Cursetors, set forth by Thomas 



[2d S. XI. FEB. 9. 'Cl. 

Harman, printed 1573;, but I cannot find the 
word wishell in my Dictionaries, nor in Dr. 
Nares's Glossary, nor Mr. Halliwell's Dictionary 
of Provincial Terms. Will you or your readers 
help me with the meaning of it ? The passage in 
Harman is as follows : 

" He with a wanion went to his mother's chamber, and 
there seeking about for odde endes, at length found a 
little wishell of silver that his mother did use custo- 
marily to weare on, and had forgot the same for haste 
that morning." Chap. xvi. 




JOHN BUREL. Can you give me any particu- 
lars of a volume of Poems by a John Burel, a 
Scottish poet, who flourished at the close of the 
sixteenth century ? His name is not to be found 
in any biographical dictionary. SAMUEL JONES. 

[All that we happen to know of this Scottish poet is 
what we discovered in a copy of a quarto volume of his 
Poems (wanting the title-page) in the British Museum, 
and which is considered unique. Inserted in this volume 
is the following letter from George Chalmers to Mr. T. 
Rodd, the bookseller : 

James Street, 14 April, 1821. 

" " Mr. Chalmers presents his respects to Mr. T. Rodd. 
In answer to his note of yesterday's date, he begs to in- 
form Mr. Rodd, that he knew perfectly well that there 
was in Scotland, during the year 1590, a poet of the name 
of John Burel, a burgess of Edinburgh. He published a 
quarto volume of Poems, which were printed by Wald- 
grave in 1595 or 1596. Some of Burel's Poems were 
reprinted by Watson the printer, of Edinburgh, in 1709, 
in his (Watson's) Choice Collection of Scots' Poems, Part 
II. If Mr. T. Rodd could procure a sight of the volume 
of Burel's Poems, though they want the title-page, Mr. 
Chalmers would be obliged to him, and to the present 
proprietor of that volume, and he would not detain it 
above a morning."] 

THOMAS HOWARD. In the year 1670, an Act 
of Parliament (22 Car. II. cap. 6.) was passed, 
giving the king power to dispose of the free farm 
rents belonging to the crown. Is it recorded to 
whom they were disposed of? Thomas Howard, 
yeoman, is mentioned as having farmed the tenths 
and tolls during the reigns of Charles II., 
James II., and William and Mary, down to the 
period when (Queen Anne, cap. 11.) the tenths 
were vested in trustees for formation of a fund 
for the augmentation of poor livings. Who was 
the father of this Thomas Howard? 

In 1815, was published in London : 

" Ecce Homo. The Mysterious Heir ; or, Who is Mr. 
Walter Howard ? An Interesting Question, addressed to 
his Grace the Duke of Norfolk." 

Who was its publisher? And what is the 
nature of its contents ? WM. STENT. 

[This work is "An Analysis of the Genealogical His- 
tory of the Family of Howard, with its Connections; 
shewing the legal course of descent of those numerous 

titles which are generally, but presumed erroneously, 
attributed to be vested in the Dukedom of Norfolk." 
Printed and published by H. K. Causton, Birchin Lane, 
Cornhill, in 1812, and again with eight additional pages 
prefixed, entitled "Ecce Homo" in 1815.] 

HOUSE OVER-INSURED. What is the allusion in 
the third line of the following stanza, taken from 
a poem entitled Par Nobile Fratrum, on the de- 
parture of the "par nobile fratrum," Lords Castle- 
reagh and Stewart, for the -Continent ? 

" For not e'en the Regent himself has endured 

(Though I've seen him with badges and; orders all 


Till he looked like a house that was over -insured"), 
A much heavier burden of glories than mine." 

New Tory Guide, p. 215. 

H. O. 

[Formerly it was the custom to affix to houses, when in- 
sured, what we believe were called plates, on which appeared 
a figure of the SUN, GLOBE, &c. which served to show the 
particular office in which the premises were insured. The 
practice has ceased, probably in consequence of the ar- 
rangements which placed all the Fire Engine Establish- 
ments under one head. Since we received this Query, we 
have counted as many as six plates on one house ; and 
saw at a glance how one who " with badges and orders all 
shone," might very well be compared to a house de- 
corated with gilt and coloured insurance plates. Perhaps 
some correspondent could tell us when the Insurance 
Offices discontinued the practice of using plates.] 

(2 nd S. xi. 29.) 

Your correspondent T., when asking "where 
any of the speeches or pamphlets of this gentle- 
man can be found," may have recalled to many of 
the old, and introduced probably to some of the 
young amongst your readers, this distinguished 
friend of Burke and Windham one of the most 
gifted and accomplished men of his age, whose 
spotless life and unbending integrity of character 
stamped him as a bright example amongst the 
politicians of his day. 

Some few still living may recall to their recol- 
lection his attenuated figure his grave, intelli- 
gent, and placid countenance, when pacing West- 
minster Hall, mentally preparing probably one of 
the speeches, which, from weight of matter and 
pure English diction, were so well calculated to 
instruct and to persuade. I would here quote 
the character given of Mr. Elliot by Burke. It 
is comprised in a ietter addressed to the former in 
1795, on a speech made in the House of Lords by* 
******* in the debate concerning Lord 
Fitzwilliam. After exhorting men to exertion 
at that critical time, when he himself was on the 
verge of the grave, but still ready to give " the 

The Duke of Norfolk. 

2 S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



parliamentary friends and ad- 
ite Francis Horner a kindred 

meditations of the closet, as in solitude something 
may be done for society," he thus proceeds : 

" You are young ; you have great talents ; you have a 
clear head ; you have a natural, fluent, and unforced elo- 
cution; your ideas are just; your sentiments benevolent, 
open, and enlarged. 

" Kemember that great parts are a great trust. Re- 
member, too, that mistaken or misapplied virtues, if they 
are not as pernicious as vice, frustrate at least their own 
natural tendencies, and disappoint the purposes of the 
Great Giver." ( Works, vol. vii. p. 371.) 

The ninth and tenth vols. of Burke's Works 
containing some of the finest specimens of his 
talents were dedicated in 1812 by the Bishop 
of Rochester (Dr. King) to Mr. Elliot, but to my 
regret I cannot find the title of any work bearing 
Mr. Elliot's name. Reports of his speeches will 
of course be found in the Parliamentary^ History. 
To one on the opening of the New Parliament in 
1802, I would particularly refer. His remarks on 
the relation of France and England to each other 
at that period, will strike us forcibly at the present 

Amongst the 
mirers of the late 
spirit Mr. Elliot may be numbered. How well 
does the tribute which he paid to Mr. H.'s memory, 
when moving for the writ for St. Mawes, apply to 
Mr. E. himself: 

" His exquisite talents, his ardent zeal for truth, his 
just, sedate, and discriminating judgment, above all, his 
inflexible virtue and integrity, rendered him one of the 
most distinguished Members of this House." 

Mr. Elliot died in 1814, at Minto House, in Rox- 
burghshire. A short, well- written character of him 
appeared in the Gent's Mag. (vol. Ixxxviii. pt. ii. 
p. 467.), but his age is not mentioned, nor are any 
particulars given of his descent. He is there de- 
scribed to be of Wells. From members of his 
family I have gathered that Mr. E. was probably 
the nephew of Lord Heathfield, but the Peerages 
make no express mention of him. 


(2 nd S. xi. 10.) 

As far as I can discover, the word " basset " 
is not to be found even in that interesting and 
well stored repertory of old household words, the 
Wills and Inventories published by the Surtees 
Society. It seems to me, however, to be either 
merely the diminutive of basin, or a word coined 
from hassus, low, and is apparently so interpreted 
in the passage quoted by MR. J. G. NICHOJLS 
" 3 bassets, or low bowls." 

" Maser," on the other hand, frequently occurs 
in those old documents. In replying to MR. 
NICHOLS'S Query as to the difference between 
basset and maser, I beg to differ from him as to 

his definition of masers, which, he says, "were 
low bowls or basins, as is well known." Masers 
were not strictly bowls ; they were drinking 
cups, and of various sizes, shapes, and materials 
certainly not generally, still less necessarily, low. 
They were often up-standing cups, supported on 
feet. Thus we read, in the records of the Priory 
of Finchale "j mazer cum pede argenteo" (p. 
iv.) and " unum mazerum cum pede argenti " 
(p. v.). And in the will of M. Geraud d' Abbe- 
ville, Archdeacon of Amiens, an. 1271 "et 
tota supellectilis mea argentea, et cyphi de mazaro, 
cum pedibus et 'sine pedibus." (Du Cange, s. v. 
Mazer, Mazerum.) 

Neither can the maser, I think, be strictly 
considered as plate. It was only accessorily 
mounted and rimmed with silver, silver gilt, or 
gold : and in many instances was far more pre- 
cious than simple plate. The testator above 
quoted makes this distinction. Other instances 
could be given. Let the following suffice, from 
the will of Sir William Mowbray, dated at York, 
in the fifteenth year of Richard II. : 

" Item jeo devys a ma femme tot mon hostj'lment, ves- 
sell d'argent, masers, esquilers, lyts, et chescun autre 
maner de hustylment, a tener h son propre opes, ovesque 
weateraentz, porteus, messall, a rnoi esteantz." (Testa- 
menta Eboracensia, p. 160.) 

Of what, then, was the body of the maser com- 
posed ? Most of our English lexicographers give 
the derivation maeser (Belg.) maple. They say 
it was made of maple wood : and one of the last 
authorities, Webster, gives simply "Mazer, a 
maple cup. Spenser. Dryden" Du Qange, how- 
ever, after giving this derivation, prefers the 
opinion that it was composed of some precious 
stone, and answered to what in Latin was called 
vas murrhinum, from murra ; and what in old 
French was called madre, hanap de madre ; and 
hence again the mediaeval Latin, madrinum. Who- 
ever examines these old wills, will agree with Du 
Cange that the maser generally was a much more 
costly article than a maple cup. It is often, in 
fact, identified with murra. Thus in the will (an. 
1400) of Richard, the first Lord Scrope of Bolton, 
father of the Archbishop of York, we read 
"Item Domino Archiepiscopo Ebor. charissimo 
patri et filio meo, meliorem ciphum meum de 
murreo, scilicet maser." (Test. Ebor. p. 276.) In 
the same will " Item unum ciphum de argento 
coopertum, vocatum le Constable Cope. Item 
unum maser vocatum Spang." (Query, what 
means this last word ?) In the " Inventarium " 
of Finchale Priory, anno 1354, we read, " Item 
in camera sunt iij peciae argenti. Item j ciphus 
de murra, quondam Henrici Pusace " (p. xxxvi.) 
And in 1360 we find the same article thus men- 
tioned : " item unus ciphus de murro, quondam 
Henrici Pusace" (p. li.). And it is interesting to 
note that one hundred and twenty-three years 



XL FEB. 9. '61. 

later, in 1483, this same inaser was repaired, and 
the entry of the expense stands thus " Et solvit 
pro emendatione unius nmrrse . . . cum auro et 
deauratione ejusdem vi s . viij d ." (p. ccclxiv.) 

The maser frequently, perhaps generally, had 
a cover ; sometimes of silver or gold, sometimes 
of murra. Thus in the will of Walter de Bruge, 
Canon of York, anno 1396 : 

"Item lego domino Thomas Sekyngton, ut meam me- 
moriam habeat, unum mazerum, quern nuper emi de exe- 
cutoribus Domini Johannis de Bysshopeston, cum uno 
cooperculo argenti deaurato ligato, in summitate ejusdem 

^ja so 32 s largest nlnbc 

'itK tljis ropt foifyolnijm strgfc." 

And in the same will : 

"Item lego Domino Thomae Overton unum parvum 
mazerum cum cooperculo argenteo deaurato, ligato cum 
uno volucri in summitate dicti cooperculi." (Testam. 
Ebor. p. 210.) 

In the will of Walter Skirlaw, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, we find : 

" Item unus ciphus masar, stans" super pedem argenti 
deauratum, mobilem, portatum super tres leones, cum 
bordura argenti deauratS, et ymagine sancti Johannis 
Baptistae in fundo; cooperculum borduratum de aquilis 
argenti deauratis, et pomellum ainellatum de azuro cum 
j chapelletto viridi et iiij rosia albis. Detur Stephano 
Patrington." (Testam. Ebor. p. 318.) 

Then as to covers of murra; in the will of 
Margery, widow of Sir William de Aldeburgh, 
anno 1391, we find " Item eidem unum ciphum 
murreum, ligatum cum ligamine deaurato. Item 
unum alium parvum mirrum, cum operculo de 
mirro ornato." (p. 150.) And in that of John de 
Clyfford, Treasurer of St. Peter's, York, anno 
1393, " Item lego Esotse, sorori meae, unum 
ciphum argenteum, coopertum, rotundum ; et 
unum ciphum murreum parvum coopertum cum 
murr." (p. 168.) And in that extremely interest- 
ing inventory of all the furniture, provisions, 
goods, and chattels, live and dead stock of the 
Priory of Durham, taken in 1446 (Wills and Inv. 
p. 90.), we read : 

" Item iij Nuces cum iij pedibus argenteis et deauratis, 

quarum una cum cooperculo Item j murra cum 

pede deaurato vocata Herdewyke cum cooperculo. Item 
alia murra larga et magna vocata Abell, sine cooperculo : 
Item una alia murra pro alta mensa in refectorio, cum 
cooperculo. Item unus ciphus vocatus Beda. Item xij 
murrse magnae et largse, cum uno cooperculo ; quarum iij 
cum pedibus. Item xxxiij murrae usuales, et una nux, 
cum ij cooperculis." 

The " nuces," I suppose, are cups formed from 
the cocoa nut. Indeed, this is more distinctly in- 
dicated in the will of Martin 'de Sancta Cruce, 
Master of Sherborn Hospital; proved an. 1259: 

" Item Ysabellse neptimese Cyphum de nucelndye cum 
pede et apparatu argenti." 

These instances could be indefinitely extended; 
but enough, I think, has been shown to convince 

MB. NICHOLS that the maser was not a " low 
bowl or basin," and, consequently, was essentially 
different from a " basset." I will also observe 
that the material, murra, could not easily have 
been sufficiently large to form a basin. 

But after all, what was the murra ? Du Cange 
gives the various opinions ; some contending that 
it was the shell of the murex, hence the name ; 
others that it was the onyx; others, porcelain; 
some, that it was fossil, others that it was fictile. 
It seems to me that all the theories quoted are 
wrong, in confining their view to one material. 
And all these divergencies of opinion can be re- 
conciled by supposing that a maser in its origin 
was really a cup made of maple ; but that in 
course of time, precious stone often took the 
place of wood ; and that " murra " became the 
general term for the material, whether it was 
onyx, or opal, or agate, or shell, or porcelain, or 
sapphire, or even glass resembling sapphire : and 
all this constituted a distinction from simple plate, 
or vessels made entirely of a precious metal. In 
fine, murra, the material, at length was used to 
signify the cup, or the maser itself. 


Arno's Court. 

(2 nd S. xi. 70.) 

Amongst many other pieces of this voluminous 
writer, and which constitute, I believe, a complete 
series of his works, I possess the Latin Colloquies 
which your correspondent requests an account of. 
The following is a copy of the title-page : 

" Colloquia Plautina Viginti, ex totidem M. Plauti 
Comoediis excerpta et annotatiunculis marginalibus illus- 
trata: in quibus omnes Plautinae elegantise in compen- 
dium contracts sunt et usibus nostris accommodatae. 
Opusculum scholis et linguae Latinas studiosis ad intelli- 
gendum Plautum, Lucretium, Persium, Apuleium aliosq ; 
obscuriores Authores utile et jucundum. Opera Alexan- 
dri Rossaei. Londini : Typis et impensis Jacobi Junii, An. 
Dom. 1646." 12mo. 189 pages, including title-page and 
prefatory matter, and the " Obscuriorum Vocabulorum et 
Phrasium Expositio." 

The work is dedicated to Sir William Balfour 
in a Latin Dedication, and some commendatory 
verses signed Johannes Jones, in which Ross is 
styled " Heroum Maxime, Caledoniai Mars," are 
prefixed. The Colloquies are on various subjects : 
the Evils of Civil War the Insolence of Servants 
the Tyranny of Masters the Dissolute Morals 
of the Old and Young the Cruelty of Husbands 
to their Wives the Profusion of the Latter 
the Illicit Modes of Growing Rich the Consola- 
tions on the Death of Friends the Misery of 
those who despise Learning, &c., &c. _ 

Each particular colloquy derives its principal 
vocabulary from the peculiar words and phrases of 
some one play of Plautus, and which are explained 


S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



in short marginal notes. It is a curious and in- 
teresting little book, and is, as your correspon- 
dent observes, very rare. My copy came from 
Heber's sale, and I have never seen another. 

While on the subject of Ross I may observe, 
that amongst his Latin pieces, his Virgilius Tri- 
umphans (Rott, 1661, 12mo.) deserves more notice 
than it has received. His Virgilius Evangelizans, 
of which several editions were published here and 
abroad, is much better known. The former is a 
critical comparison between Virgil and the later 
Latin poets Silius Italicus, Lucan, Statius, 
Valerius Flaccus, Claudian, &c. ; in which his im 
mense superiority is displayed by an elaborate 
examination of parallel passages. It was a post- 
humous work, and is now by no means common. 


(2 nd S. viii. 128. 257. 407.) 

In the University Library at St. Andrews, there 
is exhibited a copy of the Vulgate, having appended 
an iron chain, by which it is believed to have been 
attached to the altar in the monastery adjoining 
the cathedral. It is a quarto volume printed in 
black-letter, the initial letters being cut in wood. 
The boards are of stout oak, covered with leather ; 
they have been retained by an iron clasp, and on 
the first board is stamped a representation of the 
crucifixion. The chain is secured to the under- 
part of the first board ; it is 3 ft. 6 ins. long, 
composed of 21 links, each link about 2 ins. long 
by broad, the metal about i of an inch in diame- 
ter. The fourth and fifth links from the attached 
extremity are united by a swivel joint, which en- 
ables them to revolve freely, for convenience I 
presume, in handling the volume. 

The title-page and first leaves being awanting, 
it commences with fol. 2. of the " Epistola Sancti 
Hieronymi ad Paulinum." 

The New Testament commences on fol. 278., 
and is prefaced by the "Epistola beati Hieronymi 
ad Damasu papam in quartuos euangelistas." 

The books of the New Testament are arranged 
in the same order as that indicated, viii. 128. 
The Apocalypse concludes on fol. 347., and is 
immediately followed by the " Interpretation es 
Dominu hebraycorum," down to "Bochian." On 
each page of the work are numerous marginal re- 
ferences. At the close of the Revelation , there 
is added the following note : 

" Immensas omnipotent! deo Patri et filio et Spiritui 
sancto : simulq(ue) toti militie triumphant! gratiaru refe- 
rimus actiones. Cuius iuuamine hoc sacrosanctum opus 
in presidium sanctefidei catholice: Recenter per prestan- 
issimum sacre theologie professorem emendatu Claris 
litteris impressum rnultis elucidationibus auctum : felici- 
tercon summatum atq(ue) impressum est in iclyto Rotho- 
magorum gymnasio per M. P. Oliuier e regione sancti 
viuiani commorante Impensis ero honestos viros Petri 

Regnault et Michaelis Angier vniuersitatis Ladomensis 
bibliopolaru, anno ab incarnatione dni millesimo supra 
quingetesimum vndecimo. Ad decimum quartum Kalen- 
das Martias." 

On the margins of the leaves are numerous 
Latin notes, written in an old hand ; they abound 
especially at the beginning of the Old and New 
Testaments, evidently referring to the text of the 

The inner paper covers of the boards have been 
also covered with notes, but these are very much 
torn away. On the inner cover of the first board 
may be read "Robertus Vilkie, Januarij, 1604, 
AB." The first syllables of "Robertus" and "Jan- 
uarij " are peeled off, but on the upper margin of 
one of the last leaves, there is written " Mr. Ro- 
bertus Wilkie, VM DV PB, M" I.E." There 
is little doubt this refers to Mr. Robert Wilkie, 
who was Principal of St. Leonard's College from 
1589, until his death in 1611. He was a liberal 
benefactor to his college, and his monument still 
remains within the old chapel of St. Leonards. 

In connexion with the university, there is also 
a folio edition of the Bible in black-letter, " Im- 
printed at London by Robert Barker, Printer to 
the King's Most Excellent Maiestie, Anno 1617." 
It has the address by the translators to the King 
and the Reader complete, but terminates at Rev. 
xiii. 7. To the New Testament is prefaced an 
ornamental title-page, cut in wood, adorned with 
various emblems. On the one side are the ensigns 
of the twelve tribes ; on the other are the twelve 
apostles, Judas being replaced by Matthias. 


(2 nd S. xi. 12. 73.) 

The incongruous name of Pomona, which has 
been often given to the largest of the Orkneys, 
has been the subject of much etymological non- 
sense, which might perhaps have been spared if 
any one had sooner asked your correspondent's 
direct question, " What is the authority for this 
name of Pomona ? " 

The Norwegian settlers named the island Hros- 
sey, and their successors have locally known it 
only by its present name of Mainland. To trace 
the origin of the name of Pomona is a chapter in 
the history of error as suggestive as the debate of 
the Royal Society upon the little fish and the full 
bowl of water. 

Boece (1525) seems to have been the first who 
^ve to the island the name of Pomonia without 
quoting his authority, but probably misled oy a 
bad reading, and worse translation of Solinus, first 
printed in 1518. Ben, Archdeacon of Aberdeen 
(1529), admitting the local name of Mainland, re- 
peats the name of Pomonia, which is copied by 
EEollinslied (1577.) Buchanan, eager to secure 



[2-aS.XI. FEB. 9,'Gl. 

another classical affinity, " per fas aut nefas," im- 
proves tlie name into Pomona, upon the conve- 
niently vague authority of" raulti veteres" (1582) ; 
while his equally learned, but more candid friend, 
Camden quotes Julius Solinus Polyhistor, in sup- 
port of his still more strange misnomer of Pomdna 
Diutina (1586.) Torfseus adopts the errors of 
both, quoting Buchanan for the name of Pomona, 
and Camden for that of Diutina, giving also the 
local name of Meginland or Mainland. 

The error sanctioned by these three great names 
has been echoed and re-echoed by subsequent wri- 
ters, and perpetuated in every map and guide- 
book. But notwithstanding the authority of the 
" multi veteres " asserted by Buchanan, the only 
one quoted by any is Solinus, who is thus made 
alone responsible for the errors of his successors ; 
and it seems only fair to examine what Solinus 
does really say before adding this to his many 
faults against good taste and good Latin. 

Advancing to the north-east, after a voyage of 
seven days and nights from the savage Hajbrida3, 
the Polyhistor reaches the uninhabited Orcades, 
three islands of rock, or swamp, or sandy desert ; 
thence, by another sail of five days, he comes to 
Thule, and proceeds " Sed Thule larga et diutina 
Pomona copiosa est." Though he may here be 
guilty of the affectation of using " Pomona " to 
signify " harvest," and " diutina " in the sense of 
"late " or " protracted," he applies neither term 
as an appellative ; and, to refer either to any of 
the Orkneys, he must not only retrace his five 
days' voyage from Thule, but obliterate his un- 
flattering description of these islands: for the first 
is as incompatible with his order, as the last is 
with his sense. 

There may be some other reading*or passage of 
Solinus which I have overlooked, else it seems to 
me impossible to wrest his authority to support 
the misnomer of Pomona ; and deprived of this 
foundation, as it is unsupported by native usage 
or tradition, the whole baseless fabric must be left 
to perish in its own absurdity. B. & T. 

I have found from examining the'early editions 
of Solinus, that I have been so far incorrect as to 
attribute to the author a definition of the name of 
Pomona, which was but the conjecture of a glos- 
sator, and not included in the original text. I 
find also, from collating the particular passage 
which has been quoted relative to this question in 
the various editions, that many divergencies exist 
in the reading of this and the preceding passages ; 
so much so as to afford ground for numerous ex- 
parte arguments, yet I have been led to support 
the probability of the very ingenious conjecture 
of Professor Munch. The objection brought for- 
ward against it, that the author when using the 
term is treating of Thule, and not of the Orcades, 

is worthy of no weight, as the passage was obvi- 
ously read in the latter sense by those writers 
who may have so far misinterpreted it. The literal 
construction of the sentence even favours this 
interpretation. In several editions it is given 
thus : " Ab Orcadibus Thyle usque quinque die- 
rum ac noetium navigatio est. Sed Thyle larga 
et diutina Pomona copiosa est." Here, under the 
assumption that Pomona was a proper name, it 
might naturally be further assumed that Solinus, 
while treating of Thule, intended to institute a 
comparison between it and the before- mentioned 
Orcades. In the first sentence this is obviously 
his intention, when he specifies the distance be- 
tween the two places ; and the force of the " sed " 
in the next sentence would lead one to suppose 
that the comparison was yet maintained under the 
form of an exception. Thule he says is so far 
distant from the Orkneys, but it is large and more 
productive than Pomona. The last-mentioned 
term, therefore, by this interpretation, considered 
a proper name, could only be applicable to one of 
the Orkneys, which had in a preceding sentence 
been described as productive only of reeds. That 
this was the interpretation of Torfaeus is manifested 
by the following passage in his Historia Rerum 
Norvegicarum, when, treating of Thule, he says : 
" Quod tainen Pythias de Thule prasdicat, licet ea 
larga ea diutina Pomona copiosam, incolasque, in 
hyemem arborum fructus congerere Soliuus memo- 
rat," ed. 1711. That the writer had no very clear 
conception of the force of the adjective diutina in 
the passage, is seen by the passage referred to by 
Professor Munch in the Orcades, wherein it is 
stated that Pomona by Solinus is termed Diutina. 

In some early MSS. the word in question is 
written "pomona;" but in the princeps editio the 
text is " Sed thyle larga est et diutina pomorum 
copiosa." The word " pomorum " is contracted in 
the common form " pomor," with a dash across the 
lower part of the final letter, so that in being fre- 
quently transcribed the error no doubt has arisen. 
In perusing numerous editions, I have only found 
the word as stated in the one mentioned. Even 
in an Aldine edition of 1620 it is given as Po- 

While, therefore, there can exist little doubt 
that the application of the term has been er- 
roneous through this misinterpretation, it does 
not altogether destroy the probability that the 
island in question might have been known by the 
name of Pomona at an early period, and that this 
knowledge might even have led to the passage 
being misconstrued and mistaken. There can be 
no doubt that its being known by this name, as it 
was even by its inhabitants at least a century before 
the time of Torfaeus, led this writer to take for 
granted that the island was referred to in the text. 
The probability of this, however, is so weak that 
it may fairly be presumed that the name origi- 

2 d S. XI. FEB. 9. '61.] 



rated through the mistaken application of the 
term in the text of Solinus. J. G. F. 

British Museum. 

(2 nd S. xi. 63.) 

The mention of the phrase, corpus sant, by your 
correspondent PARATHINA, reminds me, Mr. Edi- 
tor, of a somewhat similar phrase, and in a dif- 
ferent sense, upon an occasion which I will relate 
to you. 

Many years since, it was, I think, the year of 
Lord Exmouth's bombardment of Algiers, being 
in Italy, at Rome, I was suddenly summoned to 
England ; and as travelling by land was then more 
tedious and dangerous than it has been since, the 
best and most expeditious course for me to take 
seemed to be, to cross the corner of the Mediter- 
ranean . from Leghorn to Genoa. I embarked 
accordingly on a fine evening in the month of 
August, in a long wide boat without deck, but 
depending almost entirely upon her sail for mo- 
tion, partly also upon such oars as they had; 
heavily laden with fruit or vegetables, and many 
passengers, nearly all of an inferior class. Every- 
thing seemed to smile around us as we left the 
port ; but as night came on, the heavens grew 
black with clouds, the winds rose, with occasional 
torrents of rain and hail ; and the thunder and 
lightning, which were most fearful and incessant, 
threatened every moment to sink us in the deep. 
We took in, of course, our sail, and suffered the 
boat to drive : the danger being not so much from 
the swell of the sea as from the lightning, which 
swept along the water, and, as it seemed, must, 
sooner or later, strike and destroy us. The miser- 
able wretches by whom I was surrounded cried, 
shrieked, and invoked every saint they could 
think of. If you ask what became of myself, the 
truth was at the time I was, from circumstances, 
indifferent about life ; and having solemnly and 
silently recommended myself to heaven, I sate 
still waiting the event. But there was on my 
mind a firm confidence and conviction that we 
should be permitted to reach the land in safety ; 
and twice I was on the point of addressing the 
passengers, to tell them what I felt. And by de- 
grees the storm (they called it a bourrasque) died 
away ; and as day broke, all nature seemed re- 
freshed, the air, instead of being stifling, was 
cool and pleasant, and the olive groves on the 
sides of the hills seemed, as they waved in the 
wind, to have gathered strength and verdure from 
the rain. 

In talking afterwards with one of the sailors, 
who had remained how still I had been the night 
before, he rallied me by inquiring " if the English 
ever prayed ? " and added, pointing to the mast 
of the boat : " J'ai vu le grand Dieu deux fois sur 

le mdt, la nuit." On following his finger with my 
eye, I perceived that a metal ring upon the mast, 
which was not many yards above my head where 
I had been lying, had evidently been struck and 
melted by the lightning during the night. I never 
heard the phrase but upon this occasion, and be- 
lieve the man who used it to have been either an 
Italian or Sardinian ; but he clearly meant to ex- 
press, as it seems to me, that the Deity had de- 
scended in lightning. Am I wrong ? Certainly 
the man did not mean to say he had observed a 
good omen, but that we had found a narrow 
escape. Ofrm. 

70.) The title of Don appears to be pretty pro- 
miscuously given in Naples, no doubt a remnant 
of Spanish intercourse. 

When I spent a- winter there about a dozen 
years ago I had two native men-servants, and : 
each spoke of the other as Don this or that, using 
his Christian name. 

The master who taught dancing to my chil- 
dren used to bring a fiddler with him (whom 
he always designated Primo Violino), and when 
he wished him to strike up, he always called out 
" A voi, Don Antonio ! " J. P. O. 

THE MONTEITH (2 nd S. x. 407.; xi. 13.) In 
the Autobiography of the Right Hon. Sir Richard 
Cox, Bart., Lord Chancellor of Ireland, from the 
original manuscript preserved in the Manor 
House, Dunmanway, co. Cork, edited with notes 
by Richard Caulfield, London, 1860, the following 
passage occurs under the year 1703 : 

" On Saturda_v, 4th December, 1703, the Lord Mayor, 
Recorder, Aldermen, and Sheriffs of Dublin came to my 
house and presented me with my freedom of the city in a 
gold box, which cost 30 li. and" wished me many years' 
enjoyment of my office. New scales being sent over, the 
old great seale and the scale of the Common Pleas be- 
longed to me, the former being 100 and the latter 25 
ounces of plate. I made both into a handsome Monteth, 
with the Duke of Ormond's armes on one side, and my 
own on the other, and desire that it, and the aforesaid 
box, may be preserved in my family as long as may be." 

To which the editor has appended the following 
note : 

" Monteth, so called from the name of the inventor. A 
vessel in which glasses are washed.' (Todd's Johnson.) 

' New things produce new words, and thus Monteth 
Has by one vessel saved himself from death.' King." 

This interesting vessel is now in the possession 
of the Hon. Villiers Stuart, of Castletown, co. 
Kilkenny, in right of his wife, who inherited it on 
the death of her brother, the late Sir Richard 
Cox, Bart. GAIXUS. 

x. 347. 419.) I possess certified copies of the 
Wills of Nicholas Prideaux of St. Thomas, in that 



[2< S. XL FEB. 9. '61. 

island ; of his second wife and widow, Damaris 
Prideaux (relict also of Lieut.- Col. Carter) ; and 
of James Prideaux, his youngest son. Nicholas 
Prideaux whose will was pix)ved April, 1702 
names therein his sons, Nicholas, Thomas, and 
James ; his daughters Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca, 
Frances, and Judith; his "ever-honoured mother," 
and his sister Anne. Also his second wife, Da- 
maris Prideaux, and his grand-daughter Rebecca 
Carter. The witnesses to this document are, W. 
Carter, R., and John Carter. 

James Prideaux, whose will was proved May, 
1762, mentions his wife Susanna ; his sons Samuel 
and John ; his daughters Rebecca, Agnis, Susan, 
and Frances. The witnesses to this document 
are, the Rev. William Duke, John Waite, and 
Robert Lloyd. The will of Damaris Prideaux was 
proveji Sept. 1713. She mentions therein her 
sons Richard, John, Henry, and William Carter ; 
her daughters Damaris Edwards and Agnis Car- 
ter ; her grand- children Elizabeth Bayly, Samuel 
Carter, and James Carter. The witnesses are, 
Martin Tull and William Gibbes. 

Is it not probable, that " the ever- honoured 
mother " of Nicholas Prideaux was a Blake ? 

Judith is a remarkable name, and seems to occur 
also in the Blake family. 

I have enclosed my card in an envelope, ad- 
dressed to SPAL., and shall be glad to hear from 
him. INA. 

36., &c.) I am obliged by the information given, 
and ask for more. I have the Palamedes, with 
three other tragedies, by Vondel (J. Gravena^e, 

The edition is pretty, but has neither note or 
Preface. Having been told that Palamedes is 
Barneveldt, I understand some of the allusions. 
Agamemnon, I presume, is Prince Maurice ; other 
characters have marks of modern and Dutch in- 
dividuality, which I wish to understand. Can any 
of your readers direct me to a book in which I 
shall find an explanation? 

The folio edition mentioned by me (2 nd S. x. 
472.), had much prose in it ; and the plates were 
uncouth and absurd, making different things ac- 
cording to the way in which they were folded. 

F. H. 

QUEEN DICK (2 nd S. x. 512.; xi. 79.) The 
Queen Dick of Quevedo's second Vision could not 
have been Richard Cromwell, whose brief sem- 
blance of authority began in September, 1658. 
The scene of the Vision is laid by Quevedo in the 
infernal regions in 1636, and the author died 
eleven years later, in 1647. 


TIELD (2 nd S. x. 494.) There is a large portrait 
of General Lord Ligonier (in uniform, I think) 

on horseback in the picture gallery of the South 
Kensington Museum. With regard to the por- 
trait of Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfieid, no 
doubt Lord Dillon possesses one at Ditchley, 

If by chance S. A. S. comes across an engrav- 
ing or print of either of the above, he would 
greatly oblige by informing me through the me- 
dium of " N. & Q." H. L. J. 

A portrait of Col. Ligonier may be seen in the 
large room of the French Hospital, Old Street 
Road. JOHN S. BURN. 


SCUTCH (2 nd S. xi. 71.) One of the most com- 
mon meanings of this word at least in West- 
moreland is to strip, or peel ; and its use calls 
up a curious association in my mind. About half 
a century ago, when Wordsworth was at Hawks- 
head school, a birdlime maker, of the name of 
Jackson, happening to visit that locality, noticed 
an abundance of fine hollies growing in the 
vicinity of Lake Windermere ; and the bark of 
these trees was exactly the " raw material " of 
his peculiar manufacture. Forthwith he removed 
from his old " mill seat," on the banks of the 
Yorkshire Don, within sight of the den of the 
famous " Dragon of Wantley," to Sawry, in the 
pleasant neighbourhood above indicated, where 
he built a residence in a lonely situation, but 
well adapted for his occupation. When I visited 
the spot last summer, I found the building di- 
lapidated, the hollies long since gone, and the 
neighbours ready to point out, with character- 
istic comments on the strange man and his 
stranger trade, " the old scutching-house," as 
they ealled it. D. 

Old French escorcer = e t cortex : to take off the 
bark. Compare old French escorcher excoriare i 
to take off the leather, hide, or skin. It is in this 
sense we talk of the " scotched snake." H. F. B. 

I beg to say that in Scotland we talk of scutching 
hedges, i.e. dressing them with a hand-bill. NEMO. 

ARMS OF CECIL (2 nd S. xi. 28.) In Collins's 
Peerage (1812, vol. ii. p. 584.), will be found set 
out (in part) the proceedings in the controversy 
between Sir John Sitsel and Sir William Faken- 
ham, accompanied by the following notice : 

" The which said original writings, being written in 
Parchment, according to the Antiquity of the time, I 
myself (says Boswell, in his Works of Armory, p. 81.) 
have seen, being in the possession of the Right Hon. the 
Lord of Burghly, to whom in blood the same belongeth ; 
whose name befng written at thig day Cecil, is neverthe- 
less in Wales, both in speech and common writing, used 
to be uttered Sitsilt, or Sitsild, where the original house 
at this day (1572) rernaineth near Abergavenny." 

If these documents are still preserved, it is to 
be hoped that they may be permitted to see the 
light. In the hands of a competent editor, they 

XL FEB. 9. '61.] 



would not only be in themselves a most interest- 
ing publication, but would also be highly valuable 
asa companion to the still more celebrated con- 
troversy which arose about half a century later 
between Sir Robert le Grosvenor and Sir Richard 
le Scrope ; in which, notwithstanding the array of 
evidence, adduced by the former in proof of his 
ancestors having borne the same arms from the 
time of the Conquest, the decision was in favour 
of his competitor. MELETES. 

YORKSHIRE WORDS (2 nd S. xi. 49.) 

" Smeuse, a beaten path of a bare through a fence ; a 
sluice." From The Dialect of Craven, 2 vols. 12mo., 
2nd edit., 1828. 

Mr. Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words (2 vols. 8vo., 1847), gives the 
following meanings for " gare" : 
" Gare, (l.J to make, or cause. 
(2.) coarse wool. 
(3.) a signal flag? 
(4.) ready. 

(5.) a dart, or javelin. 
(6.) gear, accoutrements." 

In the fourth meaning it is probably synony- 
mous with Shakspeare's " yare." The fifth is the 
Anglo-Sax. " Gar," a dart. W. H. 

The " meaning," I say nothing of the " deriva- 
tion," of the term cited by J. S., would be thus 
understood by any West Riding labourer, e. g. 
" Gooa aV gare t'mare," i. e. put her gearings on. 
" Aw fun a snickle set i' th' smeuse" i. e, in the 
passage used by hares in the bottom of a fence. 
"He'll ne'er mak' nought out he's no forthput 
in him," z. e. no gumption, promptitude, or 
energy. D. 

Smeuse in some counties is " a hare's track ; " 
and gare, among other meanings, signifies "to 
make or cause." 11. S. CHARNOCK. 

LIFE or JAMES II. (2 nd S. x. 231.) This book, 
published in London in 1702, was probably writ- 
ten by Francis Sanders, the Jesuit Confessor of 
his Majesty. This conjecture may be verified by 
S. S. S., should he care to compare his copy of the 
work in question with an 

" Abrege de la Vie de Jacques II., Roy de la Grande 
Bretagne, etc. TW d'un ecrit Anglois du R. P. Francois 
Sanders, de la Compagnie de Jesus, Confesseur de Sa 
Majeste : "A Paris, MDCCIII." : 

of which a copy is in possession of the under- 
signed, and shall be forwarded for the purpose by 
him if requested to do so, with promise of its being 
speedily returned to J. f. 

Avington, Berks, Jan. 22, 1861. 

x. 89.) With respect to the son born of this 
marriage, and said to be still living at the Cape 
of Good Hope, I think, as you state in a note, 
there must be some mistake. I was at the Cape 

in 1830, and spent some time at Mr. George 
Rex's hospitable residence at the Knysna. I un- 
derstood from him that he had been about thirty- 
four years a resident in the colony, and I should 
suppose he was then about sixty-eight years of 
age, of a strong robust appearance, and the exact 
resemblance in features to George III. This 
would bring him to about the time, as stated in 
Dr. Doran's work, when George III. married 
Hannah Lightfoot. On Mr. Rex's first arrival in. 
the colony, he occupied a high situation in the 
Colonial Government, and received an extensive 
grant of land at the Knysna. He retired there, 
and made most extensive improvements. His 
eldest son was named John, at the time I was 
there, living with his father, and will now most 
probably be the representative of George Rex. 

Rock Mount, Isle of Man. 

S. ix. 437. 515.) This precious relic, as well as 
the other relics of the Passion, preserved in the 
Basilica of Santa Croce, are most fully described 
and illustrated in a work I have before me. It is 
entitled, De Sessorianis prcecipuis Passionis D. N. 
J. C. Reliquiis Commentarius, Romae, 1830. The 
author is (or was) Father Leander de Corrieris, at 
that time librarian of the monastery of S. Croce. 

J. V. 

WIDERCOMBS (2 nd S. x. 447. 522.) These ves- 
sels were not necessarily of silver gilt. There is 
one in the travelling Museum from South Ken- 
sington (now at Peel Park, Salford), thus de- 
scribed in the Catalogue : 

" N 340. Old German Cylindrical Enamelled Drinking 
Glass. ' Vidrecomb.' 

" This piece was intended to be passed round from 
guest to guest, as a kind of loving cup. The painting 
gives the portrait of a German miner of the Hartz Forest, 
and- his wife; and the inscription relates to the perils and 
achievements of the miner's vocation." 

Would your correspondent L. state any autho- 
rity for the use of the word in French, either 
under the form Vi'drecome or Vilcom ? In neither 
form is it to be met with in Cotgrave ? LIBYA. 

"BucKE VERTETH" (2 nd S. xi. 68.) An 
extract from La Venerie de Jaques de Fouilloux 
will explain this : 

" Quand les Cerfs ont mue' et jette leur teste ils com- 
mencent a leur retirer et prendre leur buisson (bush)." 

By-the-bye, it is not very uncommon to hear 
the expression "hare's smeuse" instead of meuse. 
That the latter is the proper term, will also ap- 
pear from the list of Mots, Dictions, et Manieres de 
parler en Art de Venerie (Jaques de Fouilloux), 
where I read : 

" Musses oil passent les Lievres quand les Lievres 
entrent dedans le Taillis." 

H. F. B . 




THE Ass WITH Two PANNIERS (2 nd S. x. 350.) 
In the Number of " N. & Q." of Nov. 3, 1860, 
there are a question and reply on the subject of 
a gentleman, with a lady on each arm, having 
been compared (at Paris) to an ass between two 

The writers do not seem to have recollected 
what was no doubt the origin of the notion, viz. 
the passage in Gen. xlix. 14., "Issachar is a 
strong ass, couching down between two burdens." 

The same expression is to be found in one of 
the Waverley Novels (I think the Fortunes of 
Nigel, but I am not able at present to look it 
out), put into the mouth of one of a mob jeering 
a young man with a lady on each arm. It may 
possibly have been a sort of proverb or byword. 

L. (1.) 

EPITAPH (2 nd S. x. 494.) There is an ex- 
tended version of the above on a tombstone in the 
chancel of Ecclesfield, near Sheffield. It is the 
last of three inscriptions, the first of which is 

" Charles Green, Esq r . Lancaster Herald att Arms. 
Buried Jan r ? 16 th , 1742. Much Lamented." 

The next records the death of 

" Elizabeth Carleill (sister to the above), who died 
May 25t h , 1776 ; aged 81." 
Then follows : 

"Also William Carleill, Esq re , Husband to y e late 
Elizabeth Carleill, who departed this life December y e 
30' h , 1779, aged 84: 

Our life is like a winter's day ; 
Some only breakfast and away ; 
Others to dinner stay, and are full fed ; 
The oldest man but sups and goes to bed. 
Large is his debt who lingers out y e day ; 
Who goes y e soonest has y e least to pay." 


TALBOT EDWARDS (2 nd S. x. 510.; xi. 56.) 
When Sir Gilbert Talbot was appointed to the 
charge of the Jewel House, he constituted this 
born retainer of his family its care-taker and ex- 
hibitor ; and when the aged servitor died the 
sooner perhaps for Colonel Blood's hammer and 
poniard his resting-place in the Tower chapel 
was marked by a scant and shabby flag-stone. I 
remember it well : lozenge-shaped, and somewhat 
suggestive of an overgrown ace of diamonds. 
Some fifteen years ago, or by'r lady inclining to 
twenty, when King Edward I.'s ancient chapel 
was to be modernised, it was taken up and " shot 
away as rubbish," together with other less notable 
memorials in the adjacent grave-yard, which was 
at the same time secularised to the use of the new 
barracks. A long shot it was, longer than the 
best volunteer rifle is likely to reach, that lodged 
Talbot Edwards's ledger-stone in the yard of the 
Fleet Prison ! 

Whither went the other " rubbish," I care not ; 
but I thank M. S. R. for the intelligence of this 
being cleansed of its dirty desecration, and pro- 

moted from the chapel pavement to the tabular 
honours of the chapel wall ; though it might have 
been done more gracefully by a decent tablet, in- 
stead of parietally "cementing" in an "untrades- 
manlike fashion," too the damaged bit of flag-' 
stone. Meipso teste, even this had not been done 
in 1852 ; and how it could since that date have 
needed " frequent whitewashings," passes my com- 
prehension. Neither was the ugly old gallery, 
which had long before my time encumbered the 
Tower chapel, and wainscoted out of view its yet 
older monuments, then removed. I wonder that 
the " recent addition," noticed by M. S. R., has 
been permitted to continue their tasteless conceal- 
ment. OLD MEM. 

WATERVILLE FAMILY (2 nd S. x. 349.) I seldom 
see " N. & Q.," but will it be of any service to 
ICHNEUTES to be informed that a Richard de 
Waterville became abbot of Whitby in 1176? 
Prior of Kircheby, or Monks Kirby, in Warwick- 
shire, and previously a monk in the monastery of 
St. Nicholas at Angiers. He succeeded the abbot, 
Richard the first, of Whitby, who came from 
Burgh or Peterborough, a city with which the 
inquirer's William de Waterville appears to have 
been connected. Richard Waterville, with the 
consent of his convent, granted the town of 
Whitby a charter, with all the privileges of a 
free borough, the curious details of the document 
being given in Charl ton's History of Whitby, as 
translated from the Abbey Records. The charter 
was only enjoyed by the townspeople about ten 
years, having been withdrawn by a succeeding 
abbot. R. 

SHEEP AND MUTTON (2 nd S. x. 41 1 .) The ex- 
planation of the distinction between "sheep" and 
" muttons " in the Earl of Salisbury's will, is 
found, I think, simply in the difference of gender 
ewes and rams, whether castrated or not. The 
distinction is more fixed and obvious in the Latin 
oves, and the mediaeval masculine noun mul- 
tones; whence comes the Fr. mouton, and our 
mutton. The etymology of the word has puzzled 
French philologists can any reader of " N. & 
Q." solve the difficulty ? It may be remarked 
also, in passing, that there were formerly gold 
coins called multones florins au mouton from 
their bearing the impression of an "Agnus Dei." 


LATIN GRACES (2 nd S. xi. 48.) In the Ap- 
pendix to the First Report of the Cathedral Com- 
missioners, printed in 1854, the statutes of the 
collegiate church of St. Peter, Westminster, are 
given in full. 

At page 93. will be found the Latin prayers 
and graces enjoined by the Royal Foundress of 
Westminster School. The Latin graces have 
been in daily use in the college hall down to the 
present time. They commence with the 15th 

2a S. XL FEB. 9. '61.] 



verse of the 145th Psalm, " Oculi omnium in te 
spectant, Domine," &c. &c. 

If MB. PHILLOTT has not ready access to a 
copy of the above Report, I will send him a tran- 
script of the Latin graces on his forwarding to 
me his address. T. W. WEARE. 

Dean's Yard, Westminster Abbey. 


Histoire de la Bibliotheque Mazarine depuis sa fondation 
jusqii'a nos jours ; par Alfred Franklin, attache a la Bib- 
liotheque Mazarine. 8vo. Paris, Aubry. London : Barthes 
et Lowell. 

For most English readers this excellent volume will 
be like a guide to unexplored regions, a handbook of 
treasures hitherto, at the best, imperfectly known. M. 
Alfred Franklin is an accurate cicerone, intimately ac- 
quainted with the Carte du pays, thoroughly up in all 
that pertains unto Mazarine and hisjidus Achates Gabriel 
Naude, and therefore we cannot imagine an hour better 
employed than in studying under such direction the his- 
tory and progress of one of the principal Paris libraries. 
The numerous collections of the Bibliotheque Imperiale, 
its stores of MSS., accumulated from all quarters, thanks 
to that famous engine of French government centraliza- 
tion, its bibliographical rarities, have too often led stu- 
dents to forget that all the treasures of learning are not 
shut up within the dingy building of the Rue de Riche- 
lieu ; let us bear this in mind, and may the few remarks 
we are about to ofl;er, suggested by a perusal of M. Frank- 
lin's book, induce some of our readers, on their next 
Galilean tour, to visit, once at least, the collections pur- 
chased for Mazarine by Gabriel Naude ! 

Our author begins, very properly, with an account of 
Cardinal Mazarine's struggles as a lover and collector of 
books. That famous statesman, who had to bear, in the 
most troublous times, all the responsibility of power, 
who had to cope with Frondeurs, Petits-maitres, and 
Importants, to maintain his authority against Conde, De 
Retz, and Mathieu Mole, Mazarine could find time to 
purchase books, and assisted by his faithful emissary, the 
author of the Mascurat, he got together, towards the end 
of the year 1643, agoodly array of 12,000 printed volumes 
and 400 manuscripts. At that time, remarks M. Frank- 
lin, the means of information available for students were 
very limited indeed. The Bibliotheque du Roi, numbering 
scarcely 10,000 volumes, was still closed to the public, 
and the only literary establishments placed' at the dis- 
posal of the public were the Bodleian at Oxford, the 
Ambrosian at Milan, and a third one, founded in Rome 
in 1620 by Angelo Rocca. We discover from Richelieu's 
testament (cf. Aubery, Hist, du Cardinal Due de Riche- 
lieu, pp. 616, 617), that this great minister had intended 
opening in Paris a public library ; but death prevented 
him from accomplishing his design, and the honour was 
reserved for Mazarine who, in 1643, threw open the doors 
of his palace a hundred years at least before the Biblio- 
theque du Roi was rendered generally accessible. Once 
firmly established in the enjoj'ment of supreme power, 
the Cardinal found it, of course, comparatively easy to 
procure the various books required for his use ; he was, 
besides, rather unscrupulous as to the means he employed, 
and the indefatigable Naude, equally lax on this subject, 
travelled from one end of Europe to the other, purchasing 
whole libraries indiscriminately, clearing all the book- 
stalls he met with, and driving most unconscionable 

bargains, that many a bookseller, when left to his own 
thoughts, was wont to complain quod libros illos multo 
potuisset carius arOmatariis, ad thus ac piper amiciendum, 
j vd cetariis ad butyrum, garum, aliaque salsamenta muriatica 
obvolvenda, divet^ere. 

The services rendered by Cardinal Mazarine to the 
cause of learning when he invited the savants of Europe to 
share his library with him were so great, that they almost 
make us spiteful against the Parisian Frondeurs, who, in 
their animosity, would not even admit the prime minis- 
ter's taste for learning, and who accused him of displaying 
merely his conceit; M. Alfred Franklin, in the second 
chapter of the first part, gives us the history of the 
Fronde from, if we may so say, the book-collector point of 
view, and the details which he has so interestingly put 
together compose a good supplement to M. Jay's history 
of the Cardinal, or to M. de Sainte Aulaire's Histoire de la 
Fronde. The third chapter treats of the definitive foun- 
dation of the Bibliotheque Mazarine, and ends with an 
extract from the letters patent of Louis XIV., confirming 
the statutes which had been drawn up to render it more 

We cannot follow M. Franklin through all the parti- 
culars of his very curious volume. We see (part II. 
chap. 1.) the library gradually increasing during the 
reigns of Louis XIV. "and his three successors ; it is trans- 
ferred from its previous local to the building it now still 
occupies, and whilst the Bibliotheque du Roi becomes by 
its very nature more generally, we might say, more indis- 
criminately frequented, the limited, but unique collection 
of the Palais Mazarin, remains the haunt of bond fide 
students, who are anxious to work quietly and leisurely. 
One of the most amusing parts in M. Franklin's octavo, 
is his description of the manner in which the public 
libraries of Paris were enriched during the Revolution. 
Eight large dep6ts had been established at Paris, and 
another at Saint Denis, and one at Versailles, containing 
altogether 1,500,000 volumes confiscated or robbed from 
religious communities or private families. Valuable 
pieces of furniture and articles of virtu, such as clocks, 
busts, pictures, book-cases, had also been collected there; 
and in 1794 all these treasures were placed at the dis- 
posal of the librarians of the metropolis. The Abbd Le- 
blond, then superintendent of the Mazarine, carried off as 
his share 50,000 volumes, besides a variety of other pre- 
cious items, which are still to be found in the rooms 
occupied by the library. The " Widow Capet," the " Du- 
barri," the " Cardinal de Rohan," appear on the list of 
original owners, side by side with Benedictines, Orato- 
rians, Franciscans, and Barnabites. 

M. Franklin's volume concludes with a detailed cata- 
logue of all the book-rarities at present kept in the Ma- 
zarine librar} r , a statement of its organisation; and last, 
though not least, a complete index. 

La Librairie de Jean Due de Berry au Chateau de Me- 

j hun sur Yevre (1416), publiee en entier pour la premiere 

fois d'apres les Inventaires et avec des Notes, par Hiver 

I de Beauvoir. 8vo. Paris: Aubrv. London: Barthes et 

' Lowell. 

Jean Duke de Berry was, like his brother Charles V., 
King of France, a prince undoubtedly superior to the age 
in which he lived. The castles of Mehun sur Yevre and 
of Vieest re were built by his orders, and his passion for 
collecting jewels and church ornaments amounted, says 
M. de Beauvoir, almost to a kind of mania. It is not, 
however, on account of these peculiarities that the Duke 
de Berry deserves to be called an enlightened prince, and 
if his taste for literature had not been also a marked 
feature in his character he would have scarcely been en- 
titled to a notice in the pages of this journal. But after 
the construction of the castle at Mehun sur Yevre was 



[2*1 S. XI. FEB. 9. '61. 

finished, Duke John did not consider his work done, and 
he enriched it with a library, the catalogue of which, pre- 
served, and now published by the care of M. Hiver de 
Beauvoir, gives us a very correct idea of the state of 
learning during the fifteenth century, at the same time 
showing who were the favourite authors, and also at 
what cost books might be procured from the bibliopolists 
of the age. The brochure we are now noticing is not the 
first list of the same description which has been published 
in France; M. Van Praet printed, more than twenty 
years ago, Grilles Mallet's catalogue of the original library 
of the Louvre ; MM. Barroiaand Peignot gave us an anno- 
tated list of the books belonging to the sons of King 
John, and in 1839, M. Leroux de Lincy published a cata- 
logue compiled in 1427 of the literary treasures accumu- 
lated by Charles Duke of Orle'ans at the chateau of Blois. 
M. Hiver de Beauvoir's little volume completes these 
various documents, and the useful notes with which he 
has illustrated most of the articles mentioned in the 
librarian's original list add much to its importance. 

Le Blason des Couleurs en Armes, Livrfas, et Devises, 
par Sicille, Herault d'Alphonse V. Roi d'Aragon* Puttie 
et Annote, par Hippolyte Cocheris. 8vo. Paris: Aubry. 
London : Barthes et Lowell. 

Readers acquainted with the literature of the Middle 
Ages, know what a taste prevailed at that time for apply- 
ing to all kinds of subjects, physical and moral, intellec- 
tual 'and spiritual, the laws of heraldic science. There 
were Blasons Anatomiques, Blasons Domestiques, and Bla- 
sons Heretiques ; the various parts of the human body had 
their blason, and it would have been difficult to find in 
the whole range of creation a substance which was not 
amenable to the rules and precepts so curiously explained 
by Gwyllim. Amongst the various works relating to 
heraldry, the Blason des Couleurs was for a long time one 
of the most celebrated ; edition after edition, published in 
rapid succession, could not satisfj' the curiosity of the 
public ; and now the few copies, which from time to time 
appear at book-sales, fetch the most extraordinary prices. 
In a very suggestive Preface to this elegant edition, M. 
Cocheris proves sufficiently that the rarity of the Blason 
des Couleurs is not the only merit it possesses. Whilst 
descanting on the significance of the several heraldic 
colours, and illustrating them by constant reference to 
the topics of ordinary life, the writer has unconsciously 
explained many social and domestic details of his own 
times, and contributed to give us a more accurate know- 
ledge of the manners of our forefathers. The Blason des 
Couleurs is composed of two distinct treatises: the first 
being entitled De la Maniere de Blasonner les Couleurs en 
Armoirie, is the work of a pseudonymous author who, 
like most heralds, adopted a kind of nom de guerre; and 
Styled himself, accordingly, Sicille, herault a ires puissant 
roy Alphonse d'Aragon. This part is decidedly the less 
valuable of the two ; it is, as M. Cocheris remarks, a 
mere translation of certain passages from Pliny, inter- 
larded with quotations from the Bible, from "isidorus 
Hispalensis, Thomas Aquinas, &c., &c. However, it would 
be unfair to look for much in an author who frankly ac- 
knowledges that " sa plume est trop mal stillee de bon 
sens et non arrouse'e du jus de loquence." Sicille con- 
fines his attention merely to ihe qualities of our nature, 
and he assigns them severally to the seven different 
colours recognised in heraldry : gold, for instance, is the" 
correlative of nobility and riches ; its cognate jewel is the 
topaz ; it is the colour of youth, of the sun, of faith, and 
of Sunday. 

M. Cocheris is inclined to believe that the second trea- 
tise contained in this volume, and entitled La Maniere de 
Blasonner toutes Couleurs, tant en Livrees, Devises, qu'en 
aultre Maniere, is not from the pen of the King of Ara- 

gon's herald. The author, whosoever he may be, has very 
wisely avoided the common-place remarks which dis- 
figure Sicille's pamphlet, and given us instead some 
amusing and interesting particulars on the fashions 
adopted during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries for 
the decoration of houses and the adjustment of wearing 
apparel. Thus, talking of the blue colour, he says : " Le 
bleu est une couleur naturelle dont on use et principalle- 
ment les paintres. On en faict les voultes et embriseures 
des logis, palays, chasteaux et salles ; elle demonstre la 
figure du del." 

Some of our author's pages read like an extract from 
the Journal des Modes. Of the same colour blue, or pers, 
as it was then designated, applied to dresses, he remarks : 
" Le bleu, couleur commune'ment portee par les Angloys 
comme leur propre livree, se porte par les filles en sainc- 
tures et cordons, et voulentiers par gens de villaige, 
comme en chapeaulx, robes, pourpoins et chausses. Et 
tend-on de pers en la maison d'ung trespasse." The Blason 
de Couleurs is the eighteenth volume of M. Aubry's Tresor 
des Pieces Rares ou Inedites a collection which we have 
had already the opportunity of recommending to our 
readers. Published in the most elegant style, with wood- 
cuts, a portrait of Sicille, &c., &c., the reprint just noticed 
really deserves a place in every scholar's library, because 
it is a specimen of a style of literature which formerly 
was exceedingly fashionable. It is impossible to ascer- 
tain in a positive manner the date of the Blason des 
Couleurs ; M. Cocheris thinks it must have been com- 
posed between the years 1435 and 1458. The fact that 
the name of the historian Robert Gaguin is mentioned, 
proves that the original text has been modified by some 
unknown editor after its first publication. 





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[2-1 S. XL FEB. 9. '61. 


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Being an Account of Excavations and Researches on the Site of the Phoenician Metropolis, and in other 

Adjacent Places. 

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I. The Way to be happy. 
II. The Woman taken in 

III. The Two Records of Crea- 


IV. The Fall and the Repent- 

ance of Peter. 
V. The Good Daughter. 
VI. The Convenient Season. 
VII. The Death of the Martyrs. 
VIII. God is Love. 
IX. St. Paul's Thorn in the 

X. Evil Thoughts. 

XT. Sins of the Tongue. 
XII. Youth and Age. 

XIII. Christ our Rest. 

XIV. The Slavery of Sin. 
XV. The Sleep of Death. 

XVI. David's Sin our Warning. 
XVII. The Story of St. John. 
XVIII. The Worship of the Sera- 
XIX. Joseph an Example to the 


XX. Home Religion. 
XXI. The Latin Service of the 
Romish Church. 

"Mr. Secretan is a paing-takinsr writer of practical theology. Called 
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with many London preachers,- ami at the same time to rise above the 
strictly plain sermon required by an unlettered flock in the country. 
He has hit the mean with complete success, and produced a volume 
which will be readily bought by those who are in search of sermons for 
family reading. Out of twenty-one discourses it is almost impossible 
to give an extract which would show the quality of the rest, but while 
we commend them as a whole, we desire to mention with especial re- 
spect one on the ' Two Records of Creation,' in which the vfxata 
qucestio of ' Geology and Genesis ' i-i stated with great perspicuity and 
faithfulness! another on 'Home Religion,' in which the duty of the 
Christian to labour for the salvation of his relatives and friends is 
strongly enforced, and one on the ' Latin Service in the Romish Church,' 
which though an argumentative sermon on a point of controversy, is 
perfectly free from a controversial spirit, and treats the subject with 
great fairness and ability." Literary Churchman. 

" They are earnest, thoughtful, and practical _ of moderate length 
and well adapted for families." English Churchman. 

" The sermons are remarkable for their 'unadorned eloquence' and 
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the Mosaic account of the creation as reconcilable with the revelations 
of geological science, and that on the Latin service of the Romish 
Church both showing liberalityi manliness, and good gense." 
Morning Chronicle. 

1 This volume bears evidence of no small ability to recommend it to 
. _r readers. It is characterised by a liberality and breadth of thought 
which might be copied with advantage by many of the author's bre- 

our readers. It is characterised by a liberality and breadth of thought 
which might be copied with advantage by many of the author's bre- 
thren, while the language is nervous, racy Saxon. In Mr. Secretan's 

sermp'ns there are genuine touches of feeling and pathos which are im- 
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2* S. XI. FEB. 16. '61.] 





CONTENTS. N. 268. 

w^J: Diary of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy King-at- 
Arms, 121 The Badge of a Yeoman of the Crown, 124 
Slang in 1737: The Shakspearian words " Callow and 
" Micher," 125 Dryden's Pre faces, Ib. Richard Hooker ;: 
on the First Edition of the " Ecclesiastical Polity," Book 
V., 126 Modern Apocryphal Apocalypse, 127. 

MINOR NOTES : A Parallel with a Moral Early Allusion 
to Hamlet Schneidewin and Shakspeare Curious En- 
try in the Register of St. Olave's, Jewry, London "He 
has got St. Peter's Fingers " Knights still called "Mas- 
ter," 127. 

QUERIES: The Gipsy Language, 129 Anonymous 
Portraits of the Archbishops of Armagh Lady Bolles, a 
Baronetess in her own Right Cobbler of Messina Epi- 
taph in Newport Churchyard, Isle of Wight Frolics of 
the Judges in the Olden Time Giles Greene, M.P. Gon- 
dolasGowns of Doctors of Medicine Heraldic Query 
Hordus, " Historia Quatuor Regum Anglise," &c., 129. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Eccentric Traveller John 
Nider John Vicars " Beams of Light " Loot " Dis- 
quisitions on Several Subjects," 132. 

REPLIES : The Battle of Baug6, 133 Heart Burial,134 
Donnybrook, near Dublin, 135 Beauseant, Ib. Pancake 
throwing at Westminster School on Shrove Tuesday, 136 
Pronunciation of "Coleridge" Sir Humphrey May 
The Walkinshaws Copper Coins of James II., dated 
later than 1688 Orientation Deflection of Chancels 
Roberts Family James Rees : The Dramatic Authors of 
America Alderman Sir Julius Caesar : Bottefang (Jules 
Ctesar East Anglian Words : Dutfin Severe Frost 
Mr. Simon Gray Refreshment to Clergymen, &c., 136. 

Notes on Books. 



(Continued from p. 104.) 

Aug. 28. Mr. Vertue called upon me, and we 
appointed to go next Sunday to Mr. Ames. Told 
me he had been at Penshurst, the Lord Leicester's, 
again ; took a copy of Sir Philip Sidney's picture, 
and that he saw in the library Sir Philip's Apo- 
logy for, or Defence of, his Uncle Robert Earl of 
Leicester, written with his own hand in five or 
six sheets of paper, in answer to some libel then 
written or published against him, which I imagine 
to have been Father Parsons his green coat, after- 
wards called Leicester's Commonwealth, 4 and 8, 
1541 ; and he observed that the said defence or 
apology ends with Sir Philip's challenge to main- 
tain with his sword what he had herein asserted 
with his pen against the said author of the said 
libell, if he was a gentleman, in any part of the 
world. 1 

Aug. 29. Dined with Mr. Ames ; saw his collec- 
tion of old Title-pages, and Mr. Lewis his intended 
Title-page for his Life of Maister William Cuxton 2 , 

1 Sir Philip Sydney's Defence of his Uncle is printed in 
Collins's Letters and Memorials of State, fol. 1746, vol. i. 
pp. 61-66. 

9 " Life of Mayster Wyllyam Caxton, of the Weald of 
Kent, the first Printer in England." By the Rev. John 

our first printer, which I could in very few of the 
particulars approve of; it being too circumstantial, 
and giving us most of the private history of the man 
in the first page of the book. Besides, the sub- 
joining a poetical motto in French, from a modern 
French poet, and that a translation rather on the 
art of writing than printing, is too great an im- 
propriety, too foreign, noways honouring his 
worthy or his work, nor becoming the course and 
character of an antiquary. Therefore, I recom- 
mended rather one from Mrs. Weston's Latin poem 
of typography. 3 Supped with Mr. Thompson 4 at 
St. Saviour's, and borrow'd his Caxton's Tully de 
Senectute for the fifth number of The British Li- 
brarian; was witness to his paying a legacy to 
Hasselden of 301 Sent a letter to Mr. Ames 
about the title of Mr. Lewis's Life of Caxton, and 
about the twenty hundred weight of waste books, 
at 25.<f. per cwt. Wrote an answer to Mr. Anstis 
at Mortlake about the MS. collections, relating to 
the Order of the Garter, which he thinks is the 
same book with that he formerly borrowed of a 
noble peer, with the arms of Mr. Ashmole upon 
it, and which had been missing some time out of 
the said nobleman's library, whom he promises 
shall make a recornpence suitable to what it cost, 
if it be his, and is restored to him ; further desir- 
ing direction how to behave himself to discover 
the person who took it away. 

Sep. 1. Saw Mr. Wm. Jones's 6 curious library, 
and fine collection of shells, fossils, &c., at his 
house next the Salt Office, in York Buildings. 

Lewis, of Margate. Lond. 1737, royal 8vo. 150 copies 
were printed with a fictitious portrait of Caxton. 

3 Elizabeth Joanna Weston, a learned lady of the six- 
teenth century. The poem is printed in her Opuscula, 
8vo. 1724, p. 147. 

* Sir Peter Thompson, Knt. was the third son of Capt. 
Thomas Thompson, of Poole, co. Dorset, in which town 
Sir Peter was born Oct. 30, 1698. Sir Peter was engaged 
in mercantile pursuits more than forty years, during 
which period he chiefly resided in Mill Street, Bermond- 
sey. He was elected F.S.A. 1743; appointed high- 
sheriff for Surrey, 1745 ; and represented the borough of 
St. Albans in parliament from 1747 to 1754. In 1763, he 
withdrew from commercial affairs to enjoy the pleasures 
of studious retirement. He died on October 30, 1770. 
His valuable library and museum became the property 
of his kinsman Peter Thompson, who in 1782 was a cap- 
tain of the company of grenadiers in the Surrey militia. 
Sir Peter collected, at great expence, all the antient re- 
cords that could be found relating to the town of Poole, 
which he liberally communicated to Mr. Hutchins for his 
History of Dorsetshire. His materials for the Life of 
Joseph Ames were used by Mr. Gough in the Memoirs 
prefixed to Mr. Herbert's edition of the Typographical 
Antiquities. Mr. Oldys, in the British Librarian, ac- 
knowledges his obligations to " his ingenious friend Mr. 
Peter Thompson, for the use of several printed books, 
which are more scarce than manuscripts; particularly 
some, set forth by our first printer in England ; and 
others, which will rise, among the curious, in value, as, 
by the depredations of accidents or ignorance, they de- 
crease in number." Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, v. 258. 511. 

5 Father of Sir. William Jones.. 



XI. FEB. 16. '61. 

2. Sent another letter to Mr. Anstis, accepting 
his invitation to Mortlake, promising to be with 
him next Wednesday. Mr. Booth, when he called 
yesterday, said he had manuscripts enough to 
supply several British Librarians, and that he 
would bring me the old Record relating, as I re- 
member, to the Forest of Delamere, when Mr. 
Holmes 6 of the Tower had transcribed it. 

4. Dined with Mr. Vertue, and went with him 
to Mr. Ames 7 in the afternoon. Returned Mr. 
Thompson's Caxton, and borrowed Sir Thomas 
Elyot's Governour. s 

6. Mr. Vertue shewed me two curious lirmiings 
by old Isaac Oliver and his son Peter. 9 The first 
was of Sir Philip Sidney, in a small oval in a blue 
ground. His hair light brown, pretty full and 
dark shaded ; his face pale or somewhat wan, per- 
haps the colours only somewhat faded ; his eyes 
gray, very lively and sharp ; his nose gently ris- 
ing ; his beard thin ; his dress a falling laced 
band, with a scollop edging; his vest, or doublet, 
white sattin corded, and laid along crossways very 
thickly with silver-lace, with this mark on the 
right hand *. 10 The other, by Peter Oliver, is of 
Sir Edward Harley, Knight of the Bath, grand- 
father to the Earl of Oxford. 'Tis somewhat 
larger than the other, set in gold, painted on a 
brown ground, as I remember, black short hair, 
roundish face, black eyes, picked beard ; dressed 
in a ruff, close jacket or doublet, blue or greyish 
coloured, and flowered with black, and a red rib- 
bon about his neck. This motto to the right, Ter 
et amplius, and this mark to the left, PO, both in 
gold letters. They are both delicate pieces, but 

6 George Holmes, Keeper of the Records in the Tower 
of London: born in 1GG2, and died 16th Feb. 1748-9. 

7 Joseph Ames, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, 
was originally a ship-chandler in Wapping. Late in life 
lie took to the study of antiquities ; and besides his Ty- 
pographical Antiquities, 4to. 1749, he published a Cata- 
logue of English Heads, 8vo. 1748, being the first attempt 
at giving a list of portraits, since followed up by Gran- 
ger, Noble, Bromley, Walpole, &c. He died in 1759. His 
library and prints were sold by auction in the following 
year. Oldys, in his British Librarian, acknowledges his 
obligations to Mr. Ames, whom he styles " a worthy pre- 
server of antiquities," and returns him many thanks " for 
the use of one ancient relique of the famous Wicliffe." 
This was an illuminated MS. on vellum, called " Wicliffe's 
Pore Caitiff." 

8 This work is noticed by Oldys in The British Li- 
brarian, p. 261. It is entitled "The Boke named the 
GOVERNOUU; devised by Sir Thomas Elyot, Knyght. 
Imprinted at London, in Flete-strete, in the House of 
Thos. Berthelet, cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum" 
8vo. 1553: 216 leaves, besides Tables, &c. 

9 Vide Wai pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 1849, i. 
17fi. 221., for notices of these two miniature painters. 

L The celebrated work of Isaac Oliver, formerly at 
Cowdray, had this same mark. It was a picture of three 
sons of Viscount Montague. (Walpole, Anec., ed. Dal- 
Jaway, i. 297.) A miniature of Sir Philip Sydney by the 
same artist was purchased by Horace Waln'ole at West's 
sale for 161. 5s. (Ibid. 299.) 

the former ha.s the hair more finely laboured, and 
the skin more tenderly stippled. The latter is 
freer, bolder, fresher. Mr. Vertue is graving 
them both : one for the publick, the other for the 
Earl of Oxford. He shewed me several other mi- 
niatures, many of them his own painting. His 
Queen of Scots, a full-length, seems to have most 
engaged his pains ; and his miniature of Sir Wal- 
ter Ralegh, in the silver armour, has a nearer ap- 
proach to the beauty of the original than his 
print before my Life of him, which makes the 
face longer, and less graceful. 

7. Dined with Mr. Anstis at his seat near Mort- 
lake. Saw the Duke of Montague's letter to him, 
by which it appears the old heraldical manuscript 
before- mentioned was his Grace's, and that the 
gentleman lately dead, a Mr. Grimes, among 
whose books it was bought, had borrowed it of 
him. It was the handwriting of Sir Thomas 
Wriothe.sley, who died about 26 Henry VIII., in 
which the statutes of the Order appear at the be- 
ginning of that book, who signs at the end his ini- 
tial letters, Th.Wr. A.R. Greek, that is, Grekelade. 
All the old illuminations of the Order of the Bath 
were graved in small compartments in one sheet 
in Sir Edward Bysse's Upton De Studio militari 
[fol. 1654]. And the Duke has graved the por- 
traits at length of the old Earls of Salisbury, &c., 
in this book, which, with some others from other 
illuminations, make up seventeen plates ; and Mr. 
Anstis has copied much of the arms and badges, 
&c., of the Knights of the Garter in it, so that the 
book has now been almost totally ransacked. Saw 
several curious books, &c., in his library, and his 
own book of the Order of the Garter, with many 
manuscript additions interleaved, and written on 
the margins. Some talk with Mr. Haslin about 
the Librarian, and his taste is for only old things, 
and collating editions, distinguishing omissions, 
alterations, &c. ; but I made an objection they 
could not except against about Dr. Drake's edi- 
tion of Archbishop Parker's Lives of the Arch- 
bishops, wherein is received all the author's rejec- 
tions, for which indiscrete labour he could con the 
said editor no thanks. Saw the pictures of Robert 
Earl of Leicester in a close reddish doublet, 
half-length, and his brother Ambrose, Earl of 
Warwick, in the dining-room. Heard that the 
Yelverton library now is in the possession of the 
Earl of Sussex *, wherein are many volumes of 
Sir Francis Walsingham's State Papers. 

23. Dr. Pepusch offer' d me any intelligence or 
assistance from his antient collections of musick, for 
a history of that art and its professors in England. 

1 The Yelverton MSS. were all given by the Earl of 
Sussex to Lord Calthorpe, whose mother was of the Yel- 
verton family, and at his death had not been opened. 
(Gough MS. "quoted in Nichols's Lit. Anec. iii. 622.) A 
catalogue of them is printed in the Cat. Manuscriptoruru 
Anglice et Hibernicc, torn, ii., part, i., pp. 113 174. 

B. 16. '61.] 



27. Mr. Coxeter told me that the Queen's l col- 
lection of Plays were offered by Mr. Cooke 2 , who 
first collected them, for fourscore guineas, and 
were, as his, thought too dear; but after Mrs. 
Old field 3 the actress died, and they were reported 
to be her collection, then the Queen would have 
them at any rate ; and was reported, I think, in 
the newspapers to have given 200Z. for them ; but, 
as he tells me, she had them for six score guineas. 
And it is not improbable but that volume of 
ten of Massinger's Plays, which was about three 
or four months since sold by Cock the auctioneer 
(in the sale of Sclater Bacon's Books 4 ), to the 
Countess of Pomfret's footman for 31. 105. 6 , was 
bought to add to that collection. He also said 
that Weaver 6 , the dancing-master's collection of 
plays, was more complete, which sold to Chitty the 
merchant for 18Z., and that Sir Thomas Hanmer is 
preparing an edition of Shakespeare. 

Oct. 5. Received the last sheet of the first vo- 
lume of Mr. Hayward's British Muse ; with him 
heard at his house the account of Austin, the ink 
powder man, noted for his fireworks ; also the 
great pudding he made for his customers ; but 
more especially the pudding which about twelve 
or thirteen years since he baked ten feet deep in 
the Thames near Rotherhithe for a wager, by en- 
closing it in a great tin pan, and that in a great 
sack of lime ; and after in about two hours and a 
half it was taken up, and eaten with much liking, 
being only a little overbaked. There was above 
an 100Z. won upon this experiment. 

Dec. 22. Went in the evening to see Mr. Nic- 
kolls near Queen Hythe, and he shewed me his 
collection of Original Letters and Addresses to 
Oliver Cromwell, all pasted into a large volume, 
folio; in number about 130, and written to him 
while he was Lieutenant of Ireland, General of 
the army in Scotland, and Protector of England, 
from the year 1650 to 1654 the greatest part, 
but some down to 1658, ending with an address 
to Richard Cromwell, and a Commission signed 
by Prince Rupert. They had been the collection 
of Mr. John Milton, and were preserved by Thomas 
Elwood the Quaker, who had been his amanuensis, 
from whom they descended to the master with 
whom Mr. Nickolls served his time, and so they 

1 Caroline, Queen Consort of George II. Ob. Nov. 20, 

2 Thomas Cooke, dramatist and miscellaneous writer. 

3 Mrs. Oldfield died on Oct. 23, 1730. 

4 Thomas Sclater Bacon, whose library was sold on 
March 14, and following days, 1736-7. 

5 These ten plays bv Massinger, 4to. (lot 720), sold for 
3Z. 16s. 

6 The name of John Weaver, that little dapper cheer- 
ful man, is not to be found in any biographical dictionary. 
He was buried in St. Chad's church, Shrewsbury, on 
28th Sept. 1760. Vide N. & Q.," 2"i Ser. iii. 89. 138. 

came to him. 7 He says he has suffered half a 
dozen or half a score of them to be made use of 
by Mr. Birch in his Life of Oliver Cromwell in- 
j serted in the General Dictionary ; and it, is cer- 
tain if those other letters, written by Oliver Crom- 
well himself, which are still in being, as Mr. Ames 
tells me, in Sir Hans Sloane's possession, and in 
Ashmole's Museum at Oxford, through the gift of 
Dr. Massey, they would give a more perfect idea 
of the man and his actions than all that has been 
said of him by the particular writers of his Life, 
as the author of Parallelum Olivee [fol. 1656.], S. 
Carrington, 8vo. 1659, H. Dawbeny, James Heath, 
Slingsby Bethel, J. Shirley, Le Sieur du Galardi, 
Gregorio Leti, L'Abbee Raguenet, and Mr. Kim- 
ber, or what all the general historians have writ- 
ten of him put together. 

Jan. 25, 1737-8. Mr. Twells 8 goes out of 

Feb. 20. At the sale of Mr. Sclater Bacon's 
library in the Piazza [Co vent Garden], there 
arose one book called the Pastyme of People, a 
thin fol. volume, with wooden cuts of the English 
kings, from William the Conqueror to the slaugh- 
ter of King Richard HI., written the 21st of Hen. 
VIII. or 1530, and soon after printed. And 
nobody then present, of near thirty gentlemen and 
booksellers, &c., had discovered it to be John Ras- 
tell's Chronicles but myself, wherefore it stopped 
at ten shillings, the extent of Mr. West's commis- 
sion to Noorthouck, the bookseller, for it ; who, 
had he known what it was, would have raised it to 
20^., or he would have had it. But having ap- 
prised Mr. Ames of it, he got for the former sum 
one of the scarcest books in England. 9 Two 

Efive] nights after he bought at the same place 
axton's Game of Chesse, the second edition, with 
wooden cuts, with his Mirror of the World, and 
Chaucer's translation, Boetius de Consolatione Phi- 

7 These letters have since been printed, entitled, " Ori- 
ginal Letters and Papers of State, addressed to Oliver 
Cromwell, concerning the Affairs of Great Britain, from 
the Year 1649 to 1658, found among the Political Collec- 
tions of Mr. John Milton ; now first published from the 
Originals, by John Nickolls, F.R. and A.S.S. fol. 1743." 
The originals of these Letters were long treasured up by 
Milton ; from whom they came into the possession of 
Thomas Elwood. From "Elwood they came to Joseph 
Wyeth, a merchant of London ; from whose widow they 
were obtained by Mr. Nickolls, and eventually presented 
to the Society of Antiquaries. Mr. Nickolls was a 
Quaker, and his place of business as a mealman was 
in Trinity parish, near Queenhithe. He was a curious 
collector of antiquities, and chosen F.S.A. Jan. 17, 1740 : 
ob. Jan. 11, 1745. Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, ii. 159. 

8 The Rev. Leonard Twells, M.A., Rector of the united 
parishes of St. Matthew, Friday Street, and St. Peter, 
Cheapside. At this time he was engaged on his great 
work, The Theological Works of Dr. Pocock, 2 vols. fol. 
1740. He died 19th Feb. 1741-2. 

9 Lot 1464. The Pasthyme of People, fol. No date, sold 
for 11s. 



\ [2* S. XI. FEB. 16. '61, 

losophie, printed together by him in a thick folio 
about 1480 for two guineas. 1 

March 1. Mr. Thompson bought at Bacon's 
auction a book called, and often mistaken for, 
Caxton's Chronicle, but is indeed The Chronicle of 
St. Atbans, compiled by one sometime schoolmas- 
ter in that town, printed 1483, for 31. 4s. 3 Also 
another edition by Wynken de Worde, having 
the account of the Popes left out, and the Descrip- 
tion of England, Wales, and Ireland added from 
the Polychronicon, fol. 1502. Also, another edition 
of this last book by Julian Notary, 1515. 

3. Went to Leicester Square with Mr. Ames, 
and saw Mr. Vertue there, and had some discourse 
about his grand design of an Ichnographical Sur- 
vey, or Map of London and all the suburbs ; but 
Mr. Rocque and he are not yet come to an agree- 
ment. 3 

5. Dined at Mr. Thompson's, and took an ex- 
tract of what his authors afforded of the writers 
on the antiquities of Essex. Dr. Oxley told me 
that Mr. Haynes was going on with Cecil's Let- 
ters *, that he had two or three transcribers at 
work : intended to publish a volume at a time, 
and gives hopes that Sir Walter Ralegh's will be 
published among them. Mr. Smith shewed me 
some good specimens of his art in reviving the 
illuminated letters in old MSS., and intimated that 
the Countess of Pomfret is very skilful in this work. 

Mr. Ames called at Chambers. Thanked him 
for his ancient Greek inscription of Crato ; tells 
me he had given Mr. Ward my last commu- 
nications for his History of Gresham College* 
about the time of knighting the Greshams. In- 
formed him of a picture of Sir Thomas Gres- 
ham's at the old Countess of Oxford's sale. They 
are to come and see it ; and Mr. Thompson to see 
the old record of Caxton's death and burial at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, for the use of Mr. 
Lewis, whose Life of that our first printer is 
in the press. Received the bookseller's title (in 
a proof) of Mr. Hay ward's British Muse, which I 
noways like ; and the abridgement they have pro- 
cured of my Preface to it by a hasty hand, igno- 
rant of the subject, and who has ungratefully left 
out the acknowledgments which the author ex- 
pressly desired I would make of those communi- 
cations which have much enriched his said collec- 
tion from our own poets. 5 

(To be continued.} 

1 Lot 1614. Caxton's Boetius alone in Thorpe's Cata- 
logue of 1849 is marked 105t See N. & Q.," !* Ser. i. 

2 Qy. Lot 1585, which sold for 31. Is. For a notice of 
this copy, see Nichols's Literary Illustrations, iv. 166. 

5 John Rorque's Survey of London, Westminster, and 
Southwark, 1746, 1751. 

4 Collection of State Papers, edited by Samuel Haynes 
and Wm. Murdin. Lond. 1740-59, 2 vols. folio. 

s The British Muse, by Thomas Hay ward, 3 vols. 12mo. 
Lond. 1738. In Oldys's annotated Langbaine, he thus 


In Hutchins's History of Dorsetshire, among 
several old inventories of the same kind, is 
printed one entitled " The appraisement of goods 
formerly belonging to St. James's church at 
Poole," i.e. apparently at the time of the Re- 
formation. This contains two " Saynt Jamys 
shells," which probably were brought as tokens 
of pilgrimage from the shrine of Compostella, 
and offered, on landing, to the altar of St. James 
at Poole ; also " a legge of sylver," (qu. another 
badge of pilgrimage ?) ; " an Agnus Dei of syl- 
ver;" "a burgym grote" (qu. a Burgyne or Bur- 
gundy groat ?) and these two items : 

" iii. gylte pens. 

"A crown of sylver and gylte for a yoman of the 

Both of these appear to me to have been tem- 
poral or secular cognisances. The " gilt pens " I 
take to have been badges of the Ostrich feather, 
used by the Prince of Wales and by other junior 
members of the royal family. 

The cognisance of a silver gilt Crown worn by 
a Yeoman of the Crown is an example that will 
interest those whose attention was drawn to that 
subject a few years ago at the Society of Anti- 
quaries. They will remember that in the library 
at Somerset House a small sepulchral brass (pre- 
sented by Dr. Diamond) is fixed near the fire- 
place, of a man in armour (his name lost) wearing 
the badge of the Crown on his left shoulder. It 
is engraved in the Society's Proceeding^ vol. iv. 
p. 71. ; and on the following page is an engraving 
of another example existing in the church of 
Quethiock, in Cornwall, for a person named Ed- 
ward Kyngdon. Some other examples are said 
to exist, but I have not seen engravings or rub- 
bings of them ; and in some instances there appears 
to have arisen a misapprehension and confusion 
between this simple badge of the Crown, and the 
later badge of the Rose and Crown, which be- 
longed to the yeomen of the guard, by whom and 

complains of the publisher's cupidity: "To this book I 
wrote the Introduction, but the penurious publishers (to 
contract it within a sheet), left out a third part of the 
best matter in it, and made more faults than there were 
in the original." Poor Oldys appears most sensibly to 
have lamented the loss of this elaborate Dissertation on 
the previous Collections of English poetry. In his own 
copy of The British Muse (afterwards Thomas Warton's, 
and latterly Mr. Douce's), he has thus expressed himself: 
" In my historical and critical review of all the collec- 
tions of this kind, it would have made a sheet and a half 
or two sheets; but they for sordid gain, and to save a 
little expense in print a'nd paper, got Mr. John Campbell 
to cross it and cramp it, and play the devil with it, till 
they squeezed it into less compass than a sheet." Ac- 
cording to Warton, this work is the most comprehensive 
and exact common-place book of our most eminent 
poets, throughout the reign of Queen Elizabeth and 

2 S. XL FEB. 16. '61.] 



the Queen's trumpeters it is still worn, and which 
probably originated under the House of Tudor. 

SLANG IN 1737. 


In "N. & Q.," 2 nd S. x. 464, 5., I gave some 
extracts from THE MOBIAD, a book written in 
1737, and published at Exeter in 1770; and I 
then remarked on the evidence it gave of the 
early use of such slang words as TBOTTERS, GAG 
GERMEN, &c. In this book I note the following 
slang words, which are not in Mr. Hotten's Dic- 
tionary, and some of which are in use at the pre- 
sent day. The notes are in the original : 
" And knocks more solid which hard NODDLES throw." 
(" Though Noddle properly signifies but the Occipi- 
tium, or Hinder-Part of the Head, yet it is among the 
Vulgar us'd for the Head entire ; but us'd indeed some- 
what contemptuously, like as a Block-Head, a Logger- 
head, &c. the best Heads in the World for Boxera, 
Bruisers, and Cudgellers.") 

" Debtors not dodge the BUM'S rapacious paw." 
" Now Kitchen-maids knock'd up by CHURERS :" 
("i.e. the Chair or Char-women.") 

" Before him toss his social TITS in fright, 
Nor need commanding Rhee! Terrup I or Hight!" 
(" These are terms or sounds us'd by our Country 
Wood-carriers, &c. to command their Horses by, to go 
forward, to turn or incline to the Right-hand or Left. 
Terrup, 1 imagine, is as much as if to say, Troop along !") 

' Now Chiefs of haughty bosom supple stoop 
Ev'n to the JAKES to angle for a Dupe." 
(" Elsewhere noted. For want of proper Palisades or 
Rails, this Church's Side is made a perfect Jakes of.") 

" So, at the thrifty cost of TWELVERS nine." 

" Ale-soakers now exert their leachy Skill 
Quick to induce the RUNNING OF THE QUILL." 
(" When the Rabble have Liquor given 'em before, at, 
or after Elections, they say the Quill runs at such or such 
a House ; and they getting themselves drunk by it they 
call QUILLING, or drinking upon the Quill. I conjecture 
it had its Origin from a Quill's being us'd for the Liquor's 
running through from the Meshing- Vat in Brewing. Nor 
is it indeed impossible but a Quill was heretofore us'd 
here instead of a modern Brass Cock, or Wooden Faucet; 
we still saying Put the Jug, c. to Pen, when we'd sig- 
nify the having it run from the Hogshead immediately 
into the Jug.") 

" In parts remote, the RIFFRAFF, men and boys." 

" As soon could Smiths their trough's black puddle SWIG, 

And Tuckers fuddle on their slimy SIG." 

" And hear 

His MUG-MATES take of Talk some little share. 
No : Wroth Beuanak, \m\ky, tall, in word 
And act robust, with dauntless STINGO spurr'd " 
" Shall such as from wild Bogland's RAPPAREES 

Denomination take ." 

The note says, that " A Tory or a Rapparee 
originally means the same Person." Many other 
words are curiously used and explained in this 
book. Guineas are called by their slang name of 

YELLOW-BOYS ; PAGAN is used in its primitive 
sense, for "a Villager, or Countryman;" and 
" Running the Gaunt-lope " is explained as a 
martial punishment, so called, " as invented or 
used first at Gaunt, or Ghent, in Flanders" 

The Mobiad contains many peculiar Devonshire 
words. Perhaps the following words are Devo- 
nian ; for " a wherret " is usually a fidgety scold : 

" Where might just WHERRETS, SCATS, and WHISTER- 

(" Country words for Blows, &c.") 

We have also an illustration of the two Devon- 
shire words GALLOW and MICHEE as used by 
Shahspeare : 
" When MICHERS, they for Nest, hedge- breaking go." 

(" Michers, or Truants. Shakespear uses the word in 
his Hen. IV.") 

The word occurs in Falstaff's examination of 
Prince Henry : 

" Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a tnicher, and eat 
blackberries ? a question not to be asked." 1 Hen. IV. 
II. 4. 

" Why is, by the Adult, the youngster crowd, 
He ponders, thus TO GALLOW Folk allow'd ? 
To GALLOW ? Yea, to gaul, perchance to lay 
Folk sprawling, or by worse mischance to slay ? " 
(" This being still a Devonshire word, though from 
Shakespear, it seems to have formerly been generally 
English, implying to fright, scare, or astonish, is, I hope 
with Propriety enough, put into the mouth of a Devon- 
shire Ploughman, &c. We seem to continue the use of 
the word in that of Gallows, or Gallow-Tree, signifying 
the Terrifying Tree, or Tree of Terror.") 

The Shakspearian passage here referred to is 
probably that in King Lear, Act III. Sc. 2., where 
Kent says, 

"The wrathful skies 
Gallow the very wanderers of the dark, 
And make them keep their caves." 



Will " N. & Q.," which have helped to suggest 
a collected edition of these Prefaces, care to quote 
the passage from Johnson, which enhances them 
almost to self-disparagement. ? The Poems they 
lead to might be found " tedious," which the Pre- 
faces themselves never are : though little harm 
will follow should the reader be induced to look 
elsewhere for whatever " Glorious John " has 
written about so gloriously. Surely some good 
publisher might present us in one volume with 
these Prefaces now scattered through so many : 
and I think he will not need a better -advertise- 
ment or authority than what follows, or part of 

Criticism, either didactic or defensive, occupies almost 
all his prose, except those pages which he has devoted to 
lis Patrons: but none of his Prefaces were ever thought 
;edious. They have not the Formality of a settled Style, 
in which the first half of the Sentence betrays the other. 



[2 S. XL FEB. 16. '61. 

The Clauses are never balanced, nor the Periods modell'd : 
every word seems to drop by chance, though it falls into 
its proper Place. Nothing is cold or languid : the whole 
is airy, animated, and vigorous: what is little is gay: 
what is great is splendid. He may be thought to men- 
tion himself too frequently: but while he forces himself 
upon our esteem, we cannot refuse him to stand high in 
his own. Every thing is excused by the Play of Images 
and the spriteliness of Expression. Though all is easy, 
nothing is feeble: though all seems careless, there is 
nothing harsh : and though, since his earlier Works, more 
than a Century has passed, they have nothing yet un- 
couth or obsolete. He who writes much will not easily 
escape a Manner : such a recurrence of particular Modes 
as may be easily noted. Drydeu is always another and 
the same : he does not exhibit a second time the same 
Elegancies in the same form, nor appear to have any Art 
other than that of expressing with Clearness what he 
thinks with vigour. His Style could not easily be imi- 
tated, either seriously or ludicrously: for, being always 
equable, and always varied, it has no prominent or dis- 
criminative Characters. The Beauty who is totally free 
from Disproportion of Parts and Features cannot be ridi- 
culed by an over-charged Resemblance." Johnson's 
Life of Dryden, fyc. 

N.B. I quote from a very common 12mo. ed. 
of 1793. One must include among his Prefaces 
some of " the Pages devoted to his Patrons," i. e. 
Dedications ; which make quite as good amends 
for their over-praise of others as Johnson says 
atones for self-praise in the Prefaces. PARATHINA. 

(2 nd S. xi. 45.) 

BOOK 5. 

I beg to follow up the subject in question, as 
I undertook to do in my notice of the first edition 
of the first four books, inserted in " N. & Q." 

My copy of the 5th book, as also that at the 
Bodleian Library, is bound up with the first edi- 
tion of the first four books, and exactly corre- 
sponds with it in form, paper, and type. 

" That second portion " (to use Mr. Keble's 
words, Preface to Hooker's Works, p. ix.), " con- 
taining the fifth book alone, came out, as is well 
known, in 1597, altogether in the same form as 
its predecessors. It seems to have excited great 
and immediate attention." The title-page is as 
follows : 


The Lawes 
of Ecclesiasticall 


The fift Booke. 
B} r Richard Hooker. 


Printed by John Windet, dwelling at Povvle's 
Wharfe", at the sign of the Crosse Keyes, and 
are there to be soulde. 

Then follows the " Epistle Dedicatorie to the 
Most Reverend Father in GOD, my verie good 

Lord," &c., and the notice of " Matter contained 
in this fift Booke," with the slight difference be- 
tween the text in the original and in Mr. Keble's 
edition, that in the former the paragraph, " Of 
their fourth Assertion," &c., heads the Book itself 
instead of the table of matter, which precedes it. 

The treatise contains 270 pages, exceeding by 
60 the size of the first four books together, and 
ends with this address " to the Reader : 

" Have patience with me for a small time, and by the 
helpe of Almightie GOD I will pay the whole. Faults 
escaped in the printing of this part, especially these en- 
suing, need amendment." 

A few errata succeed, with the word Finis ; 
which, I may observe, does not occur at the end 
of the fourth book, nor of any one previous. I 
would not build too much on this single word ; 
but, considering that the author had prefixed a 
Catalogue of eight books to the volume containing 
the first four, and no "Finis" appears there, its 
occurrence here may argue a certain degree of 
completeness, as prevailing in his mind at the 

I will only add that in the title-page of my 
copy of the first four books, there is written, in 
MS. at the corner, " Usque hue Jehovah ! " 
There is something so solemn and peculiar in the 
language, as connected with the publication of a 
work, confessedly incomplete (so much so, indeed, 
as to have a table of eight books, though only 
four appear) something so like the spirit of 
Hooker himself, acknowledging progress only, 
not completion, that I should feel much obliged 
to any of your readers, who could send me a 
fac-simile of Hooker's own writing, that I may 
compare it, and see whether I may not possess his 
autograph. I can suggest no other meaning to 
the solemn words, as accounting for their intro- 

Islip, near Oxford. 

Some readers of" N. & Q." may conclude from 
a recent notice of the first edition of Hooker's 
great work, that the book is one of extreme ra- 
rity. It is not a common book ; yet it is not of 
great rarity. Not long since I had three copies 
in my own possession, and I have seen a consi- 
derable number. In all the cases, the first edi- 
tion of Book V. was appended to the four books. 

The 2nd edition of the four books is of much 
greater rarity. When Mr. Keble published his 
1st edition, he had not seen the 2nd edition of the 
four books, which came out in 1604; he merely 
mentioned its existence on the authority of Wood. 
I wrote to him mentioning a copy in my posses- 
sion, and he alludes to it in a note in his 2nd edi- 

In appearance, this book is very much like the 
former edition. The page is of the same size, but 
the volume contains one page more than the for- 

2"i S. XI. FEB. 16. '01.] 



mer. Spencer's preface calls it the 2nd edition. 
Like the 1st edition the title mentions eight books. 
Though I have seen many copies of the 1st edi- 
tion, yet I do not remember more than three of 
the 2nd. With these the 5th book was joined. 

In the edition of the four books of 1604, Hooker's 
notice, with scarcely any variation, is retained by 
Spencer before his own list of errata. In short, the 
two books are so similar in appearance, that the 
late Mr. Kodd, of whom I purchased my copy, 
considered it to be the 1st edition with a new title. 
Such was his impression from his recollection of 
the appearance of the 1st edition. Until this copy 
turned up, the edition seems not to have been 
noticed. Undoubtedly many copies exist, though 
I have not seen more than three. Still the book 
must be much more rare than the 1st edition. 

The 3rd edition of the four books, and the 2nd 
of the 5th book appeared in 1611. This had not 
been seen by Mr. Keble when his 1st edition was 

At a sale at Puttick's, in December, a copy of 
Hooker, with the date 1604, appeared in the cata- 
logue. The book, however, turned out to be the 
edition of 1632, with the title of 1604 inserted. 

The late Mr. Pickering was anxious to collect 
all the editions of Hooker's works. In 1847 he 
wrote to me about the edition of 1604 in conse- 
quence of Mr. Keble's note. He had the 1st 
edition, and the 3rd of 1611, but not the 2nd of 

A curious circumstance may be mentioned re- 
lative to the 1st edition of Field's work "Of the 
Church." It was printed by "Humfrey Lownes 
for Simon Waterson, 1606." The title mentions 
five books, though only four are given. The list 
of errata is preceded by a notice in words nearly 
similar to those which had been adopted by 
Hooker and Spencer. In the same year another 
edition was published, in which the errata are 
corrected. Both have the same date, and the 
same number of pages ; yet no two pages in the 
two books agree in all particulars. By those who 
have not seen the 1st edition, the 2nd may be 
mistaken for it. Lownes's name does not appear 
on the title of the 2nd edition. 




It may reassure those whose nerves have been 
unstrung, by recent apocalyptic announcements, 
to be informed that the prophetic speculations of 
men, now-a-days, are only reproductions of the 
offsprings of similar brains in by-gone years. 
If MR. DARWIN were to turn his attention to the 
investigation of the origin of that species of pro- 
phecy, he might make an interesting book of the 
theme. As for me, I do not intend to indulge in 

a categorical catena of all the fitful, spasmodic, 
and spurious revelations which were pretended to 
since the days of the Apostles or indeed, since 
the day that was said by Him, who spoke as never 
man spake : " If any man shall say unto you, Lo 
here or there, believe it not." I am content with 
a note on the first furor of the kind, in this 
country since the Reformation. 

In the days of James I., Sir Henry Finch, the 
then great lawyer, published his startling work, 
The World's Great Restauration ; or, Calling of the 
Jews. This was 240 years ago. The following 
note, from the pen of a celebrity of the day, de- 
serves a place in your valuable weekly repository. 
It gives a fair idea of the great sensation which 
Finch's Apocryphal Apocalypse (a copy of which 
is not to be found even in the library of the 
British Museum) created at the time. 

" Mr. Joseph Mede to Mr. Stuteville. 

" April 17, 1621. 

" I have seen Sir Henry Finch, who has published The 
World's Great Restauration ; or, Calling of the Jews, and 
with them of all Nations and Kingdoms of the Earth, to the 
Faith of Christ. I can not see but for the main of the 
discourse I might assent unto him. God forgive me if it 
be a sin, but I have thought so many a day. But the 
thing which touches his Majesty in this point is which I 
will write out for you verbatim : ' The Jews and all Israel 
shall return to their land and antient seats, conquer their 
foes, have their soil more fruitful than ever. They shall 
erect a glorious church in the land of Judah itself, and 
bear rule far and near. We need not be afraid to aver 
and maintain that one day they shall come to Jerusalem 
again ; be kings and chief monarchs of the earth ; sway 
and govern all, for the glory of Christ that shall shine 
amongst them.' And this is it Lactantius saith, lib. vii. 
chap. 15. : ' The Roman name (7 will speak it because it 
must one day be) shall be taken from the earth, and the 
empire shall return to Asia ; and again shall the East bear 
dominion, and the West be in subjection.' In another place, 
'Ashur* and Egypt, all these large and vast countries 
shall be converted to Christ; the chief sway and sove- 
reignty remaining with the Jews. All nations shall 
honour them.' The King says he shall be a pure King, 
and he is so auld that he can not tell how to do his 
homage at Jerusalem." 

According to Sir Henry Finch and Mr. Joseph 
Mede, The World's Great Restauration was posi- 
tively to have taken place in the course of the 
seventeenth century. What has taken place since 
then, in the East and the West, is now written in 
the chronicles of those kingdoms. The apocry- 
phal seers of the seventeenth century, as the sons 
of the Prophets of this century, lost sight of Matt. 
xxiv. 14. Hence their saying: "Lo here, or 
there." 'Believe them not. 


iftfnor $ate3. 

curious narrative from Herodotus is very appli- 

[* Asia, in The Court and Times of James the First, 
vol. ii. p. 250., where this letter is printed. ED.] 



[2* S. XI. FEB. 16. '61. 

cable to the present state of things in reference' to 
the claim set up for fugitive slaves : 

"Pactyas having heard that the army which, had 
marched" against him was close at hand, in consternation 
fled for refuge to Cuma. 

" Magnus therefore despatched messengers to Cuma, 
commanding them to deliver up Pactyas; but the Cu- 
mseans, after deliberation, decided on making reference to 
the god in Branchida; for there was an oracle there, 
established of old time, which all the lonians and ^Eolians 
were in the habit of consulting. (Now this place is in 
Milesia, northward of the haven Panormus.) 

" The Cumseans there having sent deputies to Bran- 
chida, asked what they should do about Pactyas, so as to 
please the gods. To this question of theirs the response 
of the oracle was ' to give up Pactyas to the Persians.' 
When the Cumseans heard this repeated, they eagerly 
set themselves to deliver him up ; but though the multi- 
tude was eagerly set upon this, Aristodicus, the son of 
Heraclides, discrediting the oracle, or thinking that the 
deputies were not telling the truth, prevented the Cu- 
mseans from doing this thing, until at least other depu- 
ties should go to put the question about Pactyas a second 
time, and Aristodicus was one of them. On their arrival 
at Branchida, Aristodicus, in the name of all, consulted 
the god, submitting the question in these terms : ' 
King, there came to us a suppliant, Pactyas the Lydian, 
flying from a violent death at the hands of the Persians; 
and they demand him from us (for torture), requiring us 
to deliver him up; and we, though affrighted by the 
power of the Persians, have not hitherto dared to give 
him up, until it be expressly declared to us by thee what 
we should do. 5 On these words he submitted the ques- 
tion, and the god again gave the same answer, command- 
ing them to give up Pactyas to the Persians. Thereupon 
Aristodicus, of forethought, acted in this manner. Walk- 
ing round about the temple, he drove out the sparrows 
and all the other kinds of birds which had built their 
nests in the temple, and while he was doing this it is said 
that a voice issued from the innermost shrine, addressing 
Aristodicus, and in these words : ' Most impious of men, 
how darest thou to do these things ? Tearest thou my 
suppliants out of the temple ? ' And Aristodicus, without 
being at a loss for a moment, thereupon said, ' King, 
dost thou fly to the rescue of thy suppliant, and at the 
same time command the Cumseans to give up this sup - 
pliant ? ' And at that he (the god) again replied in these 
words: ' Yes, I do command it, in order that, having done 
the impious deed, ye might the sooner be destroyed, so as 
never more to come to the oracle about the giving up of 
suppliants.' " Herodotus, lib. i. cap. 157. 

P. A. D. 

innumerable Hamlet Notes has the following been 
noted ? 

" most unhappie Hamlet, country shire 
Where such uniust Justice have ths governance." 
Pedlar's Prophecie, 1595. 

The word Hamlet is in italic, with capital H. 
Was the reference intended by the author, or was 
the compositor's head running on the play he had 
seen ? Should there not be a note of exclamation 
after Hamlet ? G. H. K. 


of the readers of "N. & Q." may be amused at 
the following plagiarism : 

Some time ago, using Schneidewin's excellent 

edition of ^schylus's Agamemnon, I was surprised 
at the aptness of the editor's English illustrations ; 
but on v. 291. I met with a reference which puz- 
zled me. It was this : " So Shakespeare im K'6- 
nig Jacob : ' the red and bearded fires? " I never 
heard of Shakspeare's King James, and thought it 
remarkable that a German editor of JEschylus 
should be the first to disinter it. But some time 
after, looking through the illustrative quotations 
appended to Mr. Blew's translation of the Aga- 
memnon, I solved the mystery. Mr. Blew quotes, 
*' the sad and bearded fires " (through Mr. Mit- 
ford), from King James's Poems ! i. e. from the 
poet-king of Scotland. 

So far as I have observed, all Schneidewin's 
English quotations are taken from Mr. Blew, 
without a word of acknowledgment. S. C. 

OLAVE'S, JEWRY, LONDON. May I ask the mean- 
ing of the following ? : 

" 1591. Mem d that I William Corsse and Mary Corsse 
do here, in the pish of S 1 . Olive in the Jury in London, 
this present day, being the 2 d day of May, A.r>. 1591. in 
the presence of us whose names are here underwritten, 
Willingly, Freely, and Voluntarily give our son Pasfeld 
Corsse unto John Callcock, of London, Grocer, as freely as 
it pleased Almighty God to give him unto us, the 14 th 
day of Febr. 1586, being Ash Wednesday, he being five 
years old and better, and having been with y e said John 
Callcock now one year. And we promise further not to 
have to do with our said son Pasfield during the life of 
the said John Callcock, otherwise than to be humble pe- 
titioners unto Almighty God for the health of our said 
dear son and the prosperity of John Callcock, his said 
master. And in witness of the truth unto these premises 
we have putt our hands the day and year above said, 

" William Corse, Mary Corse, 

WM. Davies, Vicar, 

Nych'. Cokson, W m . Perie." 

Among the burials in the same parish register 
occur those of 

" M*. John Calcoke, Grocer, June 15, 1598. 

" M'. William Pery, deputy of the Ward, Jany. 19, 


5p - 



contemporary inquires the meaning of this phrase. 
If he will refer to that extraordinary book, the 
folio edition of Johnson's Lives of Highwaymen 
and Pirates, in the life of Dick Low (p. 384.), he 
will find the explanation : 

" But as he grew up in years, his Statufr]e made him 
past those exercises which they call the Morning, Noon, 
or Night Sneak, which is privately sneaking into Houses 
at any of those times, and carrying off what comes to 
hand ; for all's Fish that comes to Net with them, who 
are termed Saint Peter's children, as having every finger 
a fish hook." 

A similar expression is found in the Life of 
Avery, page 408. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

2d S. XL FEB. 16. '61.] 



circumstance perfectly well known to those who 
are conversant with the letters and literature of 
the sixteenth century, that the most eminent 
statesmen and others, as Sir Thomas More, or Sir 
William Cecill, and generally all knights, are con- 
tinually mentioned as M. More or M. Cecill, i. e. 
Master More or Cecill, &c., after they had re- 
ceived the dignity of knighthood. On the other 
hand, some writers, from an ignorance of this fact, 
have founded erroneous arguments upon a knight 
not having his proper title given to him. The 
following jest, which is probably older than the 
book from which I have copied it, may serve to 
fix the truth in the minds of historical students : 

"One asked why Ladyes called their husbands Master 
such a one and Master such a one, and not by their titles 
of knighthood, as Sir Thomas, Sir Richard, Sir William, 
&c. ? It was answered, that, though others called them 
by their titles, as Sir William, Sir Thomas, &c., yet it 
was fit their wives should Master them." Conceits, 
Clinches, Flashes, and Whimzies, published in 1639, and re- 
printed by J. O. Halliwell in 1860. 



As some readers of " N. & Q." have written to 
ask me several questions concerning the nature of 
the gipsy language, the following list of words 
will serve to show its resemblance to the Hindus- 
tani. For farther particulars see Grellmann's 
Versuch uber die Zigeuner, and Sorrow's Spanish 










English Gipsy. 

Bokolo, hungry. 

Bokoro, sheep. 

Boro, great. 

Chick, filth. 

Chiv, tongue. 

Dik, to see. 

Docker, to pain, hurt. 

Laje, shame, 

Mong, to beg. 

Nok, nose. Nak. 

Pan?', water. Pani. 

Pookker, to call, tell, &c. Pukarna. 

Pulch, to ask. Puchhna". 

Revp, silver. Kiipd. 

Soonakye, gold. Son6. 

Soon, to smell. Sunghna". 

Shoon, to hear. Sunna. 

Fogr, fire. Ag. 

The above words are taken from my vocabulary, 

collected entirely by myself from members of the 

race, and consisting of nearly 700 words. With a 

little trouble and help from readers of " N. & Q." 

my dictionary might be considerably increased. 

Answers to the following questions are required : 

1. Are you acquainted with any of the race; 

if so, what are their names, and where do they 

principally reside ? 

2. Can you give me any information concerning 
the Kirk Yerholm gang ? 

3. Wanted information respecting the gipsies 
residing in and near London. 

4. Wanted lists of gipsy words collected, not 
from books, but from true gipsies. 

5. Wanted any information whatever respecting 
the race. BATH C. SMART. 

ANONYMOUS. Who is author of The Count 
of Tuscany, and The Heir of Innes? Two trage- 
dies. London. 1822? I think I have seen it 
somewhere stated that the author's name was 
Wright. X. F. 

If I mistake not, portraits of many of ihe Arch- 
bishops of Armagh are preserved in the archie- 
piscopal palace, near that city. Can you, or any 
one of your readers, give me a list ? A few par- 
ticulars of size, painter's name, &c., would be very 
desirable. ABHBA. 


" Of Lady Bolles many strange stories are told. She 
was the founder of a charity at Wakefield, and also a 
benefactor of Sandal and Heath. She was created Baron- 
etess in her own right in 1635, and lies buried in Ledsham 
Church, where a full length -white marble monument 
represents her dressed hi her shroud. The villagers sav 
that Lady Bolles expressly ordered the room in which 
she died to be walled up, which chamber so remained 60 
years, but having been opened, the old lady has 'walked' 
ever since." Archaeologist, 186. 

Are there other instances of ladies being raised 
to the dignity of a baronetess ? E. H. A. 

COBBLER OF MESSINA. Lord Byron says of 
Porson, when at Cambridge : " I saw him once go 
away in a rage, because nobody knew the name 
of the ' Cobbler of Messina,' insulting their ignor- 
ance with the most vulgar terms of reprobation" 
(Works, by Moore, vol. iv. p. 85.) My ignorance 
is also liable to insult, for I know not the name of 
that distinguished cobbler. Will any one kindly 
tell me ? * MAZACH. 

WIGHT. Can any reader of " N. & Q." oblige me 
with a copy of an epitaph I saw a few years since 
on a tombstone in Newport churchyard, in the 
Isle of Wight, but of which (contrary to Captain 
Cuttle's advice) I did not make a note at the 
time? The purport of it, as I well remember, is, 
that though the person buried had been for a 
considerable number of years (more than half a 
century) in the revenue-service, he lived and died 
an honest man ! I am anxious to have an exact 
copy of the inscription. ABHBA. 

[* The story of this Draconian cobbler is printed in the 
Gent. Mag., xiii. 650., but his name is not given. ED.] 



[2 n <* S. XI. FEB. 16. '61. 


"Saturday, Feb. 2. Being Candlemas Day, there was 
a grand entertainment at the Temple Hall for the Judges, 
Serjeants-at-Law, &c. The Prince of Wales was there 
incog , the Lord Chancellor, Earl of Macclesfield, Bishop of 
Bangor, and several persons of quality. Mr. Baker was 
Master of the Ceremonies, and received all the company. 
At night there was a comedy acted by the company of 
his Majesty's Revels, from the theatre in the Haymarket, 
called Love for Love, and the societies of the Temple pre- 
sented the comedians with 50Z. The ancient ceremony of 
the judges, fyc. dancing round our coal fire, and singing an old 
French song, was performed with great decency." Gent. 
Mag. (Feb. 1734) iv. 103. 

Was this the last occasion of the judges " danc- 
ing " and " singing ? " and what was the " old 
French song, performed with great decency " ? 

E. H. A. 

GILES GREENE, M.P. In addition to other 
Queries which have appeared in pages of " N. & 
Q." respecting various members of the Greene 
family, I request to ask for any information 
about Giles Greene, who was M.P. for Corfe 
Castle, 3rd (15 & 16) Car. I., and at the same time 
was steward to Sir John Banks, Chief Justice of 
England. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George. 

GONDOLAS. When was the law passed, by 
which all gondolas in Venice were obliged to be 
covered with black ? - F. L. 

that the black gown worn by doctors of laws at 
Oxford and Cambridge was originally copied from 
that worn by doctors of laws of the University of 
Bologna, the great law university in the Middle 
Ages. Is there any reason to suppose that the 
gown worn by doctors of medicine is in like 
manner copied from some foreign (Italian ?) uni- 
versity ? J. H. 

HERALDIC QUERY. Can any of your corre- 
spondents favour me with the name and some 
particulars of the family whose armorial bearings 
are, Arms, Parted per pale. Dexter coat, Sable, 
on a bend argent, three crosses pattee fitchee ; 
gules, a crescent for a difference. Sinister coat, 
Gules, a saltire or, charged with another, vert. 
Crest, A long cross between two eagles' wings 
expanded ? G. A. 


GLi.33." There is an old MS. in the library at 
Stanford Court with this title-page, " Historia 
Quatuor Regum Angliae. Heroico Carmine, auc- 
tore Johanne Hordo, Medico." It contains 158 
pages, folio, written on both sides. The kings al- 
luded to are Edward IV., Edward V., Richard III., 
and Henry VII. The description is in Latin hex- 
ameter verse ; and there is a Latin prose dedi- 
cation, " Ornatissimo viro Gulielmo Caecilio, equiti 
clarissimo," &c., the date qf which is Oct. 1562. 

The writing is not very easy to decipher, except 
to those accustomed to the style of handwriting of 
that date, and the different formation of conso- 
nants from the present day. 

Can any of your readers give me information 
about Johannes Hordus, or his metrical history ? 
arid whether it has ever been published or alluded 
to in any of our printed histories ? 


desired to publications respecting the " Merchants 
Adventurers" at Antwerp from 1525 to 1535; 
particularly any records or journals of their trans- 
actions. J. L. C. 

will be highly gratifying to me to ascertain, 
through the medium of your valuable paper, the 
title of the work for which the following portraits 
were engraved by my late father : George III., 
Marquis of Townshend, by Reynolds ; Earl of 
Guilford (Lord North), by Dance; and John, 
Earl of Bute, by Ramsay. The size of the en- 
gravings is four inches by three. As I am making 
a collection of all my father's engravings, I am 
exceedingly anxious to obtain the above informa- 
tion ; and also to know whether there are any 
more portraits in the work engraved by him. 



FAMILY OF PEACOCKE. I am desirous of ob- 
taining some information concerning a family 
named Peacocke, residing in or near the city of 
Durham at the beginning of the last century. I 
am myself only able to state with certainty that 
a Mr. Francis Peacocke was a gentleman of large 
fortune in the county of Durham before the year 

Both he and his wife were Roman Catholics, 
and strongly attached to the Stuarts. Mr. Pea- 
cocke, having raised a troop of horse, joined the 
Pretender James under the Earl of Derwent- 
water. After the failure of James's expedition, 
Mr. Peacocke escaped to France, and his estates 
were of course confiscated. 

I should also like to know to whom Mr. Pea- 
cocke was married, and if to a lady of large 
fortune and high family. 

I should feel obliged by the mention of any 
books likely to give information, such as Lists of 
Durham gentry, genealogies of county families 
of the last century, heralds' visitations of that 
period, or lists of sequestrations for the rebellion 
of 1715. B. A. 0. 

MR. WILLIAM PROWTING. In the year 1794 
died, William Prowting, Esq., aged eighty-six ; at 
that time an eminent physician in Tower Street, 
London. I should be glad, if possible, to find out 
whom he married. He was a great benefactor to, 

2* ?. JI. FEB. 16. '61.] 



if not the actual founder of, St. Luke's Hospital 
for lunatics ; of which institution he, for many 
years, held the office of Treasurer, and there is a 
good portrait of him (by Roniney) in the Com- 
mittee Room of the Hospital. He was a native of 
Hampshire ; but although there are constant en- 
tries relating to the Prowting family in the regis- 
ter of their native parish of Chaw ton, from the 
year 1663, there is no reference to the marriage 
of this gentleman, who was probably married in 
London. It may assist bis identity, if I mention 
that his grand- daughter married Robert Tindal, 
Esq., father of Sir Nicholas Tindal, Chief Justice 
of the Common Pleas, 1829. H. L. J. 

any of your correspondents kindly inform me 
where it is possible to get a copy of The Ritt- 
meister's Budget, a book of German legends ? I 
am ignorant of the names of the author and pub- 
lisher, and also of its date. A. C. 

Bishops Bale and Tanner mention, among other 
published writings of this person, the following : 
" Historian! a Condito Mundo," " Conciones per 
annum," " In Evangelium Joannis," " Lectiones 
in Paulum," " Ad suos Parrecianos," " Homelias 
Melancthonis," "Locos Communes ejusdem," "In 
Danielem quoque," " et alia plura Germanorum 
opuscula" Can any one inform me where all or 
any of these works may be found, either in public 
or private libraries ? J. L. C. 

RUSSIAN FISH. In a book entitled 

" The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors sent 
by Frederick Duke of Ilolstein to the Great Duke of 
Muscovy, and the King of Persia. Begun in the year 
MDCXXXIII. and finish'd in HDCXXXIX. containing a corn- 
pleat history of Muscovy, Tartary, Persia, and other adja- 
cent countries, with several publick Transactions reaching 
near the Present Times ; in vii. Books. Written origin- 
ally by Adam Olearius, Secretary to the Embassy. 
Faithfully rendered into English, by John Davies of 
Kidwelly. The Second Edition, Corrected. London. 

mention is made of several fish found in the 
Volga. Could any of your readers favour me with 
the names by which they are now known ? 
In Book iv. p. 123. : 

" In this place, we saw a Fisherman, who coming close 
by our Ship-side, took a Biehiga, or white fish, which was 
above 8 foot long, and above 4 foot broad. It was some- 
what like a Sturgeon, but much whiter, and had a wider 

Book iv. p. 124. : 

" In the evening, a certain fisherman brought us a 
kind of fish which we had never seen before. The Mus- 
covites called it Tziberika, and it was above 5 foot long, 
with a long and broad snout, like the Bill of a wild Drake, 
and the body full of black and white spots, like the Dogs 
of Poland, but much more regular, unless it were about 
the Belly, where it was all white." 

Book iv. p. 144. : 

" Certain it is, that there may be seen in those parts 
(the Caspian Sea) a certain kind of fish, which they call 
Naka, that is, Glutton ; which hath a very short nose, and 
the head as it were within the Belly, having around Tail, 
and being 7 or 8 foot in breadth, and not much less in 
length. It fastens itself with the Tail to Fishermen's 
Boats, and if they be not very careful, overturns them." 

The Bieluga is said to treat boats in the same 
style. Any information with regard to these fish 
would much oblige LIBYA. 

panying ballad, evidently referring to Jane Sey- 
mour, was frequently sung by an illiterate under 
nursemaid in the hearing of a friend of mine, then 
a child under her care, some forty years since, I 
give it verbatim ; and I send also the air to which 
it was sung, which, however, both my friend and 
myself fancy that we have heard elsewhere, or 
something like it. Perhaps some of your readers 
may be able to supply verses which seem to be 
wanting between the first and second, and be- 
tween the fourth and fifth. SENESCENS. 

" Queen Jane lies in labour 

Six weeks or more, 
Till the women were tired, 
Go see her no more. 

" Oh women, oh women, 

If women you be, 
You'll send for King Henry 

To come and see me. 
" Oh King Henry, King Henry, 

If King Henry you be, 
You'll send for the doctor 

To come and see me. 
" Oh doctor, oh doctor, 
If a doctor you be, 
You'll open my right side 
And save my baby. 

" They church'd her, they chimed her, 

They dug her her grave ; 
They buried her body 
And christen'd her babe." 

TRINITY HOUSE. Is there not a general Par- 
liamentary Report treating upon the East India 
Company's establishment at Deptford, and the 
Trinity House Corporation charity at Deptford ? 



1670. I am anxious to learn any particulars 
relating to the Watkinsons of Ilkley, especially 
the branch from which Dr. Henry Watkinson, 
Chancellor of York, sprang. In Burke's History 
of the Commoners, under " Whatton," mention is 
made of this family, and, in a parenthesis, that 
Henry Watkinson, LL.D., Chancellor of York, 
was of the Ilkley family. I find his name no- 
where else recorded in his official capacity. How 



XI. FEB. 16. '61. 

is this ? There was a Mr. William Watkinson, a 
silk mercer, about 1720-80, who was descended 
from the Doctor, using the same arms, viz., Quar- 
terly argent and azure, on a bend, gules, three 
roses of the first, and holding the grant of this 
coat bestowed on the Chancellor, with other family 
relics which have been handed down to members 
of hte family. 

I wish to find out whose son Doctor Henry 
Watkinson was ; what children he had ; where he 
was buried ; and the connecting link or links be- 
tween him and the above-named William Wat- 
kinson. E. J. ROBERTS. 

SIR ROBERT WILSON. The Revue des Deux 
Mondes of the 15th ult. reviews Sir Robert Wil- 
son's recently published Narrative of Events. In 
introducing Sir Robert to the public, the writer 
states that, in the disguise of a Cossack orderly, 
Sir Robert had been present at the celebrated 
interview between Napoleon and the Emperor 
Alexander, that took place on the raft on the Nie- 
men. Can any of your correspondents inform 
me on what authority this statement rests ? and, 
also, whether the Emperor Alexander was himself 
aware of Sir Robert's being present P W. H. 

ECCENTRIC TRAVELLER. I have somewhere 
heard, or read, of an Englishman who went abroad 
with the design of taking an extensive tour on 
the Continent, but who was diverted from his 
purpose by finding himself so comfortable on 
board a certain canal-boat, or trekschuit, in Hol- 
land or Belgium, that he went no further ; pre- 
ferring to be a daily passenger in the boat, which 
went and returned between certain limits on al- 
ternate days. When and where was this, if there 
is any truth in the story ? B. M. 

[There is more than one version of this story, which 
we believe to be founded on fact. It seems to be agreed 
that the gentleman started on his intended tour in 1815, 
the year of the battle of Waterloo; that he landed at 
Ostend with the design of pushing on to Brussels, and 
that the canal-boat which arrested his progress was one 
that plied between Bruges and Ghent ; starting one day 
at Ghent, and the other at Bruges. According to one 
account which we have heard, the individual in question 
went abroad not merely to see foreign lands, but in the 
hope of meeting with illustrious personages and distin- 
guished characters, which will account for his making 
for Brussels in 18 15. Finding, however, that on board 
the trekschuit he not only fell in with many persons worth 
meeting, but had the opportunity of sitting down with 
them to the table d'hote, he thought he could not do better, 
and went backwards and forwards, never getting farther 
than Ghent. It will be seen, however, by the following 
extract, that Mr. Thackeray gives a somewhat different 
version of the story: 

" The famous regiment .... was drafted in canal- 
boats to Bruges and Ghent, thence to march to Brussels. 
Jos accompanied the ladies in the public boats ; the which 

all old travellers in Flanders must remember for the 
luxury and accommodation they afforded. So prodi- 
giously good was the eating and drinking on board these 
sluggish but most comfortable vessels, that there are 
legends extant of an English traveller, who, coming to 
Belgium for a week, and travelling in one of these boats, 
was so delighted with the fare there, that he went back- 
wards and forwards from Ghent to Bruges perpetually 
until the railroads were invented, when he drowned him- 
self on the last trip of the passage-boat." Thackeray's 
Vanity Fair, 1853, p. 223. (chap, xxviii.) 

Possibly the attraction may have been partly the com- 
pany, partly the table. We never heard of the final 

JOHN NIDER. I possess a small early printed 
volume, quarto in size, of which I am unable to 
find an account in any modern catalogues, the 
title of which runs thus : Incipit Manuale Confes- 
sorum Venerabilis Mogistri Johannis Nider (in the 
colophon Nyder) Sacre iheologie profeasoris or- 
dinis predicatorum. The printing is of a very 
early character, apparently of the latter part of 
the fifteenth century ; and there is an Index of 
subjects, occupying twelve pages of manuscript. 

Wanted, some account of the author ? 


Fountain Hall, Aberdeen. 

[John Nider, a German, of the Order of Friars Predi- 
cant, Inquisitor in Germany, flourished in the University 
of Vienna, and was one of its deputies at the Council of 
Basil. He died at Nuremberg in 1438. For notices of 
two editions of his Manuale Confessorum, 4to., see Dib- 
din's Bibliotheca Spenceriana, iii. 430 432. ; and for & 
list of his other works, Du Pin's Ecclesiastical Writers, 
iii. 62. ed. 1724, and Bodleian Catalogue.'] 

JOHN VICARS. Who was John Vicars, whose 
translation of Virgil's JEneid was published in 
1632? Was he connected with a family of that 
name at Scansby, near Doncaster ; and is any- 
thing known of that family further than what is 
contained in Hunter's short notice in his South 
Yorkshire f J. H. C. 

[Anthony Wood attributes the translation of Virgil's 
JEneid, 8vo., 1632, to the notorious John Vicars, one of 
the fiercest polemics of the seventeenth century, who, 
says Foulis, " could out-scold the boldest face in Billings- 
gate, especially if kings, bishops, organs, or May-poles, 
were to be the objects of his zealous indignation." He is 
also thus gibbeted in Hudibras : 

" Thou, that with ale, or viler liquors, 
Didst inspire Withers, Prynn, and Vickars." 

Vicars was born in London in 1582, and descended 
from the family of Vicars in Cumberland. He died in 
1652, aged 72. Vide Wood's Athena (Bliss), iii. 308.] 

" BEAMS OF LIGHT." Can you give me any 
information about the little work which I presume 
bears the above title. The title-page is gone, 
and part of the preface ; but how much of the 
latter I cannot say, as it is unpaged. The head- 
ing to chap. i. runs thus : " Some Beams of Light, 
broke forth in a former Age, and now of Use for 
the Resolving a Case of Conscience of present 
Importance." There is a list of " Contents " at 

I. FEB. 16. '61.] 



the end of the book in the form of ten chapters, 
commencing with " The Usefulness of Catechizing, 
and the Prejudice to the People for want of it." 


[This work is entitled, "Beames of Former Light, dis- I 
covering how Evil it is to Impose doubtfull and disput- j 
able formes or practises upon Ministers: especially under | 
the penalty of Ejection for Non- conformity unto the j 
same: as also something about Catechizing." London, i 
1660, small 8vo. It was published anonymously, but ' 
was written by Philip Nye, a Nonconformist, born 1596 ; 
died 1672. See an account of him in Chalmers's Biog. 
Dictionary. ~\ 

LOOT. What is the origin and exact meaning 
of the word loot, which now so often meets us in 
the daily papers ? *. 

[The word is East-Indian: "LuT, LOOT, H., &c., 
plunder, robbery, pillage" (Wilson's Glossary}. There 
are several words of the same family, as Lutai, plunder ; 
Luti, a plunderer, v.] 

was the author of a small volume with the fore- 
going title, of which a second edition was " printed 
for J. Dodsley, in Pall Mall" (London, 1782) ? 

[By Soame Jenyns.] 


(2 nd S. x. 288. 394.) 

Having in a former communication answered 
some of the inquiries of ERIC, I am led to note 
some other matters relating to the battle of Bauge. 

1 . In Dugdale, and some other writers, the 
name of Bauge, is never mentioned. They tell us 
that the Duke of Clarence, being in the Castle of 
Beaufort, heard that the Dauphin's forces were in 
the neighbourhood, and marched inconsiderately 
to meet them. The Castle of Beaufort here 
spoken of, is, if I am not mistaken, the place from 
which John of Gaunt's children by Catherine 
Swinford derived their name. Beaufort is now 
a small town in the arrondissement of Bauge. 
Dugdale in one place (Baronage, vol. ii. p. 197.) 
speaks of the field of battle as being within four 
leagues of Beaufort, and in another (vol. i. p. 552.) 
as being about four miles distant. The four 
leagues are nearer the actual admeasurement. 
The four miles I take to be the quatre lieues of 
some French chronicler done into English. 

2. The next point that I would advert to, re- 
lates to the leaders of the Scotch troops that were 
engaged on the side of the French. The Scotch 
auxiliaries were originally sent by Robert Stuart, 
Duke of Albany, the Regent, not long before his 
death (which occurred in 1419), under the com- 
mand of his second son John, Earl of Buchan, or 
as he is styled by Sandford (p. 309.), Buchqu- 

hanan. Henault, however, in his Abrege Chrono- 
logique, speaking of the battle of Bauge, says, " Le 
Comte de Douglas, qui lui avait amene* sept mille 
Ecossais, eut grande part k cette victoire, et fut 
fait connetable." Now, from Pinkerton's state- 
ment, it is clear that the Earl of Douglas did not 
go to France till the year after. Sandfovd, indeed, 
speaks of Archibald Dowglas as being at Bauge, 
but this was probably the Earl's eldest son. The 
mistake that Henault fell into is clearly indicated 
in his list of constables, where he sets down ''Jean 
Stuart, Comte de Douglas " ; from which it is 
evident that, by a strange confusion of persons, he 
moulded the Stuart and the Douglas into one. 
The inaccuracy of Henault on this point pro- 
bably arose from the aversion entertained by the 
French nation for their foreign auxiliaries. The 
intensity of this feeling may, to a certain extent, 
be estimated from the traces of it that are to be 
found even in so recent a work as the history of 
M. Emile de Bonnechose, which, in the reign of 
Louis-Philippe, was adopted as a text-book for 
the use of the Normal schools. Speaking of 
Charles VIL, the author says (vol. i. p. 238.) : 

" Son arrnee se composait d'Ecossais et de fe'roces Ar- 
magnacs ou Gascons, longtemps sujets de PAngleterre; 
son connetable meme, le comte de Buchan, etait un Ecos- 
sais, et le roi, entoure de cea hommes faroucbes, parut 
prendre pendant longtemps aussi peu d'inte'ret que le 
peuple au succbs de sa propre cause." 

Another of the Scottish leaders was John Stuart 
of Darnley, ancestor of Henry Stuart of Darnley, 
the husband of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1422, 
the year after the battle of Bauge, this John 
Stuart, of Darnley, received from the Dauphin 
the Lordship of Aubigny in Berry. In the grant 
he is styled John Stuart d'Ervette ; and Pinkerton 
tells us that D'Ervette is a corruption for Darnley. 
If so, it is not the only corruption Darnley was 
subject to : for Sandford, speaking of the Duke of 
Clarence's circlet, enriched with precious stones, 
being sold to him for 1000 angels, calls him John 
Steward of Derby. 

3. I have now a few words to say about the 
English lords that were engaged in the battle. 
Pinkerton, after stating that Clarence was the first 
slain, goes on to say that a similar fate awaited 
the Earl of Kent, the Lords Ross and Grey. Sand- 
ford, among those who fell, mentions the Earls of 
Tanquerville and Angus, and the Lord Roos. 
Smedley, in his History of France, published by 
the Useful Knowledge Society, enumerates the 
Earl of Kime and the Earl of Ross. Now who 
were all these worthies ? 

The Lord Roos mentioned by Sandford was, no 
doubt, the Lord Ross of Pinkerton, and the Earl 
of Ross of Smedley. 

Sir John de Grey, Knt., who a few years before 
had been made Earl of Tancarville in Normandy, 
was probably the Lord Grey of Pinkerton and the 



[2* S. XI. FKB. 16. '61. 

Earl of Tanquerville of Sandford. But who were 
the others ? 

Who was the Earl of Kent ? On the death of 
Edmund Holland, Earl of Kent, who perished in 
Brittany in the life-time of Henry IV,, the title 
became extinct ; and I do not know of its having 
been revived before the year 1462, when it was 
conferred on William Nevill. 

Who, in the English army, could be the Earl of 
Angus f 

Who was the Earl ofKirne? 

Among those who were taken prisoners, Hume 
mentions the Earls of Somerset and Dorset. The 
Earl of Somerset he rightly describes, in a note, 
as being the grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster. But with respect to the Earl of 
Dorset, he is mistaken in representing him as 
being brother to Somerset, and as succeeding him 
in the title. Edmund Beaufort, who succeeded 
his brother as Earl of Somerset, was not created 
Earl of Dorset till 1441. The Earl of Dorset, 
taken prisoner at the battle of Bauge, was Somer- 
set's uncle, Thomas Beaufort; better known in 
history as Duke of Exeter, a title which, at the 
time of the battle, he had held upwards of four 
years. MELETES. 


(2 nd S. xi. 70.) 

The custom concerning which R. S. inquires 
was in former ages very prevalent, and there have 
been not a few recent instances of its practice. 
The subject has, strange to say, met with little 
notice or elucidation from modern writers.* I 
purpose at some future time to treat on heart- 
burial at length. It may perhaps at present not 
be uninteresting to some of the readers of " N. 
& Q." to have a few instances of this custom put 
before them. 

It is worthy of remark that the separate burial 
of the heart, or other portions of the human body, 
has, as far as I have observed, been at all times 
far less common in England than among the Con- 
tinental nations. 

When Richard I. of England knew that he was 
at the point of death, he directed that his body 
should be buried at Fontevraud, at his father's 
feet, and his heart at the faithful city of Rouen. 
The circumstance is thus recorded in Hardyng's 
Chronicle : 

" He shrove him then vnto abbots three, 

With greate sobbyng and hye contricion, 

And Aveepyng teares, that pitee was to see, 

Meekly asking penaunce and absolucion. 

He quethed his corpse then to be buried 
At Fount Euerard, there at hys father's feete. 

[* See Pettigrew's Chronicles of the Tombs, pp. 249 
60., 1857. ED.] 

His herte inuyncyble to Roan he sent full mete, 
For their greate truth and stedfast great constaunce, 
His bowelles lose to Poytou for deceyudence." 
A splendid tomb was erected at Rouen over 
the Lion King's heart, and around it was a silver 
railing. This latter was soon removed ; the 
former remained till 1733, when the Chapter of 
the Cathedral pulled it down at the same time 
with other memorials of the Plantagenets. In 
1838 the mutilated effigy of our king was found 
under the modern pavement, and with it a leaden 
coffer, containing all that remained of the heart of 
the great crusader. The box and its precious 
contents were, I believe, again buried. The 
effigy is still to be seen, and is now well cared 

The heart of Richard, King of the Romans, 
was buried at Rewley Abbey, a house of the 
Minorites at Oxford. The body of his wife Isabel 
at Beaulieu ; her heart at Tewksbury. The 
heart of their son Richard found a resting-place 
(A.D. 1271) in Westminster Abbey ; his body at 

Two of the Bishops of Durham have in this 
manner been doubly buried. The heart of 
Richard Poor, who ruled the diocese from 1228 
to 1237, was interred at Tarrant, in Dorsetshire, 
where he died ; his body was conveyed to Dur- 
ham i A successor, Robert de Stickhill, whose 
episcopate extended from 1260 to 1274, died on 
his way back from the council of Lyons at a 
castle in France, called Arbipellis. He was buried 
in a neighbouring Benedictine convent, the heart 
alone being brought to England to rest among 
his predecessors in the Chapter-house of Durham 

The heart of our James II. was enshrined in 
an urn in the church of S. Mary of Chaillot near 
Paris. His brain in another urn of gilt bronze in 
the Chapel of the Scottish College. Both these 
urns were removed and lost during the Revolu- 
tion. In the chapel of the Scottish College are 
also buried the hearts of Maria of Modena, Queen 
of James II., and of Mary Gordon of Huntly, 
Duchess of Perth ; and the intestines of Louisa 
Maria, the exiled sovereign's second daughter. A 
portion of the body of Maria Clementina Stuart, 
wife of the Pretender, is buried in the Church 
of SS. Apostoli at Rome. I believe, too, that 
the heart of Daniel O'Connell once rested in the 
church of S. Agatha, in that city. 

Francois Christophe Kellermann, the French 
marshal, died 

" Le 12 Septembre, 1820, k Page de 85 ans, apres avoir 
demande par son testament que son coeur fut de'pose dans 

* An engraving of this effigy was published in the 
Archceologia soon after its discovery. 

f Gent. Mag. Jan. 1860, p. 11. 

j Surtees's Durham, vol. i. p. xxviii. 

Sir Geo. Head's Rome ; A Tour of many Days, vol. J. 
p. 257. 

2d S . XL FEB. 16. '61. 



les champs de Valmy: son fils a rempli ce vceu. M. 
Mahul a consacre & ce general une notice dans le pre- 
mier volume de son Annuaire necrologique." * 

I need not mention how 
" . . . . The valiant Douglas 

On his dauntless bosom bore, 
Good King Robert's heart the priceless 

To our dear Redeemer's shore." 

This, one of the most picturesque passages in 

the annals of chivalry, has been made famous by 

the prose of Scotland's greatest novelist and the 

verse of her greatest living poet. K. P. D. E. 

(2 nd S. ix. 226.) 

Referring to the REV. DH. TODD'S reply to 
ABHBA on the derivation of "Donny brook," I 
would observe, that the classical student may call 
to mind another source of the etymology of the 
name, as suggested by the observations of Dr. 
Donaldson on the names of Scythian rivers. See 
his Varronianus, pp. 45, 46. 

It appears that the root Don, found in many of 
these names, signifies water, as in the name Don- 
au, or Dan-ube; these names being always cor- 
rupted in the Greek transcription. Hence the 
name Dnies-ter, Don-iester, or Danas-ter ; hence, 
too, the name Dnie-per, or Dana-paris, the latter 
part of which gives the origin of the name Porata, 
or Pruth. The Greeks, shaping this title in the 
manner most suitable to their own usage, trans- 
versed Dana-paris into Paris-danas, or Baris- 
danas, which easily assumed its Hellenic form 
Bopvo-eevris, or Borysthenes. In like manner, the 
Greek Tan-ais affords us the pedigree of the name 
of the river which the Cossacks call the Donaetz, 
or Tanaetz. We further find the root Don, or 
Dan, in the Eri-danus, or Po, in Italy; in the 
Rha-danau in Russia ; in the Rho-danus, or Rhone, 
in France ; and in a river Don in England. 

If it be said that the word " brook," the final 
syllable of the name " Donnybrook," plainly sig- 
nifying a small river, apparently negatives the idea 
that the prefix Don, or Donny, means only the 
same thing, water, or river, over again, we may 
reply from Dr. Donaldson, that pursuing the ana- 
logy of our own and other countries, we may 
observe that local names are often made up of 
synonymous elements, the earlier of which have 
lost their significance. Thus, the words wick, 
ham, and town, are synonymous, though belonging 
to different ages of our language ; and yet we 
have such compounds as Wick-ham and Ham[$]- 
ton-ivick. The words wan, beck, and water, are 
synonymous; and yet we find a stream in the 
north of England called Wans-beck-water. The 

* Biographic Universelle, par F. X. de Feller, vol. vii. 
p. 103. 

words nagara and pura, in Sanscrit, both signify 
city ; and yet they combine to give to a great 
town in India the name of Nag-poor. 

We submit, therefore, that we are not destitute 
of philological grounds for believing that Donny- 
brook derives its ancient name from the full river, 
or water, known as the Dodder, which flows 
through the district. Y. M. Y. 


(2 nd S. ix. 170. 334. ; x. 458.) 

It was not until a few days ago that I was 
aware that A. A. had referred to the Roll of 
Arms in Harl. MSS. 6589, where " Le baucent 
del temple " is given as " dargent al chef de sable 
a un croyz de goules passant," and had named 
me as likely to be able to explain this blason of 
the Templars' banner. It has been long known 
to me, but I am not so confident as to its true 
interpretation, that I can hope to respond quite 
satisfactorily to this appeal. There is an obvious 
ambiguity in the language, as well as a rare use 
of the word passant. The banner should seem 
to have been originally white and black, whatever 
may have been the direction of the partition line. 
Jacques de Vitry, bishop of Acre in the early 
part of .the thirteenth century, who must have 
known it well, writing of the Templars, says, 

" Vexillum bipartitum ex albo et nigro, quod nomi- 
nant Bauceant, prsevium habentes : eo qubd Christi amicis 
candidi sunt et benigni; nigri autem et terribiles inimi- 
cis."Hist. HierosoL cap. Ixv.) 

A little farther on he mentions their bearing a 
red cross, but not on the banner. A. A. speaks 
of the banner as generally represented per pale 
sa. and arg. We have but little contemporary 
evidence respecting it. I should have said it 
was in all probability a parallelogram of about 
two squares, the upper half black, the lower 
white. In a rude illustration, sketched, I believe, 
in the thirteenth century, of which I have a copy, 
but am not able to say now where the original is 
to be seen, the banner is per fess sa. and arg., 
which accords better with the blason in the above- 
mentioned roll. Is there not a banner in the 
sketch given by M. Paris of the device on the 
templars' seal ? Probably when the cross gu. was 
added, it was placed on the arg. only; and to 
make room for it the sa. was reduced to a chief; 
for at that time arg. a chief sa. and per fess sa. 
and arg. were not essentially different. 

The word passant I have always supposed sig- 
nified in the blason in question, that the form of 
the cross was that of the Passion, i. e. a Latin 
cross, or else a plain cross, which on a kite-shaped 
shield of that period generally had the lower limb 
considerably longer than the others. If the sa. 
were reduced to a chief, the arg. would be about 



[2nd S. XI. FEB. 16. '61. 

a square and a half, a field very suitable for such 
a charge. I am disposed to think the cross did not 
extend over the chief, not because it would have 
been false heraldry, for that was not then a suf- 
ficient reason, as the arms of Jerusalem would 
now be called false heraldry being arg. and or ; 
but because the gu. would not have been suffici- 
ently conspicuous on the sa. for the form of the 
cross to have been clearly visible at a little dis- 
tance or in a dim light ; indeed, if the chief only 
were sa. and the cross a plain one extending over 
it, that part of the cross which was on the arg. 
would have presented the form of the Passion or 
Latin cross. 

In modern times the Passion cross is sometimes 
said to be the same as the Calvary, which is the 
Latin cross on three grades or steps ; and there 
are those probably who may think this was the 
Latin cross with the titulus, which is the patri- 
archal, for the Templars are sometimes said to 
have used that form of cross, but I know no good 
authority for holding that this Order restricted 
itself to any one form of cross. I am induced to 
believe that the cross in question was either the 
Latin or the plain cross, because the term croyz 
passant occurs in other parts of the Roll printed 
in Leland's Collectanea, where it is not likely to 
have meant either the Calvary or patriarchal 
cross; and, what is more to my purpose, because 
in the Roll t. Edw. III., printed in Collectanea 
Topog. ii. p. 320., the same term is found twice, 
and in each instance it is a plain cross in the 
coloured sketch of the arms. There, however, the 
shields are of the form usual in the fourteenth 
century, and consequently the cross has not the 
lower limb extended as it would have had on the 
long shields of the previous century. 

Of the word Baucent, Bauceant, or Beauseant 
various explanations have been suggested; but 
none of them are to me satisfactory, nor do I see 
my way to its origin or primary signification. 

w. s. w. 


(2 nd S. ix. 194.) 

A notice of the custom of throwing the pan- 
cake on Shrove Tuesday at Westminster School 
appeared in "N. & Q.," 1860, from a correspon- 
dent, who has fallen however into some errors. 
The subject is also mentioned in an article on 
Westminster School, which appeared in the Illus- 
trated News of Nov. 24, 1860. I think your rea- 
ders may perhaps like to hear what the facts are 
so far as my knowledge extends. A question is 
asked in a letter printed in vol. Ix. p. 256. of the 
Gentleman's Magazine, regarding the origin of the 
custom. To this I can find no answer in that or 
any subsequent volume There is no allusion to 

the custom in our Statutes, nor can I say whether 
it dates from the origin of the School or not. 

The cook's duty is to throw a pancake, of very 
substantial make, over a high bar, from which a 
curtain formerly hung, dividing the Upper School 
from the Lower. Upon his success in this feat, 
by custom, his reward depends. I am told that 
in old times a collection was made among the 
Queen's Scholars for his benefit if he succeeded, 
and that he was pelted with books if he failed. 
Now the latter part of the ceremony is omitted, 
and he comes to the Head Master for his fee, if 

The boys scramble among themselves for the 
pancake as it falls. If it be caught and kept 
whole before it touches the ground, after having 
been duly thrown over the bar, the fortunate 
possessor claims, by old usage, a guinea from the 
Dean. The claim is not valid if the cake has not 
been duly thrown ; nor if it be torn to pieces in 
the scuffle ; nor, in old times, as I am assured, if 
it had ever touched the ground. But our pre- 
sent Dean, whose generosity to the School in many 
ways claims more acknowledgment than I can 
here make, has allowed the guinea to be obtained 
from him if the cake was brought whole, even 
though it may have been won, as it generally has 
been, by a boy flinging himself upon it on the 

There is very little on the point in Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, but perhaps some corre- 
spondent may be able to supply instances of a 
similar usage elsewhere. 

Will you permit me in conclusion to ask, 
whether any of your readers know of any pro- 
vision for the performance of Latin or English 
plays, such as exists in the Statutes of West- 
minster and of Trinity College, Cambridge, being 
found in the statutes of other cathedral or colle- 
giate foundations ? THE HEAD MASTER. 

69.) J. H. asks, " What is the correct pronunci- 
ation of the name .Coleridge f n and, after showing 
that S. T. Coleridge made his name to rhyme 
with " scholarage," says, " Here we have the 
highest authority for a trisyllabic pronunciation." 
But with this reasoning I cannot quite agree. 
"Coleridge" is a word which does not exactly 
rhyme with any other ; and, in the passage above 
cited, S. T. C. was exerting his ingenuity to 
make something like a rhyme to his name. There 
is another couplet by him, which might have been 
quoted as authority for a slightly modified trisyl- 
labic pronunciation ; but here, in like manner, 
the writer was only trying, by stretching a point, 
to make a forced rhyme, which perhaps he had 
been defied to produce. 

" Parry seeks the polar ridge, 
Khymea seeks S. T. Coleridge." 

16. '61.] 



What J. H. wishes to know, I presume, is 
this : If S. T. C. had been asked his name, what 
would he have said ? Cole-ridge, C61-er-idge 
(scholarage), or C6-ler-idge {polar ridge) ? A 
gentleman, who was perhaps more intimate with 
S. T. Coleridge than any one now living, informs 
me that, in ordinary conversation, the poet would 
certainly have called himself Cole-ridge, and 
would so have pronounced the word, if he had 
been officially asked to give his name. My in- 
formant never heard the word pronounced as a 
trisyllable, either by Coleridge himself or by his 
friends. JAYDEE. 

If the evidence of a Bristolian may be considered 
of any weight, I can attest that the poet's name 
has always been pronounced by those who knew 
him intimately at Bristol, Coleridge (Coalridge.') 
I can speak from a knowledge extending back to 
upwards of threescore years. My father was his 
intimate friend, and received from him a copy of 
his first published poems. I was perfectly fami- 
liar with all about him, and never heard him 
called otherwise than above stated. F. C. H. 

SIR HUMPHREY MAY (2 nd S. viii. 188.) West- 
cote, in his account of Devonshire families, s. v. 
Hillersdon of Membsland, states that Sir Hum- 
phrey May was the son of John May, of London, by 
Mary, daughter of John Hillersdon ; who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Kirkham, of 
Blackdon, Knt. This account seems to differ 
from that given by you as above. C. J. R. 

THE WALKINSHAWS (2 nd S. xi. 67.) In re- 
ference to the Queries of J. B., I beg leave to 

state : 

1. The death of Barbara, one of the ten daugh- 
ters named, took place at Edinburgh on the 26th 
April, 1780; of which date a notice of it appears 
in the Scots Magazine, where she is called " Mrs. 
Barbara Walkinshaw, daughter of John Walkin- 
shaw, Esq., of Barrow field." It would seem from 
this that she died unmarried. 

2. On the 10th March, 1693, as will be seen 
from volume 1st of the printed Index to the Re- 
turns of Services in Scotland (voce Lanark, No. 
411.), John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield (no doubt 
the father of the ten daughters), was served heir 
to his father John Walkinshaw in the estate of 
Barrowfield, and extensive properties in Glasgow 
and its neighbourhood. 

3. It appears, from Lord Woodhouselee's Life 
of Lord Kames, that the mother of the latter was 
a Miss Walkinshaw of Barrowfield ; and as Lord 
Kames's birth was in 1696, it may be held as cer- 
tain that she was a sister of John Walkinshaw 
already mentioned, who was engaged in the re- 
bellion, 1715. 

4. In the same work it is stated that a sister of 

the lady last mentioned was married to Mr. Camp- 
bell of Succoth, who was grandfather to Sir Hay 
Campbell, President of the Court of Session. Sir 
Hay's father, the son of this Mr. Campbell, was 
the Archibald Campbell mentioned in your corre- 
spondent's foot-note. 

5. The entry, in the Scots Magazine, 25th No- 
vember, 1780, of the death of the very old lady, 
the mother of the ten daughters, confirms the 
statement that she was then ninety-seven years of 
age ; but Lord Woodhouselee states her age, at 
her death, to have been ninety. In allusion to 
her assisting her husband in his escape, his Lord- 
ship describes her as a " remarkable woman, splen- 
dide mendax, et in omne cevum nobilis" 

6. Your correspondent states, that "she seems 
at one time (1730) to have lived at Carrubers, 
near Edinburgh." Allow me to remark on this, 
that there is no place of that name near that city, 
though there is a Carribber in Linlithgowshire at 
no great distance. It seems more probable that 
the place alluded to is Carrubers Close, in Edin- 
burgh ; which, as is indeed yet apparent, must 
have been a residence of the higher classes in 
1730, which was long before the New Town was 
built. It is not unlikely that the old lady lived 
there, and that the mistake has been made of 
putting Carrubers close to (i. e. near) Edinburgh, 
for "Carrubers Close" there. G. J. 

1688 (2 Hd S. xi. 13.) I enclose notes of a few 
coins of James II. , issued after the Revolution. 
The familiar term for these is " gun-money," 
melted cannon having furnished materials for 
their supply : 

1. Half-crown. Obverse, head of James, and 
inscription, IACOBVS n DEI GRATIA. Reverse, 
crown and sceptres in saltire, the initials J. R. on 
either side, the inscription as given xi. 13. xxx, 
in Roman numerals, or the value of the coin in 
pence * over the crown. The date Feb. 1689. 

2. Shilling. Obverse and reverse as above, xii, 
the value in pence, over the crown, and date Dec. 

3. Shilling. Obverse as above. Reverse, em- 
blematic female figure, seated, bearing a harp, 
inscription HIBERNIA, 1691. This is supposed to 
be the reissue of a previous coinage, the figure on 
the reverse presenting the appearance either of 
being counter-stamped by, or obliterating, the 
crown crossed sceptres and initials already noted. 

* The Roman numerals above the crown express not the 
day of the month, but the representative value of the coin in 
pence. ]f W. T. will compare the dimensions of the 
coins mentioned, he will find they correspond with the 
values thus indicated, viz., half-crown, shilling, and six- 
pence. If the numerals stood for the day of the month, 
this coin would read, xxx Feb. 



[2*S.XI. FEB. 16. '61. 

4. Shilling. Obverse and reverse, the same as 
No. 2. Date, Aug. 1689. 

5. Shilling. Ditto. Date, Dec. 1689. 

All these coins are milled on the edges, and have 
the head facing to the right. Nos. 4. and 5. are 
in the Museum of the United College, St. An- 
drews ; the first three are private property. 


ORIENTATION (2 nd S. xi. 76.) I beg to sub- 
mit a few remarks on a quotation from Fergus- 
son's Handbook of Architecture ', as communicated 
by MEMOR : 

" The orientation of churches, by turning their altars 
towards the east, is wholly a peculiarity of the Northern 
or Gothic races : the Italians never knew or practised it." 

This orientation has certainly been a Catholic 
principle from the apostolic times. In the 2nd 
book of Constituliones Apostolicce dementis Ro- 
mani, chap. 57., we read : 

" Ac primum quidero sit sedes oblonga ad Orientem 
versus navi similis : utrinque pastophoria ad Orientem." 

Although these constitutions are apocryphally 
ascribed to St. Clement, yet they are undoubtedly 
of very remote antiquity, and were collected into 
one body towards the end of the second century. 
See Cave, Hist. Lit. s. v, Clemens. 

In the Fourth Council of Milan, held in the 
year 1573, it was enjoined to the bishops : 

" De Ecclesiarum fabricd, videat (Episcopus) 

in primis diligenter an situs decens honestusque sit ; an 
capax populi; an item disjunctus ab sedibus, iit possit 
circumdari; curetque omnino itaillamffidificari, neab an- 
tiquo more, probataque traditione discedatur, ut sacerdos 
in altari majori missain celebrans, Orientem spectet." 

S. Charles Borromeo in his Instructiones Fa- 
brics Ecclesiastics, lib. i. cap. 10, says of the 
chancel and the high altar : 

" Ejus pars posterior in Orientem versus recta spectet' 
etiamsi a tergo illius domicilia populi sint. Nee vero ad 
solstitialem, sed ad aquinoctiahm Orientem omnino ver- 
gat. Si vero positio ejusmodi esse nullo modo potest, 
Episcopi judicio, facultateque ab eo impetrata, ad aliam 
partem illius exsedificatio verti poterit; tuncque id saltern 
curetur, ut ne ad Septentrionem, sed ad Meridiem versus, 
si fieri potest, plane spectet. Porro ad Occidentem versus 
ilia extruenda erit, ubi pro ritu Ecclesise a sacerdote, 
versa ad populum facie, missae sacrum in altari majori 
fieri solet." 

Although, therefore, from local circumstances, 
or from inattention, this arrangement of the edi- 
fice may frequently have been deviated from, yet 
orientation has undoubtedly been always the rule 
of the Church " antiquus mos et probata tra- 
ditio" as the above-cited Council says and con- 
sequently could not have been unknown to the 
.Italians. Perhaps the occasional conversion of 
Pagan temples into Christian churches may have 
rendered them more indifferent as to form and 
direction in constructing their sacred edifices. 

Arno's Court. 

DEFLECTION OF CHANCELS (2 nd S. x. passim.') 
A good deal of curious discussion and ingenious 
speculation has been elicited on this puzzling 
subject. The least probable hypothesis, in my 
opinion, being that of especial "symbolism" in the 
intention of the architects : for, to say nothing of 
the unlikelihood of so large an agreement of differ- 
ent parties in different ages and countries, without 
one word of historical authority for the assump- 
tion, the idea upon which it is based appears in 
the last degree jejune and uninstructive. Is it 
possible that " the variations of the compass